Public Admin Notes and Quizes

When evaluating how government works, what are the three elements of accountability that we examine?
fiscal, process and program
What is comprised of accountability and ethical behavior?
bureaucratic responsibility
By not maximizing control over administrators, policymakers may
impede bureaucratic accountability
The main components of bureaucratic responsibility are
ethical behavior and accountability
____is one major approach to understanding ways to ensure that administrators are accountable.
legal boundaries
An examination of the founding of the American system of government reveals that even from the beginning, American public administration was rooted in…
politics
Fiscal accountability is…
the most traditional and widespread approach to accountability
Remaining in their positions and fighting for what is right when receiving conflicting signals from controllers is an example of
voice
The politics-administration dichotomy protects against tyranny by…
separating political decision making from administrative policy implementation
Performance accountability involves all of the following elements EXCEPT
procedural
According to the text, accountability is best described as a relationship between
people and actions
One theme in the study of public administration relates to the need to balance “lofty expectations” with:
distrust of government
Clear chains of accountability for the actions of administrators ensure high performance.
False
The Progressives of the 20th Century preferred that administrators should have little discretion to carry out the will of elected policymakers.
Fasle
Delegation of power to administrators from elected officials and hierarchical control through authority controlled the use of power within administrative agencies.
True
The Progressives believed that a stronger government, equipped to manage to new programs, would prevent the country from driving forward.
False
Progressives such as Woodrow Wilson wrote that ____________ would serve as a check to safeguard citizens from a tyrannical bureaucracy.
Rule of Law
Rule of Law became and even more effective tool or safeguard to ensure accountability as government took on more relationships with third-party interests.
False
The concept of_______Accountability ensures that agency officials spend money on the programs they are charged with managing—and only on those programs.
Fiscal
Process accountability is concerned with how agencies perform their tasks.
True
Agencies such as ____________ help to ensure that government programs are achieving purposes as defined in statute as part of the concept of Program Accountability.
Government Accountability Office
According to the author, an ethical government should begin with
Ethical public servants
The branches of the American government operate in a way that produces ____ controller(s) of bureaucratic accountability.
many
Gaus likely concluded that in instances where external forces to the administrator cannot adequately shape the exercise of discretion, then democracy must necessarily rely on administrators’
Professional norms
Carl J. Friedrich argued that __________ were critical for ensuring accountability; Herman Finer argued in favor of ____________.
professional norms; legal standards
Since the 1960s the growth of government employees at the state and local level has
grown rapidly
________ argues that different levels of government concentrate on different services.
Kettl
______ spends the most on defense, space, and veterans’ services.
The Federal Government
_______ spends the most on elementary and secondary education, and health and welfare.
Local Governments
Government by proxy includes
contracts
_______ are the way one level of government can provide financial assistance to another level.
grants
Police and fire protection, food safety inspection and air traffic control are all examples of
direct administration
Recent _______ spending is mostly in a few categories.
federal government
The use of third-party agents to deliver programs that the government funds is called
government by proxy
Marble cake federalism is a theory of intergovernmental regulation that holds that the responsibilities of federal, state, and local governments
cannot be easily separated and that, instead they tend to mix
Red tape is generally considered a positive characteristic of public administration because it helps to ensure efficient execution of public provisions.
False
Regulation is considered to be a/an _________ tool of government action.
indirect
According to the author, as of 2008, there were ____ contractors for every U.S. Soldier supporting the United States in the Afghanistan War.
2.2
Public administration rarely involves the inclusion of contract to oversee the carrying out of activities that produce the results that contractors produce. This is because contractors are the experts and do not require oversight.
False
Local governments tend to concentrate tend to focus on__________, state governments tend to focus on _________, and the federal government tends to focus on __________
goods and services: being intermediary; national defense and the transfer function
Governments at each level perform the same basic tasks.
False
The growth of transfer functions emphasizes that different kinds of governmental programs require ________administrative approaches.
differnet
Government by _________ uses third-party agents to deliver programs that the government funds.
proxy
Government by proxy and transfer programs are synonymous.
False
Since the 1950s, trust in government has
sharply declined
According to the text, hospital care is primarily a __________ responsibility.
mixed
Since the 1950s, the number of individual local governments has ______; most of these local governments are considered __________
decreased; special districts
Since 1901, the absolute number of federal employees has grown from ________ to _______ in 2014.
