Psychology of Advertising- Chapter 3

Exposure—> Attention—> Perception—> Comprehension

Exhibit 3.1 (pg.74)

-Exposure (pg.73)
The process by which consumer comes in physical contact with a stimulus.
~Reflects the process by which the consumer comes into contact with a stimulus.

-Because exposure is critical to influencing consumers’ thoughts and feelings, marketers want consumers to be exposed to stimuli that portray their offerings in a favorable light or ate a time when consumers may be interested in such products.

-Marketing Stimuli (pg.73)
Information about offerings communicated either by the marketer (such as ads) or by non-marketing sources (such as word of mouth).
~Marketing stimuli contain information about products or brands and other offerings communicated by either the marketer (via ads, Facebook messages, salespeople, brand symbols, packages, prices, and so on) or by nonmarketing sources (ex. news media, word of mouth, and consumer review of a product).

-Consumers can be exposed to marketing stimuli at any stage of the decision-making process.

Factors Influencing Exposure (pg.73)
>Position of an ad with a medium (position of an ad):
~Consumers’ exposure to magazine ads is greatest when they appear on inside cover (next to the table of contents) or on the back cover because the ads are view whenever magazine is placed face down.
~Also, consumers are most likely to be exposed to ads placed next to articles or within TV programs that interest them.
-Exposure to commercials is greatest when they air at the beginning
or end of a commercial break within a program.
~Some advertisers sponsor commerical-free TV programs in which the company gets product placement within the show or airs a single ad before or after the show.

>Product Distribution:

>Shelf Placement:
The product’s location or the amount of shelf safe allocated to it can increase exposure to a product.
~Products displayed at the end of an aisle or placed from waist to eye level get more exposure then those in other positions.
-Sales of some products increase because of their higher exposure in displays at checkout counters in supermarkets, automotive stores, and restaurants.

Product Distribution and shelf placement affect consumers’ exposure to brands and packages. The more stores carrying the product or brand, the greater the likelihood that consumers will encounter it.

Selective Exposure (pg.73)
While marketers can work hard to affect consumers’ exposure to certain products and brands, ultimately consumers are the ones who control their exposure to marketing stimuli.
~In other words, consumer can and do actively seek out certain stimuli and avoid resist others.
-Zipping (pg.75)
Fast-forwarding through commercials on a program recorded earlier.

-Even if zipping occurs, an ad with extensive brand information in the center of the screen can have a positive influence on brand attitude.

-Zapping (pg.75)
Use of a remote control to switch channels during commercial banks.

-Thanks to technology, consumers use zipping and zapping to gain control over what they are exposed to, when, where, and for how long.

-Consumer are increasingly taking charge of where and when they are exposed to certain stimuli, by watching entertainment online.

-Attention (pg.76)
How much mental activate a consumer devotes to a stimulus.
~ the process by which we devote mental activity to a stimulus…necessary for information to be processed…activate our senses.

-A certain amount of attention is necessary for information to be perceived—for it to activate people’s senses.
~After consumers perceive information, they may pay more attention to it and continue with the higher-order processing activities discussed in the next few chapters.

Thus, attention enables consumers to learn more efficiently from their exposure to marketing stimuli and make more informed decisions.

Characteristics of Attention (pg.76-77)
Attention has 3 key characteristics, as shown in Exhibit 3.3 (pg.77):
(1) it is LIMITED:
Consumers cannot possibly attend to all stimuli in the environment, but can attend to multiple stimuli (such as products on store shelves) only if processing them is relatively automatic, well practice, and effortless.

(2) it is SELECTIVE:
Because attention is limited, consumers need to select what to pay attention to and simultaneously what *not* to pay attention to.
~Being surrounded by a potentially overwhelming number of stimuli, we pay less attention to things we have seen many times before.

(3) it is capable of begin DIVIDED:
We can divide our attentional resources, allocating doe attention to one task and some to another.
~At the same time, we can become distracted when one stimulus draws attention from another; if we are distracted from an ad, we devote less attention to it.

Focal and Nonfocal Attention (pg.77)
*Focal Attention*:Focus on A stimulus
*Nonfocal Attention*: Focus on a stimulus while simultaneously being exposed to other stimuli.

3 Characteristics of Attention:
> Preattentive Processing

> Hemispheric Lateralization:
Some studies have found that our ability to process pre attentively depends on
(1) whether the stimulus in peripheral vision is a picture or a word
(2) whether it is placed to the right side or the left side of the focal item.

-Right Hemisphere= is best at processing music, gasping visual and spatial information, forming inferences, and drawing conclusions. [left visual field]

-Left Hemisphere= is best at processing units that can be combined, performing tasks such as counting, processing unfamiliar words, and forming sentences. [right visual field]

When we focus on stimuli centrally, information is processed by both hemispheres.

> Preattentive processing, brand name liking and choice:
Research suggests that consumers will like a brand name more if they have processed it pre attentively then if they have not been exposed to it.
~Preattentive processing makes a brand name familiar, and we like familiar things.

