Quality Assurance, Quality Control and Total Quality Management

What is quality assurance?
Its having a system of strategies and procedures in place to assure customer satisfaction.
When does the quality assurance system work best?
When Cost and quality are in harmony and when products are designed and produced to. Standard or standards.
What is quality control?
The practical means of achieving quality assurance by testing and inspection.
What does quality control include?
The monitoring of accuracy during designing and production.
What does quality control ensure?
The manufacture of identical parts within tolerances and provides feedback to the quality assurance system.
What does quality control guarantee?
A set standard to all products therefore ensuing reliability and continued customer confidence.
What are the main two types of tests in quality control?
The first test is non-destructive testing, where the product is tested to its designed operating parameters.
The second test is destructive testing, where the product is destroyed under controlled conditions to gather research data.
What does non-destructive testing (NDT) include?
Using X-rays, visual testing and dimension measuring.
What does destructive testing include?
Tensile tests, crash tests and brittle tests.
What is important in any test?
That it is carried out under strict conditions and must be applied consistently and objectively in the same manner each time.
What do such tests often form?
The data for tables of results which are published with the product to reassure the public that the product conforms to strict product trials.
What is total quality management?
The system used to ensure continuing improvement of a product for its complete life cycle.
How is continual improvement brought about?
By how manufacturers implement their quality assurance/quality control systems.
What does continual improvement include?
Establishing quality in all aspects of a company, not just in the manufacturing departments.
How do you aid improvement?
By treating each department as a ‘client’, which leads to good department relationships and good quality products.
What does TQM involve?
Computer aided systems in all departments to improve all aspects of the product from designing to after sales customer care.
What helps towards employee satisfaction?
Treating all staff as valid members of the team.
What else does TQM involve?
Customer focused involvement and feedback, for example the setting up of a dedicated customer services care line.
What are the positive implications of a company changing to a TQM system?
Staff will feel more valued
Better working conditions
Staff are more motivated
Less staff absences
Frequent training organised
Fair rates of pay
Improved health and safety
Improved company reputation
Helps reduce waste
Enables products to be made right first time
Can lead to repeat orders
Helps to facilitate ongoing product involvement
What are the negative implications of a company changing to a TQM system?
Additional costs of developing new ways of working
Additional costs of training staff
Benefits take time to filter through
Some staff may be reluctant to embrace change
What are the types of standards?
Private standards
Open source standards
Publicly available standards (PAS)
What are the types of formal standards?
National Standards
European Standards
International Standards
Give examples of National Standards.
British Standards (BS)
AFNOR in France
DIN in Germany
ANSI in the US
Give an example of European Standards.
EN.
Give an example of International Standards.
ISO.
How do standards help industry?
They support innovation
They get ideas from one country to be adopted internationally
They balance the needs of producer and user
What does BSI stand for?
What does BSI stand for?
British Standards Institute.
Give a fact about the British Standards Institute.
There are more than 20,000 British Standards covering most products available on the world market today.
Give examples of products British Standards includes.
Kitchen utensils
Credit cards
Light bulbs
Computer equipment
Ladders
What products cannot display the kitemark?
Products that have no undergone strict testing against the relevant British Standards.
Talk about the BSI kitemark.
The kitemark shows that BSI have tested and approved the product.
The manufacturer pays for this and updates it regularly.
Consumers can be assured that the product has been certified as safe to use by BSI.
What does CE stand for?
Conformite Europeenne – European Conformity in French.
What is the primary aim of CE?
To facilitate free trade of products within the EU by reducing the effect of the physical borders between the member states.
What does the CE marking certify?
That a product has met EU consumer safety, health or environmental requirements.
What does ISO stand for?
International Organisation for Standardisation.
What is the ISO?
It is an international body which accredits companies with a certification to show that the management within their company meets certain standards.
What do their standards recognise?
Companies who demonstrate high standards of consistency in all their procedures.
Why is ISO 9000 important?
Because if a company is accredited with ISO 9000, then their customers are assured of the quality of the product or service.
Who uses ISO?
Over 250,000 organisations in 161 countries.