231,000;2.1 million
Total government employment has grown in proportion to the growth of the population.
True
The study of _____ is the study of government bureaucracy.
public adminstration
Since WWII citizens’ demands have resulted in each of the following EXCEPT
less entitlement programs
Bureaucracy is considered inefficient and at the same time ____ to get much done.
too powerfull
Public organizations administer law, which makes them different from
private organizations
The rule of law differentiates _______ from _______ more than oversight and performance management.
public organizations;private organizations
______ is more important to public organizations than to private organizations.
implementing the law
Dwight Waldo coined the term “the administrative state” in
1948
What is administrative responsibility?
the process of holding specific individuals ultimately responsible within the bureaucracy for specific actions.
_____ considered public administration to be neutral.
Woodrow Wilson
What term best describes the process of translating public policies into results?
public administration
According to scholar Nicholas Henry ______ was the period where the Politics-Administration Dichotomy was rejected and there was a loss of confidence in the principles of public administration.
1938-1950
All of the following are complicating factors that must be taken into account when studying large-scale organizations EXCEPT
simple models
By 1980, Waldo argued that the distinctions between “public” and “private” had become even more ____________ since government entities were becoming even more involved in ________ and the private sector was taking on more ___________
blurred;private interests;public services
Dwight Waldo and Woodrow Wilson were the earliest public administration scholars, each writing around the 1890s.
False
According to the text, Gortner et al. argued that public and private managers are most similar because they each can “manage” in any way that they wish so long as the activity is not prohibited by law.
False
Efficiency and equity are ____________ competing concepts that should be ___________
sometimes;balanced
Public administrators must answer not only to their superiors but also to legislators and the courts.
True
Policy formulation and policy execution are so similar that public administration scholars have often argued that the two concepts should be combined.
False
Public administration is the study of politicians.
False
Congress broadly forbids “unfair methods of competition . . . and unfair or deceptive acts in commerce,” leaving the administrative agency and the courts to refine those vague terms _________ and ______________
unfair;critical
In writing about a Politics-Administration Dichotomy, Woodrow Wilson was mostly arguing that public administrators were basically the same as members of Congress.
False
An organization is both a top-down system of authority, conformity, and compliance and a bottom-up system for the flow to the top of innovative ideas, proposed solutions to problems, claims on resources, and reports of trouble signs in program execution and content.
Fasle
Efficiency has great value for the scientific management movement as well as for
the classic model
The pluralist approach emphasizes interest groups whereas the humanist approach emphasizes
employees
_______ places value on interactions with the environment.
systems theory
The scientific management movement placed too much emphasis on efficiency and too little emphasis on
workers’ satisfaction
The structural approach and systems theory fail to account for
workers’ happiness
“Individuals are self-interested” is an assumption of
principal-agents theory
Weber and ________ represent the structural approach.
Gulick
Authority and _______ are important to the structural approach.
hierarchy
Which traditional approach to bureaucracy is based on authority and hierarchy?
Bureaucratic model
What is organizational culture?
the ethos and philosophy that shape the behavior of individuals within an organization
The delegation of authority from officials at the top to individuals at the bottom is
hierarchical bureaucracy
Scholars debate whether networks constitute an approach, a theory, a method, or prescription, but there is but there is rising recognition of the power of ____________ approaches to public administration.
collaborative
Some networks connect different agencies within a single department.
True
Compared with traditional hierarchical authority, network analysis is _____________
in its relative infacy
Gulick argued that any executive can effectively oversee an infinite number of immediate subordinates as long he is trained.
Fasle
Gulick argued that line and staff workers are interchangeable and should be rotated regularly.
False
Generally, Weber would argue that a stable system of authority cannot depend purely on appeals to subordinates’ ___________________, nor on ______________ of their superior, nor on their sense of ____________.
sense of self-interest;liking or admiration; the ideal
________________________ rests on the belief in the sacredness of immemorial traditions.
Traditional Authority
Rational-legal authority is most closely associated with _________________.
Max Weber
_______________________ rests on the personal devotion to an individual because of the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character of this person.
Charismatic Authority
Weber wrote that officials should be __________, salaried, and selected on the basis of _______________.
full-time;technical qualifications
Weber’s scholarship became widely studied by U.S. public administration scholars in the _____________.
