Research Methods Chapter 1-3

a systematic process of discovery and advancement of human knowledge
Purpose of Research According to Hussey and Hussey (1997):
1. Research can be used to investigate an existing situation
2. Provide solutions to a specific problem
3. Explore and analyze general issues
4. Used to construct a new procedure or system
5. Explain a new phenomenon
6. Generate new knowledge
Basic Research
trying to get a better understanding of concept/theory
Applied Research
specific problem/finding a specific solution
Explanation that can be used to make testable predictions supported by prior research
Collection of thoroughly tested theories that can be used to guide behaviors (i.e., weight training principles, dietary guidelines)
Notion firmly supported by evidence that there is no longer a compelling reason to continue testing it
Types of Research
1. Application: basic or applied research
2. Objectives: exploratory (research q is not clearly defined), descriptive (focused on what is happening), explanatory (focused on why something happens), predictive (forecasts the likelihood that particular phenomena will occur given circumstances
3. Type of Information Sought: quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods
4. Presence of Data: theoretical research, empirical research
5. Data Source: primary research, secondary research
Where was the first sport management program in U.S?
Ohio State University 1966
Issues with SEM Research
1.Not kept pace with the growth of industry
2.Practical implications need to be a focus
3.Research should help industry stay current
4.Improvement needed for theoretical base and make 5.information more useful
6.Varying types of research other than quantitative (more secondary resources)
Nuremburg Medical Studies (1940’s)
Conducted on prisoners in German concentration camps
Infected with malaria, held in ice water, high altitude torture
5 Ethical Principles and Guidelines
1. Beneficence and nonmaleficence
2. Fidelity and responsibility
3. Integrity
4. Justice
5. Respect for people’s rights and dignity
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Major role is to safeguard rights and welfare of all human subjects who participate in research projects conducted by Elon
Purpose of Literature Review
1. to demonstrate the researcher’s familiarity with and knowledge of subject
2. to provide an outline of theories and concepts important to the researcher’s project
3. to focus the research question
4. to determine the extent of past research into the subject matter
5. to develop a hypothesis
6. to identify methods used in past
7. to help ensure that all relevant variables are identified
8. to allow comparison of the researcher’s findings with the findings of others
Sources of Literature
1. electronic databases
2. library catalogs
3. internet searches (google scholar)
4. publisher’s web pages
5. review articles
Approach to Literature Review
Broad-to-narrow approach
discuss relevant articles collectively
include issues, research problems, methodologies, and findings
Conceptual Framework
a novel framework developed by a researcher that links concepts from the literature
Theoretical Framework
framework previously established in the literature
5 Steps to Developing a Conceptual Framework
1. Identify the relevant concepts in the study
2. Define relevant concepts
3. Variables must be operationalized
4. Researchers identify moderating and mediating variables
5. Researcher must identify the proposed relationship between each of the variables
Research Process
creation of research question→ research design→ data collection & analysis → data publication
Independent (controlled/manipulated)
Dependent (outcome)
Dichotomous (2 outcomes)
Continuous (unlimited values)
Hypothesis Must Have’s
1. be able to explain findings or relationships determined by data collection
2. admit empirical testing by data analysis
3. require relatively few assumptions
4. possess better explanatory power than their alternatives
APA Format
Last name, Initial. (Year, Month Date). Title. Academic Journal, Pages.
7 Effective writing habits
Organize and argue
Be concise
Write what you mean
Write with force
Write for a reader
Revise and rewrite
Avoid common errors
Independent Variable
control variable that is manipulated to see how dependent variable will react
Dependent Variable
Gives results (outcome variable)