Psych 232 Exam 3

A
Which of the following statements regarding parents as managers is NOT true?
A. Fathers are more likely than mothers to have a managerial role in parenting.
B. Mothers are more likely than fathers to have a managerial role in parenting.
C. Family management practices are positively related to students’ grades.
D. Family management practices are negatively related to school problems.
B
Supervising adolescents’ friends, activities, and academic efforts is known as
A. structuring.
C. managing.
B. monitoring.
D. controlling.
A
Which of the following statements regarding adolescents’ disclosure to parents about their activities is TRUE?
A. Disclosure is linked to positive adolescent adjustment.
B. Younger adolescents are more likely than older adolescents to lie to parents if they are
concerned about parental disapproval.
C. Older adolescents are more likely than younger adolescents to disclose engagement in
risk- taking behavior.
D. Adolescents are more likely to disclose information on matters of privacy than
risky actions.
C
Family organization and routine has been shown to be positively related to all of the following factors EXCEPT
A. school achievement.
B. school attendance.
C. school-related problems.
D. paying attention in class
A
Michael’s parents never discuss their rules. If he asks for an explanation, they answer, “Because I said so; that’s all the explanation you need.” Michael’s parents are using which
style of parenting?
A. authoritarian
B. authoritative
C. neglectful
D. indulgent
B
Delany’s parents are uninvolved in her life. She comes and goes as she pleases and she has the sense that she doesn’t matter very much to her parents. Delaney’s parents are using which of Diana Baumrind’s styles of parenting?
A. authoritative
B. neglectful
C. incompetent
D. authoritarian
C
Which of the following statements about authoritative parents is NOT true?
A. They establish an appropriate balance between control and autonomy.
B. They provide warmth and parental involvement.
C. Their children are less receptive to parental influences than other styles of parenting.
D. They are likely to encourage expression of adolescents’ views.
D
Which of the following statements about parenting is TRUE?
A. Consistent parenting is recommended.
B. Many parents use a combination of techniques.
C. Parents and adolescents socialize each other.
D. All of these are true.
A
Jeremy’s parents have divorced. If Jeremy’s situation is typical of many divorced families, he can expect that
A. his mother will have less money than when she was married.
B. his mother will have more money than when she was married, due to child support and
alimony payments.
C. his standard of living will increase slightly.
D. none of these will happen.
C
Which of the following statements about custody arrangements in divorced families is NOT true?
A. Children benefit from joint custody.
B. Girls adjust better in mother-custody families.
C. Boys adjust better in mother-custody families.
D. Boys adjust better in father-custody families.
B
Sherry and Jason have two children each from previous marriages. When they marry, they create a _______.
A. co-parenting family
B. blended family
C. extended family
D. kin-oriented family
D
Ricardo’s parents use a co-parenting model whereby they show parental solidarity and cooperation. As a result Ricardo is likely to have
A. prosocial behavior.
B. competence in peer relationships.
C. positive attitudes towards males and females.
D. all of these.
D
Which of the following statements about conflict between adolescents and parents is TRUE?
A. Parent-adolescent conflict increases from early adolescence to late adolescence.
B. Recent research shows that Hall’s conception of adolescence as a time of “storm and
stress” is probably true.
C. Parent-child conflict is stronger than parent-early adolescent conflict.
D. Conflict between parents and adolescents is highest in early adolescence.
D
Eva, age 15, insists that she is going to spend her summer vacation with her best friend at the lake house owned by the friend’s family. Eva does not want to go on the vacation that her family has planned and says that they can’t make her. Her parents should understand that Eva is
A. asserting her autonomy.
B. challenging her parents’ authority.
C. closer to her friends’ parents than her own parents.
D. A or B
C
Which of the following statements regarding autonomy in adolescence is NOT true?