1940’s
The ____________________ rooted in the dynamics of human relations, condemns the impersonality of bureaucratic hierarchies and so pleads for the humanizing of organizations.
humanist approach
The formal approach relates to a structural perspective.
True
______________ notes that government delegates authority to other governments, to private organizations, and to mixed public-private enterprises.
Government-by-proxy
Bureaucratic Accountability
The degree to which bureaucrats are held accountable for the power they exercise
Elements:
1. control
2. positive
3. negative
Difficulties of Bureaucratic Accountability #1
1. Elected officials do not want a clear chain of accountability because it makes them more accountable in return
Difficulties of Bureaucratic Accountability #2
2. It is important to strike a balance of controls for administrators so work can get done…and is well done!
Difficulties of Bureaucratic Accountability #3
3. Accountability may inhibit bold actions and the ability to attract the best administrators to public service
Approches to Bureaucratic Accountability? or just Accountability
1. Legal Boundaries
2. Political Challenges
3. Evolving Policy Problems
Bureaucratic Responsibility
The duty of public administrators, which is made up of two overlapping elements.
1. Accountability
2. Ethical behavior
Ethical Behavior
moral standards and avoidance of even the appearance of unethical actions
Accountability
the process of holding administrators responsible for they actions, especially their compliance with the law and they effectiveness in managing programs
What are the elements of accountability?
1. Fiscal Accountability
2. Process accountability
3. Program Accountability
Fiscal Accountability
A method of accountability that focuses on the flow of money through an organization
Process Accountability
The method of accountability that focuses on how agencies/organizations perform their task
Program Accountability
A method of accountability that focuses on whether a public program has achieved its purpose as defines by law
Administrative Accountability
the process of holding specific individuals responsible, within the bureaucracy, for specific actions
Bureaucracy
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Woodrow Wilson #1
study of PA as a neutral instrument distinct from policy, politics and a particular regime
Woodrow Wilson #2
Stated that government administrators could be empowered to do government’s work without threatening individual rights because the Rule of Law would hold them accountable.
-Progressive
Rule of Law
the legal boundaries that constrain and channel administrative action. Principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Policy Administration Dichotomy
the separation of political decision making from administrative implementation
The Federal Government
-A large part of the federal budget goes to writing checks.
-A small share of federal employees manage entitlement programs.
-The federal budget details what the government does but not how it does it… (thus the importance of administrators)
Federal Spending
Concentrates spending in far fewer categories.
1. defense
2. postal service
3. space
4. veteran’s services
5. natural resources and environment
6. social security
7. Homeland security
Federal Spending and entitlement programs
huge increase in entitlement program spending over the last four decades
entitlement programs
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law
Funding for state government?
comes from federal government and grants.
State Governments responsibilities?
1. higher education
2. Welfare
3. highways
4. corrections
5. inspections
6. liquor stores
government by proxy
the rise of government’s use of indirect tools of public action to pursue public goals/the use of third party agents
third party agents
including contracts, grants, regulations, and special tax provisions
What is the difference between federal and state spending?
Federal Spending:
1. defense
2. postal service
3. space
4. veteran’s services
5. natural resources and environment
6. social security
7. Homeland security
State Spending:
1. higher education
2. Welfare
3. highways
4. corrections
5. inspections
6. liquor stores
Which level of government is associated with direct delivery of services ?
Local Government
direct tools
government provides goods and services, such as police and fire protection
Local Government
1. Elementary education
2. libraries
3. police and fire
4. parks
5. housing and community development
6. sanitation
6. utilities
What level of government plays a role in basic system finance?
Federal
Regulation
rules set by the government to govern the behavior of individual and organizations
What is the difference between public and private organizations?
Public organizations exist to administer law and every element of their design.
What do they do?
-Career service
-Measures of performance: any direct way of evaluating an organization’s outputs in relation to the cost of the inputs to make them
-Competing standards
-Public scrutiny
-Persuasion
-Oversight: public administrators’ exposure to public scrutiny
What do they emphasize?
Steven Kelman states, “public orgs are heavy on constraints; private orgs heavy on goals”
What are the core issues of Public Administration?
