Psych 309 Ch 8

Microsystem level
everyday environment; home,caregivers, teachers parents
Mesosystem level
connection between various aspects of microsystem; connections across Microsystems; schools affect relationships w/family; friends influence academic success, family processes, +peer relationships
Exosystem
broader influence; societal institutions; local gov’t, the community, media; parent’s work policies can have an influence on the ado
Macrosystem level
larger cultural influences; society in general; religious +political value system; culture-ethnic group or nation
Chronosystem level
sociohistorical circumstances; passage of time can affect ado dev; digital age + access to info, working mothers, divorced parents, step parents +modern families; even though parent-child relationships can vary considerably; researchers have found the relationships are both: 1) very important aspects of dev, 2) more positive than once thought
Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model
multiple influences on the indiv; levels vary on how immediate their effects are; microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
unidirectional view of parent-child relationship
I have influenced on my child and my child reacts to things I tell them to do
bidirectional view of parent-child relationship
parent has influence on child and child on parent
reciprocal socialization
process by which children +ados socialize parents; just as parents socialize ados
important findings about parent-parent relationship
consistent findings: happily married parents are more sensitive, responsive, warm, +affectionate toward children +ados
parents as managers
to help ados reach their full potential, parents must serve as effective managers by: finding info, making contacts, helping structure choices, providing guidance, regulate opportunities for the ado’s social contacts w/ peers, friends, +adults
Researchers have found that family management practices are positively related to: student grades, self-responsibility, +negatively correlated to school-related problems
Diana Baumrind
researcher that created 4 parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, neglectful)
Authoritarian parenting style
highly demanding, controlling
unresponsive, rejecting, cold
restrictive, punitive style
power orientation
establish rules, strictly enforced
Ados w/ authoritarian parents are:
withdrawn
discontent
distrustful of others
tend to be followers
Authoritative parenting style
highly demanding, controlling
highly accepting, responsive, warm
encourage independence
place limits +controls on their actions
establish +enforce rules
Ados w/ authoritative parents are:
independent, socially responsive
self-controlled, explorative
self-reliant
have an appropriate balance between control +autonomy
verbal give +take
the warmth makes ados more receptive to parental influences
Indulgent parenting style
low demanding/controlling
high accepting/responsive/warm
parents highly involved
place few demands or controls on their ados
Regina’s “cool mom”
Ados w/ indulgent parents are:
impulsive
lacking in self-reliance
lack of self-control
aggressive
acting out
Neglectful parenting style
low demanding (low control)
unresponsive/rejecting
parent is very uninvolved in ados life
usually too concerned with self
Ados w/ neglectful parents are:
poor self-control, don’t handle independence well
behavioral problems such as: drug use, sexual promiscuity, antisocial behavior
internalizing problems: depression
Ethnic research: Authoritarian parenting style used more by:
AA, Latino, and Asian pops
Order of most to least conflict in ados lives
mother >friends >romantic partners >siblings >fathers >other adults >peers
Research show that about _____ to_____% of families, parents, +ados engage in prolonged, intense, repeated, unhealthy conflict
20-25%
autonomy
a complex concept that connotes self-direction +independence
often interpreted as rebellion
second period of independence (Erikson’s 2nd stage is autonomy vs doubt+shame)
push for autonomy has little to do with feelings toward parents
emotional autonomy
relinquishing childlike dependence on parents
de-idealized view of parents
parents are people
gender differences in autonomy: independence
more to ado boys than girls
Latino girls are protected +monitored more closely than non-Latino white families
ethnic differences in autonomy
appropriate timing for ado autonomy vary across cultures, parents,+ados
U.S. ados seek autonomy earlier than Japanese
Japanese less likely to live outside home in emerging adulthood
Emerging adults and autonomy
many experience a major transition in autonomy when they leave home+go away to college
some become homesick, while others enjoy immensely their new found freedom
Ado runaways
estimated 1.6 million youth run away from home or are homeless each year(U.S.)
