Robbins Coulter Management 12 ed. Chapter 6, 7, 8

decision
A choice among two or more alternatives.
problem
An obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose.
decision criteria
Criteria that define what’s important or reverent to resolving a problem.
structured problems
Straightforward, familiar, and easily defined problems.
uncertainty
A situation in which the decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available.
risk
A situation in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes.
programmed decision
A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach.
unstructured problem
Problems that are new or unusual and for which information is ambiguous or incomplete.
non-programmed decision
Unique and nonrecurring decisions that require a custom-made solution
certainty
A situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known.
organizational change
Any alteration of people, structure, or technology in an organization.
change agent
Someone who acts as a catalyst and assumes that responsibility for managing the change process.
stress
The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.
role conflicts
Work expectations that are hard to satisfy.
role overload
Having more work to accomplish then time permits.
role ambiguity
When role expectations are not clearly understood.
planning
defining the organizations goals establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate work activities.
goals
(objectives) desired outcomes or targets
plans
documents that outline how goals are going to be met.
strategic plans
plans that apply to the entire organizational and establish the organizational overall grades.
operational plans
plans that encompass a particular operational area of the organization.
long-term plans
plans that have a time frame beyond 3 years.
short-term plans
plans that have a time frame of one year or less
specific plans
plans that are clearly defined and leave no room for interpretation
directional plans
plans that are flexible and set out general guidelines.
single-use plans
a one time plan specifically designed to meet the needs of a unique situation.
standing plans
ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly
management by objective (MBO)
a process by setting mutually agreed upon goals and using those goals to evaluate employee performance
strategic management
what managers do to develop the organizations strategies
strategies
the plans for how the organization will do what its in business to do how it will compete successfully and how it will attract and satisfy its customers in order to achieve its goals
business model
how a company is going to make money
strategic management process
a six step process that encompasses strategic planning, implication and evaluation
mission
a statement of an organizations purpose
opportunities
positive trends in the external environment
threats
negative trends in the external environment
SWOT analysis
an analysis of the organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
resources
an organizations assets that are sued to develop manufacture and deliver products to its customers
competitive advantage
what sets an organization apart its distinctive edge
capabilities
an organizations skills and abilities in doing the work activities needed in its business
core compendencies
the organizations major value creating capabilities that determine its competitive weapons
strengths
any activities the organization does well or its unique resources
weaknesses
activities the organization does not do well or resources it needs but does not possess.
controlling
the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance
performance
the end result of an activity
productivity
the amount of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output
benchmarking
the search for the best practices among competitors or non competitors that lead to their superior performance
benchmark
the standard of excellence against which to measure and compare
employee theft
any unauthorized taking of company property by employees for their personal use
organizing
arranging and structuring work to make and accomplish organizations goals
organizational structure
the format arrangement of jobs within an organization
organizational chart
the visual representation of an organizations structure
organizational design
creating or changing an organizations structure
work specialization
dividing work activities into separate job tasks
departmentilization
grouping people together based on their jobs and skill set
cross function team
at work team composed of individuals from various functional specialties
chain of command
the line of authority of where a position of upper organizational levels to the lower levels which clarifies who reports to them
authority
the right of the manager to tell people what to do and what to expect
responsibility
span of management
the number of people who one can manage
centralization
when decision making and proximity come closer together
decentralization
lower level employees provide input or actually make decisions
employee empowerment
giving employees more authority to make decisions
mechanistic
organizational design thats rigid and tightly controlled
organic
organizational design thats adaptive and flexible
environmental scanning
the screening of large amounts of information to anticipate and interpret changes in the environment
competitor intelligence
environmental scanning by which organizations gather information about competitors
quanitative forecasting
forecasting that applies a set of mathematical rules to series of past data to predict outcome
qualitative forecasting
forecasting that uses the judgment and opinions of knowledgeable individuals to predict outcomes
scheduling
detailing what activities have to be done the order in which they are to be completed a who is to do each and when they are to be completed
Gantt Chart
a scheduling chart developed by Henry Gantt that shows actual and planned output over a period of time
breakeven analysis
a technique for identifying the point at which total revenue is just sufficient to cover total costs.
operations management
the transformation process that converts resources into finished goods and services
manufacturing organizations
organizations that produce physical goods
service organizations
organizations that produce nonphysical products in the forms of services
value
the performance characteristics features and attributes and any other aspects of goods and services for which customers are willing to give up resources
value chain
the entire series of organizational work activities that add value at each step from raw materials to finished product
value chain management
the process of managing the sequence of activities and information along the entire value chain
intellectual property
proprietary informational thats critical to an organizations efficient and effective functioning and competitiveness
quality
the ability of a product or service to reliably do what its supposed to do and to satisfy customer expectations