Complicating factors:
-Interconnections of policymaking and execution
-Coordination
-Relationships and power
-Floating in seas of time
-Top-down and bottom-up
-Information
-Headquarters and field
-Values
Dwight Waldo
Political scientist that wrote a doctoral dissertation “The Administrative State”
Administrative State
Dwight Waldo’s term to describe the rising importance and power of bureaucracy in American Democracy
Entitlement spending
Spending determined by the number of qualified recipients and their legally determined need
Administrative Responsibility
…, The process of holding specific individuals responsible, within the bureaucracy, for specific actions.
Public Administration
The implementation of public policy by government employees
What are the approaches of Public Administration?
1. Pluralist Approach
2. Humanist Approach
3. Structural Approach
Pluralist Approach
Emphasizes the responsiveness of a government organization to society’s politically active interest groups
Person:
Humanist Approach
Emphasis on the individual workers in the organization
Person: Frederick Taylor
Structural Approach
Distinction made between positions and the persons who occupy them.
– Hierarchy
– Authority
Person: Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn
System Theory
an approach to organizations that focus on how they translate inputs into out puts
Bureaucratic Model
the traditional approach to bureaucracy,based on hierarchy and authority. , Max Weber, maximum division of labor, achieving goal efficiently
Max Weber
a German sociologist, is the intellectual father of the Bureaucratic Model. He focuses his work on why people feel obligated to obey commands without asking whether they agree with each one.
1.Traditional Authority
2. Charismatic Authority
3. Rational Legal Authority
Traditional Authority
Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice
Charismatic Authority
Authority based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience.
Rational Legal Authority
power made legitimate by law, power legitimated by formal rules and regulations
Organizational culture
stresses variation among agencies; generalizations about structure of authority are problematic
Brown-low Committee
1937, associated with expansion of White House staff under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, proposed six new presidential assistants
Expansion of White House Staff…
1. White House Office
2. Executive Residence staff
3. Office of Vice President
4. Office of Management and Budget (largest)
5. Office of Policy Development
6. National Security Council
7. Others: Trade, Drug
Presidents Involved
1. Roosevelt
2. Eisenhower
3. Carter
Inner Cabinet
the four original departments State, Defense, Treasury, and Justice whose secretaries typically have the closest ties to the president
Department of Health and Human Services
Federal Executive Branch Department concerned with health and social serves needed
Horizontal coordination
draws related agencies together in common purpose
Vertical coordination
requires intervention by a
coordinator
Interagency conflict
Conflict occurs when mismatch of organization bases identified by classical organization
Conflict occurs when all relevant organizations have the same purpose
Theory: purpose versus clientele, or function versus area
Neutral competence
the PA principal that administrators ought to perform their jobs to the highest possible level, w/out political favoritism.
Horizontal Activity
Interagency Coordination?
Vertical Activity
A person with formal authority imposes a decision and monitors agencies’ compliance with it
Horizontal Cooperation
depends on the willingness of agencies to come to an agreement with one another.
Vertical Cooperation
Two warring agencies are brought together by organizational superior of both
Line activities
operating activities, command of line officials
3 different staff roles:
pure, auxiliary, and control
Pure-staff
staff that provide general support to agency’s line activities.
EXAMPLE: identifying issues likely to require presidential action, assure due process among interested departments, ensure affected parties are clearly informed of decisions once taken
Auxiliary staff:
staff that provide a housekeeping function or administrative support. EXAMPLE: accounting, research, public affairs, publishing
Control staff:
staff that help top officials secure leverage over the organization. EX: monitoring performance and enforcing compliance with standards and procedures
Organizational criteria
check list for assessing what makes a good organization.
Interagency agreements
treaties negotiated between the concerned agencies to establish specific boundaries and to clarify which agency will do what without interference from the others
Clearance procedures
requires that an agency’s proposed decisions in a subject-matter area be reviewed, whether for comment or for formal approval or veto, by other interested agencies
Herbert Kaufman
3 Basic Organizational Values:
1. Neural Competence
2. Executive Leadership
3. Representativeness
Iron triangle
interest groups, congressional committees, and departments or bureaus that share interest in an issue area. May resist reorganization efforts if threatened
Executive leadership
strategic direction provided by the top officials of an organization. EX: strong elected executive—president, governor, mayor—and strong and loyal department heads all politically chosen.