A. Boys are given independence more than girls are.
B. Expectations about the timing of adolescent autonomy vary across cultures.
C. Expectations for early autonomy are prevalent in Latinos.
D. Expectations for early autonomy are prevalent in single parents.
C
The transition from high school to college is especially difficult for adolescents who
A. continue to live at home and commute to college.
B. move more than 100 miles away from home to go to college.
C. have parents that are divorced or separated.
D. are only children.
A
According to attachment theorists, secure attachment in infancy is linked to adolescents’ development of
A. social competence.
B. trust
C. self-efficacy.
D. human agency.
C
The majority of adults describe their attachment styles as
A. ambivalently attached.
B. insecurely attached.
C. securely attached.
D. avoidantly attached.
C
Which of the following statements about the timing for beginning parenthood has been
found to be TRUE?
A. Parents who delayed childbearing have less egalitarian relationships with their adolescents
than parents who had children earlier in life.
B. Men who delayed having children until their early thirties were less involved in child care
than those who became fathers earlier.
C. The number of adolescent pregnancies increased considerably in the 1970s and 1980s.
D. In the last two decades women have had children earlier than they did 50 years ago.
A
Which of the following statements regarding parents as managers is NOT true?
A. Fathers are more likely than mothers to have a managerial role in parenting.
B. Mothers are more likely than fathers to have a managerial role in parenting.
C. Family management practices are positively related to students’ grades.
D. Family management practices are negatively related to school problems
C
Lily calls her son Mark, age 22, at least three times each day. She says she’s just “checking in” to see that he ate lunch and that he’s studying for his exams in graduate school.
Lily is engaged in
A. symbiotic neurosis.
B. enmeshed parenting.
C. permaparenting.
D. protective, but not excessive, parenting..
B
Sherry and Jason have two children each from previous marriages. When they marry, they create a
A. co-parenting family.
B. blended family
C. extended family.
D. kin-oriented family.
C
Before Justin’s father remarried, Justin was responsible for mowing the grass, putting the dishes in the dishwasher, and doing his own laundry. Now that Kim has married into the family, Justin is not sure which of his responsibilities he should continue to do.
Justin is experiencing
A. boundary strain.
B. role discontinuity.
C. boundary ambiguity.
D. cognitive dissonance
A
Research shows that which of the following statements about adoptive children and adolescents is TRUE?
A. The earlier adoption occurred, the fewer the problems the adoptees had. B. Children adopted after seven years of age had the most problems.
C. Being adopted had no impact on the psychological health of the adoptees.
D. Being adopted had no impact on the academic performance of adoptees.
B
Judy Dunn has described three important characteristics of sibling relationships: familiarity and intimacy of the relationship, variation in sibling relationships, and
A. parent favoritism between and among siblings.
B. emotional quality of the relationship.
C. trust level of the relationship.
D. conflict level of the relationship.
C
Which of the following statements about later-born children is NOT true?
A. Characterizing later-borns is difficult, because they can occupy many different
sibling positions.
B. A boy with an older sister is more likely to develop “feminine” interests than a boy with
an older brother.
C. Later-borns usually enjoy poorer peer relations than first-borns.
D. Middle-borns tend to be more diplomatic.
C
Which of the following statements about birth order is TRUE?
A. Birth order is a strong predictor of adolescent behavior.
B. The importance of birth order has been underestimated.
C. Birth order shows a limited capacity to predict adolescent behavior.
D. Birth order has not been adequately studied.
A
Which of the following is NOT a trend in cultural change in families around the world?
A. more families migrating to rural areas
B. greater family mobility
C. smaller families
D. fewer extended families
B
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent-peer and adolescent-parent relationships is NOT true?
A. The worlds of parents and peers are connected in many ways.
B. Adolescents’ relationships with their parents are disconnected from their peer relationships.
C. Parents have some influence over adolescents’ morals and values.
D. Young adolescents talk with their mothers about their peer relationships.
C
Cheri has a secure attachment to her parents. What might this attachment mean to her attachment to her peers?
