Self Regulation, Goal Setting, Time Management

Self Regulation
A key term in understanding successful learner, means controlling the factors influencing learning. For example, establish optimum conditions for learning and remove obstacles that interfere with learning.
Self Regulated Learners
These students find a way to learn no matter what! “They view academic learning as something they do for themselves rather that something that is done to or for them”
Difference between high school and college
change from a teacher-directed to a student-directed environment, high school teacher guide students progress, in college, students expected to manage own learning, college students must motivate themselves. It’s important as a college student to be able to modify and manage your own learning!!
Why are some students less successful learners?
They hold faulty beliefs about their ability, learning, and motivation; they are unaware of their ineffective learning strategy; fail to sustain effective learning and motivational strategies (not showing up to class, not keeping up with assignments); not ready to change their learning and study behavior
Ineffective learning strategies
underlining (highlighting), simply rereading a chapter, consists of passive activities involving little thinking
Effective Learning strategies
actively outlining, organizing, and questioning themselves, and summarizing the material while they read
4 Steps in the self-regulation cycle
1. Self-Observation and Evaluation
-analyze strengths/weaknesses
2. Goal Setting and Monitoring Strategic Planning
3. Strategic implementation and monitoring
-need to establish “fix-up” strategies to remedy learning problems
4. Strategic-outcome monitoring
6 components of self-regulation
Motivation, methods of learning, use of time, physical environment, social environment, monitoring performance
Motivation
The internal processes that give behavior its energy and direction.
Sometimes your persistence on a task is often related to how competent you believe you are to complete the task. Successful learners know how to motivate themselves. A person may be motivated, but have trouble persisting because of distractions!!
Motivational self-regulatory techniques
Goal setting, self-verbalization or self-talk: reinforce yourself aloud, arranging or imagining rewards and punishments, develop positive beliefs while faced with disturbances
Physical and Social Environment
Think about turning off the tv or cell phone to eliminate distractions. Get up and move. Make appointments with professors, and try studying in groups
The process of effective goal setting
Step 1: identify and define the goal
Step 2: generating and evaluating alternative plans
Step 3: making implementation plans
Step 4: implementing the plan
Step 5: evaluate progress
Identity Status Theory
provides information about the development of identity by distinguishing four different patterns that college students experience.
Identity Diffusion
Individual has not made any commitments and is not currently thinking about those commitments
Identity Moratorium
Alternative choices are considered and different roles are experiences, but final decisions are deferred during a period of uncertainty
Identity Foreclosure
Individual selects some convenient set of beliefs or goals without carefully thinking about alternatives
-becoming a doctor because your parents want you to
Identity Achievement
Additional experiences help clarify attitudes, values, and self-evaluations, so that the young adult revolves the identity crises and settles on stable commitments
Productivity Pyramid
Everything starts with governing values, then long-range goals, then intermediate goals, then daily tasks
Values
The key to goal setting and time management. If goals aren’t aligned with this, then the individual may never be satisfied with accomplishments
Goal Properties
Specificity, Proximity, and Difficulty
SMART goals
Specific, Measurable, Action-Oriented, Realistic, and Time-bound
Academic: I want to complete an advanced math course next semester, achieving a final grade of at least a B
I want to earn a 3.0 GPA this semester by using effective exam preparation strategies
Intermediate goals
Year long goals, semester goals, monthly goals, weekly goals. By setting these goals that directly relate to long term goals, the student identifies a plan or path to follow to attain the ultimate goal. Play an important role in our motivation to pursue long-term goals!!!
Explicit/ conscious processing
Implicit/ unconscious processing
Outcome monitoring
A self-directed learner is constantly monitoring learning outcomes to determine whether different strategies are needed to attain goal and maintain a high level of academic success
Micro Self regulation
Macro Self-regulation
Urgent vs. Important tasks
Quadrant1: Important/Urgent
-crisis
-pressing problems
-projects completed at the lat minute
Quadrant 2: Important/ Not Urgent
-planning
-long term projects
Quadrant 3:
-interruptions
-time specific but not essential events
Quadrant 4: Not urgent, Not important
-busywork
-time wasters
Priorities
This is an important time management strategy. You need to differentiate between important and urgent tasks.
System of Planning beginning with a master calendar
1. Create a master calendar or semester calendar , identify due dates each month and important events, hang on wall
2. Weekly Priority Tasks List
Allows you to make a “to-do” list for all the tasks that should be done during the week, based on your goals. Decide on priority and determine order of importance
3. Weekly Schedule
Transfer priority list to weekly schedule that outlines time and order of tasks
Self-observation/awareness
Identify the time wasters in your life
2 Patterns of Procrastination
1. Lack of consciousness: associated with poor time management, work discipline, self control, responsibility
2. Avoidance: associated with fear of failure and anxiety. Procrastination mostly emerges in situations that are important to us. Perfectionism: the student is never satisfied with their work
Procrastination Elimination Strategies
Time-telling: practice estimating time to complete task, Reframe deadlines into smaller units of time: 3 days is 72 hours, Prompts or reminder notes, reinforcement, The Bits and Pieces Approach, The 5 minute Plan, The 80% success rule: shoot for completing 80%, establish a set time for a routine, modify the environment
Challenging beliefs and misperceptions
This is a strategy to combat procrastination especially if caused by fear of failure and anxiety. Overestimation of the time left to perform a task, underestimation of time necessary to complete a task, misreliance on the necessity of emotional congruence to succeed in a task, belief that working when not in the mood is unproductive.
Time management strategies
Setting a regular time to study each day, create an environment that is relatively free of distractions and interruptions, schedule tasks so they can be accomplished in 30-60 min blocks of time, take short breaks, be specific in identifying hoe you plan to use your time, alternate subjects when you have a long block available to study, estimate the time needed for each assignment, prioritize tasks, do the assignments you dislike first, work ahead of your assignments when possible, use technology to manage your time