Interest groups
Groups of people who work together for similar interests or goals
Interagency committees
cabinet, subcabinet, and bureau levels exist to promote collaboration in jointly occupied areas
1.The major components for governments’ structure may include all of the following EXCEPT
Capacity to generate profit
2. The organizational concern that emphasizes horizontal and vertical activity is?
Interagency Coordination
3. Line activities are responsible for?
Operating Activities
4. Neutral competence restructuring efforts in government have focused on all of the following EXCEPT
Creating Interest group panels
5. ______ seeks to bring two warring agencies before a person with the formal authority to make a decision.
Vertical Coordination
6. _______ are created to establish specific boundaries and to clarify agencies’ tasks.
Interagency Agreements
_______ require that an agency’s proposed decisions in a particular subject-matter area be reviewed by other interested agencies.
Clearance procedures
This was NOT one of the basic organizational values developed by Herbert Kaufman
Coordination
What is the term for those support units (such as personnel or budgeting) that promote the functioning of an agency?
Staff Activities
What is an iron triangle?
a theory that suggest agency managers, congressional committees ad subcommittees and interest groups work closely to shape policy and that their shared work is more important than other forces in the process
_______________ depends on the willingness of agencies to come to agreement with one another.
Horizontal Cooperation
Vertical coordination is sometimes associated with warring agencies.
TRUE
Horizontal cooperation may include agencies coming together on the basis of coercion.
FALSE
Four methods cited by the author for achieving horizontal cooperation include _________, _________, ______________, and _____________.
1. Interagency Agreements
2. Interagency Committees
3. Lead Agency Formula
4. Clearance Procedure
Three staff roles include core, auxiliary staff, and ________
Control
Auxiliary staff provide basis housekeeping functions.
TRUE
Staff and line activities are synonymous.
FALSE
Auxiliary units inevitably exercise specialized control functions, especially because top executives rarely want to invest their scarce time in housekeeping disputes.
TRUE
Actual reorganization of government is common.
FALSE
The president’s power to reorganize government was ___________ by a ___________ Supreme Court ruling on the legislative veto.
Disadvantages; 1983
The politics-administration dichotomy protects against tyranny by
Separating political decision making from admin policy implementation
Performance accountability involves all of the following elements EXCEPT
Procedural
According to the text, accountability is best described as a relationship between
people and actions
One theme in the study of public administration relates to the need to balance “lofty expectations” with:
Distrust of the Gov.
Clear chains of accountability for the actions of administrators ensure high performance.
False
The Progressives of the 20th Century preferred that administrators should have little discretion to carry out the will of elected policymakers.
False
Delegation of power to administrators from elected officials and hierarchical control through authority controlled the use of power within administrative agencies.
True
The Progressives believed that a stronger government, equipped to manage to new programs, would prevent the country from driving forward.
False
Progressives such as Woodrow Wilson wrote that ____________ would serve as a check to safeguard citizens from a tyrannical bureaucracy.
Rule of Law
Rule of Law became and even more effective tool or safeguard to ensure accountability as government took on more relationships with third-party interests.
False
The concept of ____________Accountability ensures that agency officials spend money on the programs they are charged with managing—and only on those programs.
Fiscal
Process accountability is concerned with how agencies perform their tasks.
True
Agencies such as ____________ help to ensure that government programs are achieving purposes as defined in statute as part of the concept of Program Accountability.
Government accountability office
According to the author, an ethical government should begin with
Ethical Public Servants
The branches of the American government operate in a way that produces ____ controller(s) of bureaucratic accountability.
Many
Gaus likely concluded that in instances where external forces to the administrator cannot adequately shape the exercise of discretion, then democracy must necessarily rely on administrators’
Professional norms
Carl J. Friedrich argued that __________ were critical for ensuring accountability; Herman Finer argued in favor of ____________.
Professional norms; Legal Standards
Since the 1960s the growth of government employees at the state and local level has
Grown Rapidly
________ argues that different levels of government concentrate on different services.
Kettl
______ spends the most on defense, space, and veterans’ services.
The federal government
_______ spends the most on elementary and secondary education, and health and welfare.
Local government
Government by proxy includes
Contracts
_______ are the way one level of government can provide financial assistance to another level.
Grants
Police and fire protection, food safety inspection and air traffic control are all examples of
direct administration
Recent _______ spending is mostly in a few categories.
Federal Government
The use of third-party agents to deliver programs that the government funds is called
Government by proxy
Marble cake federalism is a theory of intergovernmental regulation that holds that the responsibilities of federal, state, and local governments
Can’t be easily separated, and instead tend to mix
Red tape is generally considered a positive characteristic of public administration because it helps to ensure efficient execution of public provisions.
