Psychology Chapter 15

psychotherapy
the treatment of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage understanding of problems and modify troubling feelings, behaviors, or relationships
biomedical therapies
the use of medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical treatments to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
psychotropic medications
drugs that are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
psychiatric nurse
holds an RN degree and has selected psychiatry or mental health nursing as a specialty area. Typically works on a hospital psychiatric unity or in a community mental health center. May or may not have training in psychotherapy
marriage and family therapist
Usually holds a master’s degree, with extensive supervised experience in couple or family therapy. May also have training in individual therapy. Many states require licensing.
psychiatric social worker
Holds a master’s degree in social work (MSW). Training includes an internship in a social service agency or mental health center. Most states require certification or licensing. May or may not have training in psychotherapy
licensed professional counselor
Holds at least a master’s degree in counseling, with extensive supervised training in assessment, counseling, and therapy techniques. May be certified in specialty areas. Most states require licensure or certification
psychoanalyst
usually a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist who has received additional training in the specific techniques of psychoanalysis, the form of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud
psychiatrist
holds a medical degree (MD or DO) and is required to be licensed to practice. Has expertise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. Often has training in psychotherapy. May prescribe medications, electroconvulsive therapy, or other medical procedures
clinical psychologist
Holds an academic doctorate (PhD, PsyD, or EdD) and is required to be licensed to practice. Assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Has expertise in psychological testing and evaluation, diagnosis, psychotherapy, research, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. May work in private practice, hospitals, or community mental health centers
psychoanalysis
A type of psychotherapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts
Sigmund Freud
psychologist who founded psychoanalysis, a traditional form of psychotherapy
free association
a technique used in psychoanalysis in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind, as a way of revealing unconscious thoughts and emotions
resistance
in psychoanalysis, the patient’s unconscious attempts to block the revelation of repressed memories and conflicts
dream interpretation
A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the content of dreams is analyzed for disguised or symbolic wishes, meanings, and motivations
interpretation
A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the psychoanalyst offers a carefully timed explanation of the patient’s dreams, free associations, or behaviors to facilitate the recognition of unconscious conflicts or motivations
transference
in psychoanalysis, the process by which emotions and desires originally associated with a significant person in the patient’s life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred to the psychoanalyst
short-term dynamic therapies
type of psychotherapy that is based on psychoanalytic theory but differs in that it is typically time-limited, has specific goals, and involves an active, rather than neutral, role for the therapist
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
A brief, psychodynamic psychotherapy that focuses on current relationships and is based on the assumption that symptoms are caused and maintained by interpersonal problems; four main categories–unresolved grief, role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits
client-centered therapy
a type of psychotherapy developed by humanist psychologist Carl Rogers in which the therapist is nondirective and reflective, and the client directs the focus of each therapy session; also called person-centered therapy; the therapist must have these three qualities–genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding
Carl Rogers
psychologist who developed client-centered therapy (a humanistic psychotherapy)
motivational interviewing
designed to help clients overcome the mixed feelings or reluctance they might have about committing to change; more directive than traditional client-centered therapy
gestalt therapy
empathy
the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another of either the past or present without having the feelings, thoughts, and experience fully communicated in an objectively explicit manner; also : the capacity for this
behavior therapy
a type of psychotherapy that focuses on directly changing maladaptive behavior patterns by using basic learning principles and techniques; also called behavior modification.
Mary Cover Jones
psychologist who explored ways of reversing conditioned fears; she started with children’s fear of tame rabbit and used counterconditioning
counterconditioning
a behavior therapy technique based on classical conditioning that involves modifying behavior by conditioning a new response that is incompatible with a previously learned response
systematic desensitization
a type of behavior therapy in which phobic responses are reduced by pairing relaxation with a series of mental images or real-life situations that the person finds progressively more fear-provoking; based on the principle of counterconditioning
virtual reality therapy
therapy that consists of computer-generated scenes that you view wearing googles and a special motion-sensitive headset; it generates images of your fear over a 40-minute journey that are real enough to elicit the same physiological arousal of anxiety.
bell and pad treatment
a behavior therapy technique used to treat nighttime bedwetting by conditioning arousal from sleep in response to bodily signals of a full bladder
aversive conditioning
a relatively ineffective type of behavior therapy that involves repeatedly pairing an aversive stimulus with the occurrence of undesirable behaviors or thoughts.
shaping
involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior
positive and negative reinforcement
used to increase the incidence of desired behaviors
extinction
the absence of reinforcement which is used to reduce the occurrence of undesired behaviors
token economy
a form of behavior therapy in which the therapeutic environment is structured to reward desired behaviors with tokens or points that may eventually be exchanged for tangible rewards
contingency management interventions
involves carefully specified behaviors, a target group of clients or patients, and the use of vouchers or other conditioned reinforcers that can be exchanged for prizes, cash, or other rewards.
cognitive therapies
a group of psychotherapies based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking; treatment techniques focus on recognizing and altering these unhealthy thinking patterns.