A. She will very likely be insecurely attached to her peers.
B. She will very likely be securely attached to her peers.
C. The parent-adolescent attachment pattern is not strongly indicative of the adolescent peer relationship.
D. There is no correlation at all between attachment to parents and attachment to peers.
A
Which of the following statements regarding conformity to peer pressure has recent research found to be TRUE?
A. Social identity uncertainly is linked to peer conformity.
B. Social identity uncertainty decreases in times of school transition.
C. Social identity uncertainly decreases in time of family transitions.
D. Peers are most likely to conform to peers whom they perceive to be at the same level
of social status
D
The term researchers use to describe the extent to which children and adolescents are liked or disliked by their peer group is
A. social capital.
B. popularity.
C. social inclusion.
D. sociometric status.
C
The best predictor of whether rejected children engage in delinquent behavior or drop out of school later, during adolescence is
A. low rates of interactions with their peers.
B. aggression towards peers in junior high school.
C. aggression towards peers in elementary school.
D. use of alcohol in ninth grade.
B
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic social needs identified by Harry Stack Sullivan?
31. Which of the following statements regarding conformity to peer pressure has recent research found to be TRUE?
A. need for secure attachment
B. need for competitive companionship
C. need for intimacy
D. need for social acceptance
B
Chronic loneliness has been linked to
A. impaired cognition.
B. impaired physical health.
C. poor grades.
D. stealing.
A
Travis, age 16, is friends with a group of young men ages 21 to 23. According to research, Travis is more likely than his counterparts with same-age friends to
A. engage in early sexual behavior. C. be employed.
B. be highly mature. D. have older sisters
B
Planning ahead, generating multiple solutions to hypothetical problems, and evaluating physically aggressive responses negatively are all
A. emotional regulation skills.
B. social cognitive skills.
C. self-efficacy skills.
D. prosocial skills.
C
According to Kenneth Dodge, the first step in processing information about our social world is
A. interpreting social cues.
B. searching for an appropriate response.
C. decoding social cues.
D. selecting an appropriate response.
A
Conglomerate strategies are
A. the use of multiple techniques to improve adolescents’ social skills.
B. also known as brainstorming.
C. the most effective kinds of problem-solving skills.
D. a team approach to teaching social sciences.
B
Which of the following statements about the romantic relationships of sexual minority
youth is NOT true?
A. Same-sex relationships are complex.
B. We can generalize from the issues of heterosexual relationships to same-sex relationships.
C. Sexual minority youth rate the breakup of a romance as very stressful.
D. Same-sex romances may be met with parental disapproval.
A
Lydia is a sexually active lesbian adolescent. Which of the following is probably TRUE for Lydia?
A. She has had sex with boys before a same-sex encounter.
B. Her initial same-sex encounter was with a casual acquaintance.
C. She is in love with her current partner.
D. She is open with her parents about her romantic life.
D
Which of the following statements about dating scripts is TRUE?
A. males follow a proactive dating script
B. females follow a reactive dating script
C. first dates tend to be highly scripted
D. all of these
A
Which of the following statements about dating is TRUE?
A. It is a relatively recent phenomenon.
B. The primary role of dating in the past was recreation.
C. The primary role of dating today is to secure a mate.
D. Parents have historically avoided any involvement in their children’s dating
and mate selection.
B
Most adolescent love is characterized by
A. affectionate love.
B. romantic love.
C. companionate love.
D. agape.
A
Researchers have found a link between early dating and
A. adolescent pregnancy. C. eating disorders.
B. suicide. D. none of these.
A
Researchers have found a link between early dating and
A. adolescent pregnancy. C. eating disorders.
B. suicide. D. none of these.
D
Most boys and girls who date each other
A. come from similar ethnic backgrounds. C. have similar academic success. B. come from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. D. all of these
D
Which of the following statements regarding adolescent crowds is TRUE?
A. Crowds are larger than cliques.
B. Crowds are less personal than cliques.
C. Crowds may or may not spend much time together.
D. All of these are true.
C
Which of the following youth programs is dedicated to dropout prevention?