False
Regulation is considered to be a/an _________ tool of government action.
Indirect
According to the author, as of 2008, there were ____ contractors for every U.S. Soldier supporting the United States in the Afghanistan War.
2.2
Public administration rarely involves the inclusion of contract to oversee the carrying out of activities that produce the results that contractors produce. This is because contractors are the experts and do not require oversight.
False
Local governments tend to concentrate tend to focus on__________, state governments tend to focus on _________, and the federal government tends to focus on __________
Goods and service, being the intermediary, national defense and the transfer function
Governments at each level perform the same basic tasks.
False
The growth of transfer functions emphasizes that different kinds of governmental programs require ________administrative approaches.
Different
Government by _________ uses third-party agents to deliver programs that the government funds.
Proxy
Government by proxy and transfer programs are synonymous.
False
Since the 1950s, trust in government has
Sharply declined
According to the text, hospital care is primarily a __________ responsibility.
Mixed
Since the 1950s, the number of individual local governments has ______; most of these local governments are considered __________
decreased; special districts
Since 1901, the absolute number of federal employees has grown from ________ to _______ in 2014.
231,000 to 2.1 million
Total government employment has grown in proportion to the growth of the population.
True
The study of _____ is the study of government bureaucracy.
Public administration
Since WWII citizens’ demands have resulted in each of the following EXCEPT
Less entitlement Spending
Bureaucracy is considered inefficient and at the same time ____ to get much done.
Too powerful
Public organizations administer law, which makes them different from
Private Organizations
The rule of law differentiates _______ from _______ more than oversight and performance management.
Public organizations and Private Organizations
______ is more important to public organizations than to private organizations.
Implementing the Law
Dwight Waldo coined the term “the administrative state” in
1948
What is administrative responsibility?
The process of holding specific individuals ultimately responsible within the bureaucracy for specific actions
_____ considered public administration to be neutral.
Woodrow Wilson
What term best describes the process of translating public policies into results?
Public administration
According to scholar Nicholas Henry ______ was the period where the Politics-Administration Dichotomy was rejected and there was a loss of confidence in the principles of public administration.
1938-1950
All of the following are complicating factors that must be taken into account when studying large-scale organizations EXCEPT
Simple model
By 1980, Waldo argued that the distinctions between “public” and “private” had become even more ____________ since government entities were becoming even more involved in ________ and the private sector was taking on more ___________
Blurred, private interests, Public services
Dwight Waldo and Woodrow Wilson were the earliest public administration scholars, each writing around the 1890s.
False
According to the text, Gortner et al. argued that public and private managers are most similar because they each can “manage” in any way that they wish so long as the activity is not prohibited by law.
False
Efficiency and equity are ____________ competing concepts that should be ___________
Sometimes, balanced
Public administrators must answer not only to their superiors but also to legislators and the courts.
True
Policy formulation and policy execution are so similar that public administration scholars have often argued that the two concepts should be combined.
False
Public administration is the study of politicians.
False
Congress broadly forbids “unfair methods of competition . . . and unfair or deceptive acts in commerce,” leaving the administrative agency and the courts to refine those vague terms _________ and ______________
Unfair and deceptive
In writing about a Politics-Administration Dichotomy, Woodrow Wilson was mostly arguing that public administrators were basically the same as members of Congress.
False
An organization is both a top-down system of authority, conformity, and compliance and a bottom-up system for the flow to the top of innovative ideas, proposed solutions to problems, claims on resources, and reports of trouble signs in program execution and content.
False
Efficiency has great value for the scientific management movement as well as for
The Classical model
The pluralist approach emphasizes interest groups whereas the humanist approach emphasizes
Employees
_______ places value on interactions with the environment.
Systems theory
The scientific management movement placed too much emphasis on efficiency and too little emphasis on
Workers Satisfaction
The structural approach and systems theory fail to account for
Workers happiness
“Individuals are self-interested” is an assumption of
Principal-agent theory
Weber and ________ represent the structural approach.
Gulick
Authority and _______ are important to the structural approach.
Hierarchy
Which traditional approach to bureaucracy is based on authority and hierarchy?
Bureaucratic model
What is organizational culture?