Albert Ellis
psychologist who developed rational-emotive therapy and believed that you largely feel the way you think.
rational-emotive therapy (RET)
a type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychologist Albert Ellis, that focuses on changing the client’s irrational beliefs–therapist must sometimes use harsh language to push people into helping themselves– therapists must vigorously dispute and challenge the irrational beliefs.
ABC model
when an activating event (A) occurs, it is the person’s Beliefs (B) about the even that cause emotional Consequences (C); in RET, psychological problems are explained by this model
Aaron T. Beck
developed cognitive therapy (CT) which grew out of his research on depression; he believes that psychological problems are caused by distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs
cognitive therapy (CT)
a type of cognitive therapy, developed by psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck, that focuses on changing the client’s unrealistic beliefs; the client is encouraged to empirically test the accuracy of his or her assumptions and beliefs and to collaborate with the therapist on the evaluation and accuracy of automatic thoughts
cognitive-behavioral therapy
therapy that integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques and that is based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated
group therapy
a form of psychotherapy that involves one ore more therapists working simultaneously with a small group of clients; very cost-effective as a therapist can work simultaneously with several people and can see how a client actually interacts with other people–this can provide unique insights into a client’s personality and behavior patterns; the support and encouragement in group therapies can help a person feel less alone and help them understand their problems are not unique; group members provide each other with helpful, practical advice for solving common problems and can act as models for overcoming difficulties; working w/in a group gives people an opportunity to try out new behaviors in a safe, supportive environment
self-help groups and support groups
groups usually conducted by non-professionals, made up of members who have a common problem and meet for the purpose of exchanging psychological support. Some groups are free-wheeling or highly structured
family therapy
a form of psychotherapy that is based on the assumption that the family is a system and that treats the family as a unit; goal is to alter and improve the ongoing interactions among family members
couple therapy
in this therapy, the goal is to improve communication, reducing negative communication, and increasing intimacy between the pair; behavioral couple therapy is based on the assumption that couples are satisfied when they experience more reinforcement than punishment in their relationship
spontaneous remission
the phenomenon when people eventually improve simply with the passage of time
meta-analysis
when researchers combine and interpret the results of psychotherapy studies; involves pooling the results of several studies into a single analysis
eclecticism
the pragmatic and integrated use of techniques from different psychotherapies
psychotropic medications
drugs that alter mental functions, alleviate psychological symptoms, and are used to treat psychological or mental disorders
antipsychotic medications
prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia; also called neuroleptics
reserpine
drug used to treat schizophrenia, used in India and Japan, that reduces levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine
chlorpromazine
current drug used to treat schizophrenia b/c of lesser side effects than reserpine; reduces levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
tardive dyskinesia
occurs after the long-term use of antipsychotics; characterized by severe, uncontrollable facial tics and grimaces, chewing movements, and other involuntary movements of the lips, jaw, and tongue
atypical antipsychotic medications
newer antipsychotic medications that, in contrast to the early antipsychotic drugs, block dopamine receptors in brain regions associated with psychotic symptoms rather than more globally throughout the brain, resulting in fewer side effects; they also are more effective in treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as apathy, social withdrawal and flat emotions
antianxiety medications
prescription drugs that are used to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety
lithium
a naturally occurring substance that is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and counteracts both manic and depressive symptoms; it stabilizes the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which is found in many areas of the brain
antidepressant medications
prescription drugs that are used to reduce the symptoms associated with depression
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
class of antidepressant medications that increase the availability of serotonin in the brain and cause fewer side effects than earlier anitdepressants; they include Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy used primarily in the treatment of depression that involves electrically inducing a brief brain seizure; electroshock therapy
catharsis
the emotional release that people experience from the simple act of talking out their problems