Science 1102 Exam 1

The current global human population is approximately
7 billion
Diminishing population growth rates in poor countries can be partially attributed to
the education of women
If a population roughly doubles in the course of 50 years, its growth rate would be close to
1.4
________ is the world’s most populous nation, home to ________ of the people living on Earth
China; half
Top 5 most populous countries
China, India, US, Brazil, Indonesia
Replacement fertility is equal to ___ in stable populations
2.1
The 1994 Cairo, Egypt, conference was organized
to urge governments to better address social issues such as poverty, disease, and lack of education as potential sources of population problems
Life expectancy in parts of southern Africa ________.
has fallen dramatically since 1990
A high birth rate coupled with a declining death rate resulting from increased food production and improved medical care is characteristic of the ________ stage of the demographic transition model.
transitional
IPAT
Impact, Population, Affluence, and Technology
The term demographic transition refers to
the decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, occurring as a country economically develops
What drives TFR down?
social and economic security
The transitional stage in Frank Notestein’s demographic model is initiated by
industrialization
The richest one-fifth of the world’s population possesses approximately ________ times the income of the poorest one-fifth, and the richest one-fifth uses over 86% of the world’s resources.
80
If global fertility rates remain at 2005-2010 levels, the United Nations predicts that world population will be approximately ________ billion in 2050
11
The annual global growth rate of the human population peaked in the ________ and has been declining ever since
1960s
Which statement most accurately describes the population control efforts in China?
A one-child policy that is enforced through taxation and penalties has successfully controlled population growth
Zero population growth can be achieved in a population when ________.
birth rate equals death rate, and there is no migration
The most serious problem caused by population growth is ________.
increasing demand for resources
Demographically speaking, the effects of AIDS are most significant because ________.
AIDS sickens and kills the youngest and most productive members of society
Which of the following best describes the human population from early times to the present?
slow, uneven growth until the 1800s, then increasingly rapid growth
World population growth rate
1.2%
According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.
increases environmental impact
The Cornucopian view held by many economists suggests that resource depletion due to greater numbers of people ________.
is not a problem if new resources can be found to replace depleted ones
The “sensitivity factor” in the model used to represent human environmental impact denotes
the sensitivity of an environment to human pressures
In the demographic transition model, the highest population growth rate in a country is likely to occur during ________.
stage 2, the transitional stage
Malthus was responsible for ________.
the idea that without social restrictions, human population growth would lead to famine and war
A population that is not growing will have a TFR of ________.
2.1 or lower
Not surprisingly, the nation with the highest rate of contraceptive use (84%) is ________.
China
Helmut Haberl and colleagues have compiled data on ________ as a measure of how human population growth impacts Earth’s natural resources and ecosystem services.
consumption of net primary productivity
Most of the world population growth in the near future will be in ________.
developing countries
A graph of world population growth over the past 500 years most closely resembled the letter
J
According to the IPAT model, which of the following would most likely reduce the environmental impact of a society?
greater use of birth control by most members of a society
Recent research suggests that ________ has/have contributed to the large drop in fertility rates in Brazil over the past several decades.
soap operas
Monoculture ________.
agricultural practices increase a crop’s susceptibility to insect pests
Recombinant DNA _______
is the merging of DNA from unrelated organisms
Managing crop competitors and pests has been challenging to agronomists for centuries. One approach, integrated pest management, ________.
combines synthetic chemical pesticides with biocontrol techniques
Raising which of the following requires the most land and water per kg protein produced?
beef cattle
Bt crops
have been given a bacterial gene that gives chemical protection against insect pests
Which of the following requires the least land to produce 1 kg of protein
chicken
US obesity rate
1 in 3 adults
Green Revolution techniques ________.
have increased crop yields but may not be sustainable
________% of the food we consume comes from ________ crop species
90, 15
Agricultural productivity increased during the Green Revolution as a result of improvements in fertilizers, crop breeding, pest control, and ________.
irrigation
Which of the following best describes integrated pest management (IPM)
biocontrol measures, crop rotation, and habitat diversification
People around the world have become more dependent on global markets for their food. As a result, recent U.S. government policies encouraging ________ have had a major negative effect
ethanol production
Plants with showy flowers typically ________.
are pollinated by animals
The European Union nations ________.
do not support the growth or sale of GM crops
Aquaculture ________.
can bring economic benefits and food security to many developing regions
Organic farming has become more challenging because of
contamination by GM crop varieties
Seed banks are important for ________.
protecting genetic diversity
It is more energetically efficient for us to eat more ________.
plant-based foods
Why did the Indonesian government support IPM for agriculture in 1986?
Pesticides were costing money, causing pollution, and decreasing yields.
In order for livestock to be considered organic, ________.
animals must be fed 100% organic agricultural feed
During the past half century, global food production has ________ world population growth.
grown at a faster rate than
Normal Borlaug, who passed away in 2009, pioneered the development of ________.
high-yield wheat
How many americans are food insecure?
50 million
Integrated pest management (IPM)
use of a mix of techniques to suppress pests:
Pest population monitoring
Biocontrol and mechanical pest removal
Chemicals, if necessary
Crop rotation and alternative tillage methods
Use of transgenic crops
Biotechnology
the application of biological science to create products derived from organisms
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
organisms that have been genetically engineered
Recombinant DNA
DNA patched together from multiple organisms
Science
A systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it.

The accumulated body of knowledge arising from the dynamic process of observation, testing, and discovery

Scientific approaches
Observational (descriptive) science: Information is gathered about organisms, systems, processes, etc.
Cannot be manipulated by experiments
Phenomena are observed and measured
Used in astronomy, paleontology, taxonomy, genomics
Hypothesis-driven science: Targeted research
Experiments test hypotheses using the scientific method
Scientific method
Observations, questions, hypothesis, predictions, test, results
Hypothesis
a statement that tries to explain the question
predictions
specific statements that can be directly tested
Variable
condition that can change
Independent variable
a variable that can be manipulated
Dependent variable
a variable that depends on the independent variable
Controlled experiment
one in which the effects of all variables are controlled
Control
an unmanipulated point of comparison
Manipulative experiments yield
the strongest evidence
Natural experiments show
real-world complexity
Theory
a well-tested and widely accepted explanation
Paradigm shift
a dramatic upheaval in thought
Wicked problems
problems that are complex, with no simple solution
Environment
All the living and nonliving things around us
Environmental science is the study of
How the natural world works
How the environment affects humans and vice versa
Two key factors in human interaction with the environment
natural resources, human population growth
Natural resources
substances and energy sources needed for survival
Renewable natural resources
that can be replenished
Nonrenewable natural resources
that are unavailable after depletion
Natural sciences
disciplines that examine the natural world
Social sciences
disciplines that examine values and human behavior
Environmental science
Pursues knowledge about the environment and our interactions with it
Scientists try to remain objective and free from bias
Environmentalism
A social movement
Tries to protect the natural world from human-caused changes