A. 4-H C. WAVE
B. ALANA D. Junior Achievement
A
Gini is very active in her local chapter of Young Libertarians. Compared to her counterparts who do not participate in youth groups, Gini is more likely to
A. have higher self-esteem.
B. be more radical.
C. take more history and political science courses in school.
D. take part in political demonstration.
D
Moral development includes moral
A. thought.
C. behavior.
B. feelings.
D. all of these.
B
The key concept in understanding Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is A. externalization. C. individualism.
B. internalization. D. collectivism.
A
The two stages of Kohlberg’s preconventional reasoning level are individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange, and
A. punishment and obedience orientation.
B. social systems morality.
C. social contract morality.
D. none of these.
A
Lucia argues that community members need to obey laws in order for the community
to work effectively. According to Kohlberg, Lucia is in which stage of moral development?
A. social systems morality
B. social contract morality
C. mutual interpersonal expectations morality
D. universal ethical principles
C
The highest level of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is
A. conventional reasoning.
B. utilitarian reasoning.
C. postconventional reasoning.
D. universal reasoning
D
Which of the following statements regarding Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is NOT true?
A. Most adolescents reason at Stage 3.
B. Stage 5 never characterizes more than 10 percent of the individuals.
C. Stage 6 has recently been removed from the Kohlberg moral judgment scoring manual.
D. Most people in their mid-thirties reason at Stage 3.
D
Which of the following factors has been found to influence movement through Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
A. cognitive conflict
B. modeling
C. peer relationships
D. all of these
A
Lance’s parents encourage family discussions about value-laden issues such as the death penalty, abortion, and amnesty for illegal immigrants. As a result, Lance is likely to think at:
A. more advanced levels of moral reasoning than other people his age.
B. the same level as his parents.
C. Stages 5 or 6 of Kohlberg’s stages. D. none of these.
B
In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the role of ______ in moral development.
A. values clarification programs
B. parenting
C. teachers
D. peers
D
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development have included all of the following, EXCEPT that Kohlberg
A. placed too much emphasis on moral thought.
B. may not have done high-quality research.
C. may have underestimated the care perspective.
D. placed too much emphasis on moral behavior.
C
Which of the following statements regarding Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and culture is TRUE?
A. Stages 5 and 6 have been found in all cultures.
B. Kohlberg’s scoring system is appropriate for all cultures.
C. Moral reasoning is more culture-specific than Kohlberg envisioned.
D. People around the world shift from Stage 3 to Stage 4 at approximately the same time.
B
What differences exist between Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s theories of moral development?
A. Gilligan postulated an ethic of justice; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of care.
B. Kohlberg postulated an ethic of justice; Gilligan postulated an ethic of care.
C. Gilligan postulated an ethic of equity; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of care.
D. Gilligan postulated an ethic of individualism; Kohlberg postulated an ethic of collectivism
B
Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in moral development between males and females is TRUE?
A. Males generate more interpersonal conflict than females.
B. There is no evidence to support Gilligan’s claim that Kohlberg downplayed female
moral thinking.
C. Young teen girls use more justice-based reasoning about dating dilemmas than do boys.
D. Females rated prosocial dilemmas as less significant than did males.
D
The type of moral reasoning that focuses on social consensus is
A. empathy reasoning.
B. behavioral reasoning.
C. prosocial reasoning.
D. social conventional reasoning.
D
Which of the following has been used to explain how adolescents learn moral behavior and why behavior differs from one person to another?
A. reinforcement
B. punishment
C. modeling
D. all of these
C
Which of the following statements regarding moral behavior is NOT true?
A. Moral behavior is situation-dependent.
B. Adolescents are more likely to cheat when their friends pressure them to do so.
C. Adolescents are likely to display consistent moral behavior in diverse social settings.
D. Adolescents are more likely to cheat when the chance of being caught is slim.
B
Which theory of moral development emphasizes a distinction between adolescent moral competence and moral performance?