Reasons for ados running away
parenting style
thought processes
cry for attention
Research on ado runaways
many are from families that are abusive, beaten or sexually exploited, or neglected
running away often a gradual process:begin to spend less time at home, more time on the streets or w/peer group
Recent longitudinal study on more than 4,000 youth from 14-21 yrs found running away is linked to: lack of parental support, school disengagement, depressive symptoms, substance use in grade 9
attachment
positive, enduring, emotional bond between 2 people
Ainsworth’s “strange situation” attachment experiment
scenario to assess infant’s reaction+type of attachment
Secure attachment
infants use the caregiver as base for which to explore env
become upset when mother leaves them
greeted warmly upon her return
important concept in ados’ (+emerging adults’) relationships w/their parents
research shows: positive peer relationships, positive regulation of emotion, young adults in secure romantic relationships describe their early relationship w/ their parents as securely attached
insecure-avoidant attachment
shows little distress when mother leaves
avoids contact when she returns
usually not wariness of strangers
ados+parents mutually distance themselves
insecure-avoidant/ resistant attachment
appears anxious w/mother
tends not to explore much
very distressed when mother leaves
displays anger when she returns
resists her attempts at contact/while wanting contact
conflict w/ parents can be too high for healthy dev
insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment
couldn’t fit some into Ainsworth’s classification system
shows patterns of both other types
initially thought to be troublesome babies from high risk families
hasn’t turned out to be true
see this type develop from traumatic experiences-death of parent or abuse
Ados/emerging adults who are insecurely attached
have difficulties in relationships and problems in later dev
Research findings on insecurely attached ados +emerging adults
1)recent study of 15-20yr olds-insecure attachment to mothers linked to becoming +remaining depressed
2)ados who were securely attached at 14 were more likely to report at age 21 that they were in exclusive relationships +achieving increasing financial independence
3)ados who have attempted suicide were less securely attached to their mothers+fathers
4)avoidant attachment predicted suicidal behavior in ado
____% of American ados have 1+ siblings
80%
positive dimensions to sibling relationships
helping, sharing, teaching, playing, emotional support, +communication
siblings can be more influential in socializing ados than parents
In dealing w/ peers, coping w/ difficult teachers, +discussing taboo subjects (sex)
First borns
found to be most intelligent, high achieving, +conscientious
domineering older children
feeling more resentful of attention +treatment given to younger children
second/later children
later borns were the most rebellious, liberal, +agreeable
found that birth order plays a role in siblings’ relationships w/ eachother
only child
actually not “spoiled brats”
research actually presents a more positive portrayal of the only child
high achieving, desirable personality
Divorced families:trends
U.S. divorce rates-increased dramatically in the 60s+70s
Declined since 1980s
Increased from 1990-2008
For those over 35-divorce rate has doubled in the last 2 decades
For younger couples- recent research show divorce rates are stable or declining
Expected to decline in next several decades
Estimated 40% of U.S. children born to married parents will experience their parents’ divorce
Most researchers agree that children of divorced parents show poorer attachment than their counterparts
Hetherington’s research on divorce
20% of emerging adults from divorced families were characterized by impulsive, irresponsible, antisocial behavior as well as depressed
Despite emotional problems some experience, most commonly cope w/ parents’ divorce
Majority don’t have significant problems adjusting
Divorced parents’ relationship is important
Ados are better adjusted if there is a harmonious relationship between the divorced parents + the parents use authoritative parenting style
Divorces occur at ____% higher rate in remarriages than in first marriages
10%, usually due to adjustment issues
boundary ambiguities
uncertainties in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family + who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system
Research on step families
1)children’s relationship w/ custodial parent is often better than w/ stepparents
2)one issue for stepparents is how to handle issues of discipline:recommended biological parent discipline in the beginning
3)Early ado is an especially difficult time for the formation of a step family
More than ___of every ___U.S. mothers w/a child under the age of 5 is in the labor force
1 of every 2 (50%)
___ of every___ mothers w/ children between 6-17 are employed
2 of every 3
Research on working parents
For ado dev, it’s the nature of the work that matters
Consistent finding is the children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping
Have a more egalitarian view of gender, especially true of girls
Latchkey Adolescent
They are called “latchkey” b/c hey carry a key to their home +let themselves into the home while the parents are still at work
Don’t see parents for a long time
B/c they are w/o limits +parental supervision, often find their way into trouble more easily, possibly stealing, vandalizing,or abusing a sibling
Vulnerable to problems, but great variations in their experiences
Competent +well-adjusted ados have parents who:
1)show warmth +respect
2)demonstrate sustained interest in their ado’s lives
3) communicate expectations for high standards of conduct +achievement
4)display authoritative, constructive ways of dealing w/ problems +conflict