-Preattentive Processing (pg.77)
The non conscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision.
~With preattentive processing, most of our attentional resources are devoted to one thing, leaving limited resources for something else.

We devote just enough attention to an object in our peripheral vision to process *something* about it,but we are usually not aware that we are absorbing and processing the information.

Marketing Implications (pg.78-80) Enhancing Consumer Attention via Marketing Stimuli [Ch.(3.11)]
Although consumers can process general information (such as logos and brand names) pre attentively, specific information (such as about ingredients and directions for use) will have more impact when consumers devote full attention to it.

Consequently, marketers often take steps to attract consumers’ attention by making the stimulus

1.) Make stimuli personally relevant (personally relevant):
-Stimuli are personally relevant when they appeal to our needs, values, emotions, or goals
-Show sources similar to the target audience, such as “typical consumers” in an ad.
-Increase personal relevance by using dramas, mini-stories that depict the experiences of actors or consumers through a narrative in one or more ads.
-To ask rhetorical questions, such as “Would you like to when a million dollars?”

2.) Make stimuli pleasant (pleasant):
People tend to approach things that are inherently pleasant, marketers can increase consumers’ attention to marketing stimuli by:
~Using attractive models.
~Using music.
~Using humor.

3.) Make stimuli surprising (surprising):
Consumers are likely to process a stimulus when it is surpassing by:
~Using novelty.
~Using unexpectedness.
~Using a puzzle.

4.) Make stimuli easy to process (easy to process):
Marketers can enhance attention by boosting consumers’ ability to process the stimuli. 4 characteristics make a stimulus easy to process
~Prominent stimuli.
~Concrete stimuli.
~Amount of competing stimuli.:
A stimulus is easier to process when few things surround it to compete for your attention.

~Contrast with competing stimuli.:
Contrast captures attention. In a study ion retail advertising, it was found that attention was highest when an ad differed from other ads, and when these ads were very similar to each other.

newspaper ads black and white

-KISS (Keep It Simple)

-Prominence (pg.79)
The intensity of stimulus that causes them to stand out relative to the environment.
-Concreteness (pg.79)
The extent to which a stimulus us capable of being imagined.

Stimuli are easier to process if they are concrete rather than abstract.

Look at Exhibit 3.6 (pg.80)

Concrete Words:
apple, bowl

Abstract Words:
aptitude, betrayal

-Habituation (pg.80)
The process by which a stimulus loses its attention-getting abilities by virtue of its familiarity.

Think about the last time you purchased something new for your bed room (such as a picture). For the first few days, you probably noticed the object every time you entered the room. Over time, however, you probably noticed the item less and less, as you became habituated to it.

After we have been exposed to stimulus and have devoted at least some attention to it, we are in a position to perceive it.
-Perception (pg.80)
The process of determining the properties of stimuli using vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.
~ occurs when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, & touch

-Consumers constantly and mostly automatically determine such properties of marketing stimuli using their senses and knowledge of the world.
~Some of these perceptions are about physical properties such as size, color, pitch, loudness, smell, and softness of stimuli, while others are meanings associated with these properties.

Which fabric softener will make clothes softest based on its smell and color, and so on.

Perceiving Through Vision (pg.81)
What arouses our visual perception?

>Size and Shape:


>Image Location on Package:


>Effects of Color on Physiological Responses and Moods:

>Color and Liking:

Perceiving Through Hearing (pg.81)
>*Sonic Identity*:
Using certain music or sounds to identify a brand.

>*Sound Symbolism*:
Consumers infer product attributes and form evaluations using information gleaned (obtained, extract) from hearing a brand’s sounds, syllables, and words.

Perceiving Through Taste (pg.82)
-Varying perceptions of what “tastes good”

-Culture backgrounds

-In-store marketing

Yet what tastes food to one person may not taste good to another, and consumers from different cultural backgrounds may have different taste preferences.

Interestingly, tasting or sampling a product is the in-store marketing tactic that most influence consumer purchasing, even though stand-alone, in-store displays—perceived through vision—are the marketing tactic that shoppers notice the most.

Perceiving Through Smell (pg.82)
>Effects of Smells on Physiological Responses and Moods (Smell & Physiological Response/Moods):
Some of our most basic emotions are also linked to smell.

>Smells and Product Trial (Product trial):

>Smell and Liking (Liking):

>Smell and Buying (Buying):

Perceiving Through Touch (pg.82-83)
-Haptic means touch

-Touch & physiological responses/ moods


-Absolute Threshold (pg.84)
The minimal level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus.
~In other words, the absolute threshold is the amount of intensity needed for a person to detect a difference between something and nothing.

Suppose you are driving on the highway and a billboard is in the distance. The absolute threshold is that point at which you can first see the billboard. Before that point, the billboard is below the absolute threshold and not sufficiently intense to be seen.

-Differential Threshold/ Just Noticeable Difference (J.N.D.) (pg.84)
The intensity difference needed between two stimuli before they are perceived to be different.
~The differential threshold is a relative concept

When you get your eyes checked, the eye doctor often shows you a row of letters through different sets of lenses. If you can detect a difference between the two lenses, the new lens is different enough to have crossed the differential threshold.