A. self-efficacy theory
B. social cognitive theory
C. social competence theory
D. none of these
D
Marcy believes that self-regulation, rather than abstract reasoning, is the key to positive moral development. Which of the following theorists shared Marcy’s view?
A. George Kelly C. B. F. Skinner
B. Abraham Maslow D. Albert Bandura
A
Denise helps organize a five-mile walk to raise money for a good cause, the Brain Injury Association. Denise’s work is an act of
A. altruism. C. proactive behavior.
B. egocentrism. D. empathy.
D
Which of the following statements regarding prosocial behavior is NOT true?
A. Adolescents engage in more prosocial behavior than do children.
B. Adolescent females regard themselves as more prosocial than adolescent males.
C. The biggest gender difference in prosocial behavior is in kindness and
considerate behavior.
D. Prosocial behavior occurs more in childhood than in adolescence.
D
Which of the following statements accurately reflects the psychoanalytic account of moral development?
A. Inwardly directed hostility is experienced as depression.
B. Children are openly hostile to their parents until age 4 or 5.
C. Adolescents avoid committing transgressions for fear of punishment.
D. Children and adolescents conform to societal standards to avoid guilt.
C
According to Freud, when the moral standards of the _____ are violated, the individual feels _____.
A. id; anger C. conscience; guilt
B. ego; shame D. ego ideal; doubt
D
Which of the following is NOT one of Erikson’s three stages of moral development?
A. specific moral learning in childhood
B. ideological concerns in adolescence
C. ethical consolidation in adulthood
D. identity development in emerging adulthood
B
Alex, age 12, always helps his elderly grandmother by carrying her plate to the table and making sure that she always has her cane ready before she gets up. Alex says he feels sad that his Nana is getting weaker and not able to do as much for herself. Alex is showing
A. sympathy. C. pity.
B. empathy. D. neurotic anxiety.
B
The potential for abuse is highest in cults that
A. require members to beg on the streets for money to feed and house members.
B. are physically and socially isolated from the outside community.
C. have an engaging, friendly leader.
D. require members to give 10 percent of their income to the cult.
D
Contemporary moral development theorists emphasize that
A. both positive feelings and negative feelings contribute to moral development in
adolescence.
B. both positive and negative emotions provide the foundation for the acquisition
of moral values.
C. moral emotions are not enough to build adolescents’ moral awareness. D. all of these
A
Recently there has been an interest in the fourth dimension of moral development, which is
A. moral personality. C. moral values. B. moral emotions. D. moral beliefs.
D
Contemporary moral development theorists emphasize that
A. both positive feelings and negative feelings contribute to moral development
in adolescence.
B. both positive and negative emotions provide the foundation for the acquisition
of moral values.
C. moral emotions are not enough to build adolescents’ moral awareness. D. all of these
C
Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of the moral personality?
A. moral identity C. moral integrity
B. moral character D. moral exemplar
C
Candace holds herself accountable for the consequences of her actions. She has a sense of responsibility for all that she does, good or bad. Candace has the virtue of
A. willpower. C. integrity.
B. honesty. D. moral desire.
A
Moral character presupposes that the person has
A. set moral goals and is committed to act in accord with these goals.
B. formally learned the morals of society.
C. had moral guides or mentors.
D. all of these.
D
Researchers consider the core of all three types of moral exemplars to include the traits of honesty and
A. agreeableness.
B. conscientiousness.
C. emotional stability.
D. dependability.
A
People who have lived exemplary lives are known as:
A. moral exemplars.
B. moral characters.
C. moral elitists
D. moral dignitaries.
D
Researchers consider the core of all three types of moral exemplars to include the traits of honesty and
A. agreeableness.
B. conscientiousness.
C. emotional stability.
D. dependability
C
Which of the following people is MOST likely to be targeted for recruitment by a cult?
