Psychologists formally define learning as:
a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
In psychology, the term conditioning refers to:
learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called:
Ivan Pavlov was a(n):
Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning?
What discovery sparked Pavlov’s interest in the phenomenon that eventually became known as classical conditioning?
Dogs displayed a reflexive response before the stimulus was presented rather than after it was presented.
To produce a learned response in classical conditioning, what two elements are repeatedly paired?
a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of:
learning an association between two stimuli.
When Rani was having problems at school, she often talked things over with her grandfather. Her grandfather, who always smoked a pipe, was warm, reassuring, and always supportive. Years later, Rani still finds the smell of pipe tobacco soothing. In classical conditioning terms, Rani’s fondness for the smell of pipe tobacco may be described as a(n):
If you touch something hot, you will reflexively withdraw your hand. Using Pavlov’s terminology, reflexively withdrawing your hand would be termed a(n):
unconditioned response (UCR).
Pavlov found that a conditioned response would be stronger if:
there were many pairings of the CS and the UCS.
A young child has learned to associate the sight of a nurse’s white uniform with the fear and pain of getting an injection. If the young child begins reacting with fear to the sight of any white jacket, what has occurred?
When Micah was 2 years old, he was frightened by his Aunt Mabel’s little dog, which had nipped him on the leg. Because of the incident, Micah developed a strong fear of small dogs but not of large dogs. This best illustrates which of the following?
Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also make the dog salivate. This phenomenon is called:
Which of the following has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response?
the timing of stimulus presentations
A conditioned stimulus from one learning trial is used in place of an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial, where it is paired with a second conditioned stimulus. The second conditioned stimulus then comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. This is a description of a procedure called:
higher order conditioning or second-order conditioning.
Fred’s dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle. Now whenever he blows the whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates:
higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students’ anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students’ anxiety may be attributed to the process of:
After a dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sight of a triangle, the triangle alone was presented to the dog every three minutes. Over the course of several trials, the amount of saliva secreted by the dog in response to the triangle decreased to zero. At that point, the dog was put back in his cage for the night. What happened the next morning when the triangle was presented to the dog again?
Spontaneous recovery occurred and the dog salivated in response to the triangle.
Behaviorism was an early “school” or approach to psychology that was founded by:
John B. Watson.
It was _____ who was the author of a landmark article entitled “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It.” The opening sentences read, “Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior.”
John B. Watson
Professor Lake is a strong advocate of the behavioral perspective. He would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
Human behavior is shaped by experience and environmental events.
The famous “Little Albert” study conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated:
that it was possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
What happened after “Little Albert” was classically conditioned to fear a tame white rat?
Stimulus generalization occurred; Albert responded with fear to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.
In the famous study of “Little Albert,” John Watson and Rosalie Rayner:
did not extinguish the conditioned emotional reaction in the infant.
A psychological and/or physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug is called:
a placebo response or placebo effect.
Modern research on advertising and marketing techniques has shown that:
attitudes toward a product or a particular brand can be influenced by the use of classical conditioning techniques in advertising campaigns.
Your friend Madison became very ill a few hours after eating the fried chicken special in the college cafeteria. Now, Madison feels queasy whenever she smells fried chicken. Having read the learning chapter in your psychology class, you explain that:
Madison has experienced a learned taste aversion, which can occur after only one pairing of food and illness.
Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats do learn to associate a taste with getting ill. Which of the following concepts best accounts for this observation?
Conditioned taste aversions demonstrate:
that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others.
The notion that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses is termed:
Martin Seligman noted that phobias seem to be quite selective, involving only certain stimuli. To explain this, Seligman proposed that:
Humans are biologically prepared to develop fears of objects or situations that may once have posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.
Phobias of heights, storms, snakes, and spiders are much more common than phobias of cars, stairs, stoves, or sharp objects. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, the reason is that:
we are more likely to develop phobias for objects or situations that posed a threat to our evolutionary survival.
The evolutionary perspective helps explain why the most common phobias are fears of:
spiders, snakes, and heights.
Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves _____.
reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors
What is the “law of effect”?
It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.
Caleb had a wonderful time on his first date with Shauna. Because of this, he asked Shauna to go out on a second date. What best explains Caleb’s behavior of asking Shauna for another date?
the law of effect
Which of the following statements best captures the flavor of Thorndike’s law of effect?
Rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated, while unrewarded behaviors are less likely to be repeated.
Skinner coined the term operant to describe:
active behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences.
An operant can be defined as:
a voluntary action.
In operant conditioning, reinforcement:
is defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening behavior.
Which of the following statements best captures the basic idea of operant conditioning?
Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
Positive reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated.
Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as:
addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.
A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species is called a ________, and a stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer is called a __________ .
primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
Which of the following would be considered a conditioned reinforcer?
