• People in individualistic cultures often view mental disorders as a problem originating in a person’s mind. In contrast, people in a collectivist culture are more likely to see mental disorders as symptoms of a disconnect between the person and _________
The family or community
• Identify three ways in which the relationship with a trained therapist would differ from that of a friendship
o A therapist is trained in techniques
o Will not bring their needs in the relationship
o Will maintain confidentiality
o Will not bring their needs in the relationship
o Will maintain confidentiality
• Which type of therapist would be most likely to treat depression by searching for a cause in the unconscious mind?
o A psychodynamic therapist
• In what respect are all therapies alike?
o All involve the aim of altering the mind, behavior or social relationships
• On what form of behavioral learning is the behavioral technique of counterconditioning based?
o Classic conditioning
• You could use contingency management to change the behavior of a child who comes home late for dinner by
o Refusing to let the child have dinner when he comes home late
• What is the primary goal of psychoanalytic therapy? That is, what makes psychoanalytic therapy different from behavioral therapy or the cognitive therapies?
o Psychoanalysis seeks to reveal and resolve problems in the patient’s unconscious, particularly repressed traumatic memories, unfulfilled desires, and unconscious conflicts
• Carl Rogers invented a technique to help people see their own thinking more clearly. Using this technique the therapist paraphrases the client’s statements. Rogers called this_______
o Reflection of feeling
• Which form of therapy directly confronts a clients self-defeating and irrational thought process?
o Rational-enotive behavior therapy
• Eysenck caused a furor with his claim that people who receive psychotherapy _________
o Improve no more often than people who receive no therapy at all.
• A phobia would be best treated by _______, while a problem of choosing a major would be better suited for_________
o Behavioral therapy/insight therapy
• Which type of drug would you prescribe for a patient diagnosed with ADHD?
o A stimulant
• Which class of drugs blocks dopamine receptors in the brain? Which type magnifies the effects of serotonin?
o Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors / anitdepressants amplify serotonin
• Name 3 types of medical therapies for mental disorders, including one that has been largely abandoned as ineffective and dangerous
o Electroconvulsive therapy, drug therapy, and prefrontal lobotomy
• The community health movement followed a deliberate plan of ______ for mental patients
• ________,_________, and _________ all are medical techniques for treating mental disorders by directly altering the function of the brain
o drug therapies, psychosurgery, ECT
• biomedical therapy
o treatment that focuses on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
o Individual who has received on-the-job training in mental health treatment in lieu of graduate education and full professional certification
• psychological therapy
o therapy based on psychological principles often called psychotherapy
• therapeutic alliance
o the relationship between the therapist and the client, with both parties working together to help the client deal with mental or behavioral issues
o a general term for any treatment process in psychology and psychiatry, therapy refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living
• active listener
o a person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows instrest, and asking questions for clarification
• analysis of transference
o the Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patients past.
• aversion therapy
o as a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counterconditioning involves presenting the individual with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant stimulation to condition a repulsive reaction
• behavior modification
o another term for behavior therapy
• behavior therapy
o any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning
• client – centered therapy
o a humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization
• cognitive therapy
o emphasizes rational thinking as the key to mental disorders
• cognitive – behavioral therapy
o a newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of psychotherapy
• contingency management
o an operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior
o a form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety provoking stimulus
o any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time.
• humanistic theory
o focuses on human growth rather than mental disorders
• insight therapy
o psychotherapy in which the therapist helps the patient understand his or her problems
• neo – Freudian psychodynamic therapy
o therapy for a mental disorder that was developed by psychodynamic therorists who embraced Freud’s ideas but disagreed with others
• participant movement
o a technique in which the therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior
• positive psychotherapy (PPT)
o a relatively new form of cognitive – behavioral therapy that seeks to emphasize growth, health, and happiness
o the goal is to release unacknowledged desires, conflicts, urges, and memories from the unconcious
• rational – emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
o Albert Ellis’ brand of cognitive therapy based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the case of mental disorders
• reflection of feeling
o Carl Rogers technique of paraphrasing the client’s words attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed
• self – help support groups
o groups that provide clinical support and an opportunity to share ideas about common problems
• systematic desensitization
o a behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety provoking stimulus
• antianxiety drugs
o a category of medicines that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
o Medicines that treat depression, usually by their effects on the serotonin and/or the norepinephrine pathways in the brain
o Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms usually by effects of the dopamine receptors in the brain
• community mental health movement
o an effort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to to provide therapy from outpatient clincs
o the policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals
• electrocovulsive therapy (ECT)
o a treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized shock seizure
o the general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders
o a drug that arouses the central nervous system, speeding up the mental and physical responses.
• tardive dyskinesia
o an incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long term use of antipsychotic drugs
• transcranial magnetic stimulation
o a treatment that involves the magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain
• combination therapy
o a therapeutic approach that involves both psychological and medical techniques – most often a drug therapy with a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral therapy
• empirically supported treatment (EST)
o treatment regimen that has been demonstrated to be effected through research