A. Maxim, who lives at the poverty line even though he works at three jobs
B. Nikita, who is mentally ill and lives in a group home
C. Evan, who has a good job and is quite intelligent
D. Shelby, who has just moved back home with her parents to save money for a house
D
Margaret’s parents refuse to talk to her if she displeases them in any way. They tell her younger brother that Margaret is a big disappointment to them if she gets any grade below a B. Margaret’s parents are using which of the following discipline techniques? A. power assertion C. deduction
B. induction D. love withdrawal
B
Chelsea’s father takes away her cell phone and her iPod whenever she does something that he views as “disrespectful.” Chelsea’s father is using ____ discipline technique.
A. authoritative
B. power assertion
C. love withdrawal
D. induction
A
Which of the following statements regarding the use of the induction technique of discipline is TRUE?
A. Induction works better with older children and adolescents than with preschool children.
B. Induction focuses on the adolescent’s shortcomings.
C. Induction works just as well as love withdrawal for adolescents.
D. Induction works better on children from low SES families than with children from
middle SES families
A
Research has found that moral children have parents who do all EXCEPT
A. foster an external sense of morality.
B. involve children in family decision-making.
C. model moral behaviors.
D. use inductive discipline
B
Katie’s parents know that their daughter will inevitably be confronted by peers who want to offer her alcohol or drugs. They spend time talking with her about how to resist these harmful
situations, and they even role-play with her to increase her skills. Katie’s parents are engaging in which type of parenting strategy?
A. cocooning
B. pre-arming
C. pampering
D. protecting
D
Justin’s school has rules about behaviors, and teachers clearly transmit the attitude that students should be respectful and considerate of others. According to John Dewey,
the rules and moral atmosphere of Justin’s school make up its
A. values curriculum.
B. belief system.
C. overt curriculum.
D. hidden curriculum
C
Currently 40 out of 50 states provide mandates to schools requiring them to provide some sort of
A. values-clarification.
B. service learning.
C. character education.
D. cognitive moral education.
B
Kendra’s class on moral education consists of small-group discussions on a number of moral issues. Kendra’s school has adopted a _____ approach to moral education.
A. values clarification
B. cognitive moral education
C. moral character
D. character education
A
Austin volunteers to help senior citizens learn basic computer skills. If Austin is like many students who participate in service learning, Austin will
A. have high grades in school.
B. have excellent computer skills.
C. have elderly grandparents who inspire him to give back to the community.
D. probably not volunteer when he gets older.
B
Which of the following statements about cults is NOT true?
A. People involved in cults are usually focused on the goals of the cult’s leader.
B. People involved in cults are attempting to better the lives of members as well as non-members
C. Cults sometimes use deception to get people to join them.
D. Cults attempt to replace a recruit’s identity with a new identity.
C
An integrative approach to moral education encompasses the _____ and ______.
A. reflective moral thinking of Kohlberg; values clarification approach
B. cognitive moral education approach; service learning
C. reflective moral thinking of Kohlberg; character education
D. care perspective of Gilligan; values clarification
C
The goal of the integrative ethical education program is to
A. help students to define and clarify their moral values.
B. have students practice their ethical skills in the community.
C. turn moral novices into moral exemplars.
D. have students identify clear moral and immoral behaviors.
A
Our beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be are our
A. values. C. morals.
B. ethics. D. stereotypes.
D
Mackenzie, a 20-year-old college student, attends church weekly and makes prayer a part of her daily activities. According to research, Mackenzie is likely to have
A. fewer sexual encounters than her less religious counterparts.
B. a fear of contracting HIV from unprotected sexual intercourse.
C. a fear of an unplanned pregnancy from unprotected sexual intercourse.
D. all of these.
D
Which of the following is a recent trend in religion among adolescents and emerging adults?
A. There is a downward trend in religious interest among college students.
B. Religious issues are important to many adolescents and emerging adults.
C. More than twice as many first-year students as in 1978 reported no religious preference.
D. All of these are recent trends.
B
The three major aspects of moral development include
A) stimulus, response, and consequences.
B) thoughts, behaviors, and feelings.