“I’ll make you a deal,” Cody’s mother says. “If you clean up your room, then you can have a glazed donut.” Using operant conditioning terms, Cody’s mother is using _____ to reward desired behavior.
a primary reinforcer
Which of the following would be an example of a primary reinforcer?
a cold drink on a hot day
After lightning caused an electrical power surge and damaged his computer, Damon no longer turns his computer on during thunderstorms. This change in Damon’s behavior is the result of:
Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated and punishment _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.
Terry wants his young daughter, Lauren, to help him with the housework, so he tells her that she can play on his computer as soon as she finishes doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. Terry is using a more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred activity. According to the In Focus box “Changing the Behavior of Others,” this behavioral strategy is called:
the Premack principle
Whenever the phone rings young Daniel always runs over and answers it. In this situation the ringing phone is a _______ for Daniels’ response.
In operant conditioning, a discriminative stimulus is defined as a(n):
environmental stimulus or cue in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced.
If you reinforce successively closer approximations of a behavior until the desired behavior is displayed, you are using the operant conditioning procedure called:
In your philosophy class, you have found that your professor never calls on you when you raise your hand. As a result you no longer raise your hand to ask or answer questions. In learning theory, no longer raising your hand would be the result of:
Whose behavior is most likely to show the greatest resistance to extinction?
Rick, who sometimes gets what he asks for from his parents when they are out shopping
Unbeknownst to the rest of the world, Roger was wearing green underwear when he aced his calculus test at the beginning of the semester. Ever since, Roger always wears green underwear on test days in his college classes. In operant conditioning terms, Roger’s superstitious behavior is the result of:
“Okay, that was good! Now this time, don’t close your eyes. Keep your eye on the ball, so you know when to close your hands,” Mark said in the process of teaching his 5-year-old to play catch. In operant conditioning terms, Mark is using _____ to teach his daughter how to catch a ball.
Martina is an animal trainer at Sea World. To teach a new dolphin to jump through a hoop high above the water, Martina first reinforces the dolphin for approaching the hoop while it is under the water. Then, she reinforces the dolphin for swimming through the hoop under water. Gradually raising the hoop, Martina progressively reinforces each small step toward the goal behavior. Martina is using the process of _____ to train the dolphin.
In an operant conditioning experiment a pigeon learned to peck at a blue disk to get a food pellet. The researcher then withheld reinforcement and eventually the bird stopped pecking the disk. This example illustrates:
When competitive swimmers stayed focused on their practice techniques during swim team practice, they were rewarded by their coach playing popular music over the loudspeakers in the pool area. When they were inattentive or started “goofing off,” the coach played recordings of gloomy, off-key organ music. In this example, the coach is using _____ to help his swimmers stay focused.
Road construction prevents you from getting to the shopping mall using the route that you always travel. You think about the situation for a moment and then come up with a different route to take. To figure out this alternative route, you are using what Tolman referred to as:
a cognitive map.
Edward C. Tolman’s concept of latent learning helps to demonstrate that:
rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.
If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:
Roy is having trouble passing his calculus course. No matter how hard he studies, he cannot seem to pass a calculus test. Eventually, Roy gives up and stops studying or even coming to calculus class. Roy’s behavior can be explained as an example of:
The basic strategy for overcoming learned helplessness is to:
acquire a sense of control and mastery over challenging circumstances.
Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild. This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:
Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of instinctive drift?
The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.
According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of behavior that has been only observed?
attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, motivation
Mindy is in nursing school and is learning how to measure a patient’s blood pressure. Her instructor first shows the class a video that demonstrates the proper procedures for measuring blood pressure and then demonstrates these same procedures using Mindy as a “patient.” Mindy and her class are learning how to measure blood pressure in patients through the use of:
Studies found that adolescents who watched a great number of television programs with a high level of sexual content:
were twice as likely to become sexually active in the next year than adolescents who watched the least amount of sexually oriented television programming.
According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, which of the following characteristics of television depictions of violent behavior makes the violent behavior more likely to be imitated?
Violent behavior is performed by the hero or another attractive, high-status individual.
Based on a review of more than 30 years of research, the American Psychological Association and other public health organizations stated that viewing entertainment violence:
can lead to an increase in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.
In a 15-year longitudinal study, psychologists recorded children’s television viewing habits and then tracked them down as adults 15 years later. What difference did they find between the men who had watched the most violent television as children as compared to men who had watched lesser amounts of violent television?
The men who had watched the most violent television as children were three times more likely to have been convicted of a crime.
Blake is determined to graduate from college with honors. But as he was studying for his final exam the next day, a friend called and invited him to a party. Blake really wanted to go to the party and decided that he would get up early and study for his final exam the next morning before class. Based on what you read in the Enhancing Well-Being with Psychology section, why did Blake decide to go to the party?
The value of the short-term reinforcer (going to the party) momentarily outweighed the value of the long-term reinforcer (graduating with honors).
Anthony is studying for his final exam the next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party. Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on his final in order to maintain his standing on the Dean’s Honor Roll and increase his chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how much fun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treating patients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?
focusing on the delayed reinforcer
Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had a drink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used to remain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in which alcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake is overcoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by using which strategy?