The ethos and philosophy that shape the behavior of individuals within an organization
The delegation of authority from officials at the top to individuals at the bottom is
Hierarchy Bureaucracy
Scholars debate whether networks constitute an approach, a theory, a method, or prescription, but there is but there is rising recognition of the power of ____________ approaches to public administration.
Collaborative
Some networks connect different agencies within a single department
True
Compared with traditional hierarchical authority, network analysis is _____________
In its relative infancy
Gulick argued that any executive can effectively oversee an infinite number of immediate subordinates as long he is trained.
False
Gulick argued that line and staff workers are interchangeable and should be rotated regularly.
False
Generally, Weber would argue that a stable system of authority cannot depend purely on appeals to subordinates’ ___________________, nor on ______________ of their superior, nor on their sense of ____________.
Sense of self-interest, liking or admiration, the ideal
________________________ rests on the belief in the sacredness of immemorial traditions
Traditional Authority
Rational-legal authority is most closely associated with _________________.
Max Webber
_______________________ rests on the personal devotion to an individual because of the exceptional sanctity, heroism, or exemplary character of this person.
Charismatic Authority
Weber wrote that officials should be __________, salaried, and selected on the basis of _______________.
fulltime, technical qualifications
Weber’s scholarship became widely studied by U.S. public administration scholars in the _____________.
1940’s
The ____________________ rooted in the dynamics of human relations, condemns the impersonality of bureaucratic hierarchies and so pleads for the humanizing of organizations
Humanist Approach
The formal approach relates to a structural perspective.
True
_______________ notes that government delegates authority to other governments, to private organizations, and to mixed public-private enterprises.
Government by proxy
Independent agencies, bureaus, and field offices are all components of the
Federal Executive Branch
According to the text, interdepartmental friction is one problem of
Implementing effective executive management
According to the figures released from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, the Department of Defense accounts for _______of all federal civilian employees.
a third
Which of the following units is responsible for foreign policy recommendations?
The national security council
Renewing motor vehicle registration online is most associated with
e-government
During the first stage of administrative development, the executive branch was concerned with
Foreign affairs
The text notes that President Franklin D. Roosevelt was primarily responsible for the
Expansion of White House staff
Outer cabinet departments includes all of the following EXCEPT
State
“Areal” is a categorization system within which part of the executive branch?
Field Offices
The Department of Health and Human Services accounts for more federal spending than
Agriculture, defense, and labor
The last federal government agency to be created was the Department of _________ in ________
Homeland Security in 2002
Independent Agencies account for about __________ of the federal government’s employees.
one-tenth
Independent Agencies account for about __________ of the federal government’s spending.
one-fifth
“Regulatory Commissions” champion and defend major features of transportation, communications, power production and distribution, banking, the issuing of corporate securities, commodities and securities exchanges, the prosecution of unfair and deceptive business practices, the safety of consumer products, and labor-management relations.
False
Federal departments are the operating organizations within federal bureaus.
False
Because the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is primarily focused on agencies’ budgets, it does not have much power.
False
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is an agency within __________________
The Executive office of the President
Hugh Heclo (1975) observed that OMB’s job requires ______________
Neutral Competence
The National Security Council was established ____________
In 1947
Over time, the National Security Council has gradually become the focus of foreign policy making
True
The IRS is mostly against citizens filing taxes online.
False
E-government can enhance the ability of citizens to connect more easily with government.
True
One drawback of the “prefectoral system” is that it places all administrators under one roof
False
According to the author, e-government allows agencies to operate in a __________ even, ___________ network, which offers the chance for creating new virtual strategies.
Loose, Invisible
Government corporations are engaged in lending, insurance, and other business-type operations.
True
Remaining in their positions and fighting for what is right when receiving conflicting signals from controllers is an example of
Voice
Fiscal Accountability is
The most traditional and widespread approach to accountability
An examination of the founding of the American system of Government, reveals that even from the beginning, American Public Administration was rooted in
Politics
_____Is one major approach to understanding ways to ensure that admins are accountable
Legal Boundaries
The main components of bureaucratic responsibility are
Ethical Behavior and Accountability
By not maximizing control over admin policymakers may
Impede Bureaucratic accountability
What is comprised of accountability and ethical behaviors?
Bureaucratic Responsibility
When evaluating how government works, what are the 3 elements of accountability that we examine?
Fiscal, Process, and Program