C) individual, family, and society.
D) id, ego, and superego.
D
Three levels of moral development, comprising six stages, based on how individuals think about moral behavior, were proposed by
A) Martin Hoffman.
B) Jean Piaget.
C) Sigmund Freud.
D) Lawrence Kohlberg.
B
Dr. Dre believes that how someone thinks about moral situations and internalizes their morality is based on overall development. He is most likely a proponent of whose theory?
A) Freud, and the psychoanalytic perspective
B) Kohlberg, and the cognitive development perspective
C) Gilligan, and the care perspective
D) Bandura and social cognitive perspective
B
According to Kohlberg, a key concept in understanding moral development is _____, the developmental change from behavior that is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principles.
A) autonomous morality
B) internalization
C) individualism
D) social contract
A
Sammy does what his parents tell him to do because he knows if he doesn’t his parents will punish him. Sammy is in which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
A) sensorimotor
B) preconventional
C) conventional
D) postconventional
D
Valerie works tirelessly to help children escape the inhuman conditions she has witnessed in the Sudan. She does this because she believes it is the “right thing to do,” even though she often finds herself in life threatening situations when helping these children. Valerie demonstrates which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
A) individualism, purpose, and exchange
B) social systems morality
C) mutual interpersonal expectations
D) universal ethical principles
B
When asked if Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife’s life, Gina said, “Yes. It shows how much he loves her.” Gina’s response demonstrates which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
A) individualism, purpose, and exchange
B) mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
C) universal ethical principal
D) social contract or utility and individual rights
A
Parents are more likely to promote higher levels of moral reasoning in their children by
A) encouraging conversation about value-laden issues.
B) telling their children how to act.
C) punishing their children for inappropriate behavior.
D) giving their children books to read on moral behavior.
C
Which of these was NOT a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
A) It places too much emphasis on moral thought and too little emphasis on moral behavior.
B) Kohlberg’s stories are extremely difficult to score.
C) It is deficient in explaining the progressive conceptions people use to understand social cooperation.
D) It did not fully consider culture or gender variables.
D
Carol Gilligan has criticized Kohlberg’s theory for
A) overemphasizing people’s connectedness and communication with other people.
B) emphasizing moral behavior and ignoring moral reasoning.
C) relying on a single method to assess individual’s moral reasoning.
D) neglecting the importance of gender and interpersonal relationships in moral development.
D
A _____ perspective focuses on the rights of the individual—they may be independent moral decisions; a _____ perspective views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication and concern for others.
A) care; justice
B) conventional; ethical
C) justice; altruistic
D) justice; care
B
A meta-analysis evaluating Carol Gilligan’s claim of substantial gender differences in moral judgment
A) supported Gilligan’s findings.
B) cast doubt on Gilligan’s findings.
C) found that when gender differences occurred they were better explained by age.
D) found that when gender differences occurred they were better explained by parenting style than by gender.
B
One problem with teaching moral behavior by punishment unacceptable behavior is that
A) it is not effective.
B) it sanctions the use of punishment.
C) it does not have long lasting effects.
D) it is difficult to enforce.
D
Dr. Rasmusen believes that self-regulation and self-sanctions keep people behaving in a moral manner, rather than abstract reasoning. He is most likely a proponent of whose theory?
A) Freud, and the psychoanalytic perspective
B) Kohlberg, and the cognitive development perspective
C) Gilligan, and the care perspective
D) Bandura and social cognitive perspective
D
According to Albert Bandura, the key to positive moral development is
A) abstract reasoning.
B) the fear of punishment.
C) good instruction.
D) self-regulation.
D
An unselfish interest in helping another person is called
A) forgiveness.
B) conscience.
C) induction.
D) altruism.
D
Which term is used when a person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation?
A) altruism
B) empathy
C) sympathy
D) forgiveness
B
Which parent of the superego rewards an individual with a sense of pride and personal value when the individual acts according to high moral standards?