-Weber’s Law (pg.85)
The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.

Delta s/S=K

S=the initial stimulus value
Delta s= is the smallest change
K= is a constant of proportionality

Example on pg.85!!

-Subliminal Perception (pg.85)
The activation of sensory receptors by stimuli presented below the perceptual threshold.

-Overall, research suggest that the effects of subliminal perception are limited, and difficult to obtain outside of controlled laboratory situations.

-With subliminal perception, our attention is directed squarely at the stimulus that is being presented subliminally.
~Subliminal stimuli are presented so quickly to are so degraded that the very act of consciously perceiving is not possible, even if you try hard.

How do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus? (pg.86-87)
-Perceptual Organization (pg.86)
The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningful units.

4 Basic Principles Related to Perceptual Organization:
~figure and ground
~bias for the whole

-Figure and Ground (pg.86)
The principal that people interpret stimuli in the context of a background.
~Suggest that people interpret stimuli in contrast to a background.

-Advertisers should plan for important brand information to be the figure, and not let the background detract from the figure.

-Closure (pg.87)
The principal that individuals have a need to organize perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole.

-Even if a stimulus is incomplete, our need fir closure will lead us to see it as complete.

Putting a well-known television ad on the radio can get consumers thinking about the message. Th radio version of the ad is an incomplete stimulus, and the need for closure leads consumers to picture the visual parts of the ad.

-Grouping (pg.87)
The tendency to group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression.

-Marketers can influence the image of perception of an offering by grouping it with the other products.

In a store, consumers may perceive a table settings as elegant when the napkins, napkin holders, silverware, dishes, and serving bowls are cleverly grouped.

-Bias for the Whole (pg.87)
The tendency to perceive more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up a whole.

Thus, you are more likely to make a $20 purchase if you have two $5 bill a $10. In contrast, if you have a single $20 bill, your bias for the whole makes you less willing to spend it.

-Comprehension (pg.87)
The process of extracting higher-order meaning from what we have perceived in the context of what we already know.
-Source Identification (pg.87)
Th process of deterring what the perceived stimulus actually is.
~Source identification is the rapid, perhaps automatic process of determining what the page contains.

Research shows that consumers are very good at identifying the products and brands in ads—when the ads are typical for the category.

Message Comprehension (pg.88-89)
Once we have identified the source as a marketing message and determined what product or brand is involved, we can start to comprehend its message—make sense out of it–on number of levels.

In particular, marketers are concerned with
(1) objective and subjective comprehension of messages

(2) the possibility of miscomprehension

(3) the effect of motivation, attitude, and opportunity on comprehension (MAO):
Consumers may not comprehend a marketing message when they have low motivation and limited opportunity to process it, when the message is complex or shown for only a few seconds, or when the message is viewed only once or twice.

(4) the effect of culture:
The message sender’s characteristics,such as social class,values, and age, also play an important role in message interpretation.
~Language differences further raise the possibility of miscomprehension, as does the meaning that consumes in different cultures attach to words.

-Objective Comprehension (pg.88)
The extent to which consumer accurately understand the message a sender intended to communicate.
~Refers to whether the meaning that consumers take from a message is consistent with what the message actually stated.
-Subjective Comprehension (pg.88)
What the consumer understands form the message, regardless of whether this understanding is accurate.

-Is the different or additional meaning consumers attach to a message, whether or not these meanings were intended.

-*Miscomprehension* (pg.88)
Occurs when consumers inaccurately construe the meaning contained in a message.
Marketing Implications (pg.89-90)
Marketers may enhance consumer comprehension and a wariness with a variety of tactics.

>Ways for Marketers to Improve Objective Comprehension:
-Keeping the message simple.
-Repeating the message.
-Presenting the message in different forms.

In fact, consumers who have had more exposure to a brand’s marketing messages will be better able o process brand information and have more positive attitudes toward it.

>Ways for Marketers to Improve Subjective Comprehension:
~Involves some interaction between what is a message and what consumers already know.

As a result, a marketer can strongly influence what consumers subjectively perceive by designing a message to be consistent with their prior knowledge.
~When consumers know little about a new product, marketers may be able to convey information more effectively by drawing an analogy between the product and something with similar benefits.

-Perceptual Fluency (pg.89)
The ease with which information is processed.

-The earlier in life that consumes encounter a brand, and the more regularly they encounter it, the more quickly they will be to recognize it.
~As a result, perceptual fluency is high for established brands that have been known for years, compared with new brands just entering the market.

Consumer Inferences (pg.90-92)
Specific elements of the marketing mix can affect the correct or incorrect inferences consumers make about an offering during comprehension.

Such inferences may lead to conclusions such as:

(1) if brand A contains attribute 1 then it will also contain attribute 2 (congruent)

(2) if brand A contains attribute 1 then it will not contain attribute 2 (incongruent)

-Brand Names and Symbols
-Product Features and Packaging
-Retail Atmospherics, Displays, and Distribution

-*Inferences* (pg.90)
Are the conclusions that consumers draw or interpretations that they form based on the message.