After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of:
Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:
Which of the following is a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus?
In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n):
Decrease in their metabolic rate
One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of:
By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to:
Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.
Food deprivation; Hunger
Feelings of hunger accompany ________ levels of blood glucose and ________ levels of ghrelin:
Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influence by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term:
According to health psychologists, which of the following would be the BEST advice to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?
“Permanent weight loss requires a lifelong change in eating and exercise habits.”
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
The resolution phase
The removal of a woman’s ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is ________.
The fraternal birth-order effect refers to a factor associated with:
Women, more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in:
When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs.
Which of the following is indicative of a sexual disorder?
Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies.
Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?
With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation
In one experiment, deeply-in-love university students experienced ________ when looking at their beloved’s picture.
The stress normally experienced by refugees is lessened by chain migration. This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs.
A completely focused state of consciousness resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills is called
For each performance review, Professor Donnell is evaluated by her students, colleagues, department chair, and research assistants. This best illustrates
360 degree feedback
Assessing the impact of different management styles on the motivation and productivity of employees best illustrates the professional concerns of
Managers who build teamwork and effectively mediate employee conflicts are said to excel in
Human factors psychologists would be most likely to aid in the design of
User friendly factory machinery
Work is most likely to be satisfying for employees if it is associated with
The experience of flow
Personnel psychology is one of the main subfields of
Industrial organizational psychology
Achievement motivation refers to
A desire for significant accomplishment
Compared with ineffective managers, those who are effective are more likely to
Celebrate employee productivity by providing them with recognition and rewards
Rating scales used to record the dependability and productivity of workers are most clearly designed to facilitate
Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________. Evidence that emotion precedes mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________.
James-lange theory; Two factor theory
When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the
Two factor theory
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
Decreases salivation and increases blood pressure
A lie detector test is used to monitor a person’s
Some emotional responses to visual stimuli appear to involve no deliberate thinking. These emotional responses are said to follow a “low-road” pathway that bypasses the
The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the
Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?
The James Lange Theory
A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient’s fear is best understood in terms of the
Two factor theory
Antonio’s car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
Dilation of his pupils
Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the
Left frontal lobe
An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspect’s physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called the
Guilty knowledge test
The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates
The spillover effect
Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another’s
We find it especially difficult to detect from other people’s facial expressions whether they are
If a gender-neutral face is made to look angry, most people perceive it as ________. If asked to imagine an angry face, most identify it as ________.
In which country are people most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings?
If you mimic another person’s facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of
The James Lange theory
Feigned smiles are initiated ________ abruptly and last for a ________ time than genuine smiles.
The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
Women show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing frightening films, and they show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing happy films.
The facial expressions associated with particular emotions are
The same throughout the world
If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the
Facial feedback effect
The emotion of rage is characterized by negative valence and ________ arousal.
Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates
The catharsis hypothesis
Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their employer. Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger will
Increase their hostility
After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the
Feel good, do good phenomenon
Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of
Carroll Izard has suggested that love is a mixture of interest-excitement and
Verbal and nonverbal expressions of anger can
Calm emotions and reduce anger
After watching a video of his winning game shot in a high school basketball tournament, Jordan was easily persuaded to babysit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates the
Feel good, do good phenomenon
A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the
Adaptation level phenomenon
After imagining and then writing about various tragedies, such as people being burned and disfigured, university women expressed increased
Subjective well being
While taking a difficult test, Cindy’s muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are
The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.
The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the
Body’s response to prolonged stress
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the
Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of
The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by
B lymphocytes are formed in the
The greatest number of deaths in North America today result from
Who is the best example of a Type A personality?
Andre, a competitive, easily angered journalist
After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy’s behavior best illustrates
Compared with the unmarried, people in low-conflict marriages are more likely to
Aerobic exercise has been most closely linked to a decrease in
Whether a health care treatment is mainstream medicine or an alternative medicine depends on whether the treatment has been
Scientifically validated as effective
Religiously active AIDS patients ________ than do their nonreligious counterparts.
People tend to use emotion-focused coping rather than problem-focused coping when they
Believe they cannot change a stressful situation
When “executive” and “subordinate” rats received simultaneous electric shocks, the ________ rat was subsequently more likely to develop ________.
Amanda is stressed out because she thinks she’s too socially inept to make friends with her new classmates. Amanda best illustrates the debilitating effects of
Aerobic exercise ________ the body’s production of serotonin and ________ its production of the endorphins.
A diminished sense of self, space, and time is most likely to be associated with
Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a
Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of
An oral fixation
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as
Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning.
The collective unconscious
Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.
Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of
Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n)
According to psychoanalytic theory, boys’ fear of castration is most closely associated with
The Oedipus complex
Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates
Children who have witnessed a parent’s murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud’s concept of
Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others’ opinions illustrate
Abraham Maslow studied the lives of people such as Abraham Lincoln in order to understand the nature of
According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own feelings are demonstrating
Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of
A positive self concept
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
Underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one’s potential is the motivation for
According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for
Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by
Unconditional positive regard
Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
Which personality theorists have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self-indulgence?
Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that “you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends.” Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates
The Barnum Effect
One of the Big Five personality factors is
Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates
Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates
An external locus of control
Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates
A pessimistic attributional style.
When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates
The spotlight effect
Around the world, people describe others’ personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called
The big five
The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of
We can better predict drivers’ behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers’ personalities. This best illustrates the importance of
The social-cognitive perspective highlights the interaction of personal traits with our environment, a process that Albert Bandura called
After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates
Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates
Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate
Self serving bias
Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
Preventing her from functioning effectively
Although Adderall is a ________ drug, it is commonly used in the treatment of ________.
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of
The medical model
A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the
After George learned that Mrs. Min suffered from schizophrenia, he mistakenly concluded that her tendencies to laugh easily and smile frequently were symptoms of her disorder. This best illustrates the
Biasing power of diagnostic labels
Ongoing patterns of behavior that interfere with normal day-to-day life are best characterized as
Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by
A biopsychosocial approach.
After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as “a passive, dependent type” and “frightened of his own aggressive impulses.” This study best illustrated the
Biasing power of diagnostic labels
Symptoms of schizophrenia begin to appear at a median age of about
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from
Generalized anxiety disorder
An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of
A specific phobia
Mrs. Swift is alarmed by her own intrusive and irrational thoughts that her house is contaminated by germs. Her experience best illustrates the agitating effects of
Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of
Post traumatic stress disorder
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
Generalized anxiety disorder is often accompanied by
Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of
Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of
Obsessive compulsive disorder
A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from
Major depressive disorder
The experience of depression ________ risk taking and ________ aggression.
Between 1994 and 2003, there was a 40-fold increase in the number of people 19 and under diagnosed each year with
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with
A maniac episode
Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective, how is she most likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she took the previous day?
“I’m academically incompetent and always will be.”
Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least
Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of
Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by
Alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism
Which of the following has been shown to be a risk factor for future suicide attempts?
Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a
Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from
Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Catatonia is characterized by
Periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement
Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce
The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder.
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from
Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing
The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops
Rapidly in response to a stressful life situation
A PET scan study of people with ________ found increased activity in the amygdala.
Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for