A) id
B) ego ideal
C) conscience
D) unconscious
C
The lack of empathy is associated with
A) excessive achievement orientation.
B) vulnerability to cults.
C) antisocial behaviors.
D) chronic depression.
C
Perspective taking, or the ability to discern other’s inner psychological states is related to
A) apathy
B) self-regulation
C) empathy
D) guilt
B
Eddie sees that moral notions and commitments are central to his life. He has developed a moral
A) motivation.
B) identity.
C) exemplar.
D) character.
C
Mother Theresa is an example of a moral _____.
A) motivator.
B) identity.
C) exemplar.
D) character.
C
_____ is a strategy parents use to promote moral development in their adolescents through reason and explanation of consequences for others based on the adolescent’s actions.
A) Love withdrawal
B) Power assertion
C) Induction
D) Altruism
C
According to Dewey, schools are one of the settings in which moral development occurs. The moral climate of the school is called
A) administrative morale.
B) service learning.
C) the hidden curriculum.
D) the classroom conscience.
B
Teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others is referred to as
A) mental hygiene.
B) character education.
C) the hidden curriculum.
D) cognitive moral education.
A
The belief that students should learn to value such things as democracy and justice as their moral development progresses is called
A) cognitive moral education.
B) values clarification.
C) character education.
D) service learning.
B
As part of his high school curriculum, Carlos has been tutoring fifth graders in math and on weekends he reads to elderly blind residents at a local assisted living facility. This type of educational program is referred to as
A) cognitive moral education.
B) service learning.
C) values clarification.
D) character education.
B
_____ are beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be and what is important to that individual.
A) Ethics
B) Values
C) Roles
D) Goals
A
Samantha goes to temple weekly and is involved in the youth group. She is showing
A) religiousness.
B) spirituality.
C) values.
D) ethics.
B
Who is more likely to be religious?
A) Kalinda who is 25
B) Cassie who is 14
C) Braden who is 16
D) Mason who is 24
C
Parent-adolescent relationships today are viewed as
A) parent dominant.
B) adolescent dominant.
C) reciprocal.
D) distant.
C
Meredith’s father looses his job and now the family is struggling. In regards to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, which context of development would this fall under?
A) mesosystem
B) exosystem
C) macrosystem
D) chronosystem
A
Which of the following is typically related to good parenting?
A) marital satisfaction
B) strict rules
C) clear personal boundaries
D) parental dominance
D
Which of the following is an important role of parents in their adolescent children’s lives?
A) Drill sergeants
B) Friends
C) Police
D) Managers
B
A key aspect of parents’ managerial role is
A) strict rules for the adolescent.
B) effective monitoring of the adolescent.
C) structuring the adolescent’s schedule.
D) being flexible.
C
A restrictive, punitive style of parenting, high in demandingness and low in responsiveness is
A) indulgent.
B) authoritative.
C) authoritarian.
D) neglectful.
C
_____ parenting style tends to result in the best outcome.
A) Authoritarian
B) Neglectful
C) Authoritative
D) Indulgent
D
An uninvolved style of parenting, low in both demandingness and responsiveness is
A) indulgent.
B) authoritative.
C) authoritarian.
D) neglectful.
D
Bill’s parents have few rules for household conduct and academic expectations. They do not punish Bill when he violates rules but merely accept his behavior. Bill is likely to develop
A) social competence because his parents unconditionally accept him.
B) anxiety about social comparisons and social inferiority feelings.
C) self-reliance, social responsibility, and autonomy.
D) little impulse control and disregard for rules.
A
For Baumarind the two dimensions that allow for classification of parenting style are
A) responsiveness and controlling.
B) neglect and indulgence.
C) authoritative and authoritarian.
D) avoidance and ambivalence.
C
Which of these is a traditional Asian American style of parenting that emphasizes loving control and is associated with positive outcomes?
A) neglected
B) authoritative
C) training
D) domineering
D
The MOST common source of parent-adolescent conflict is
A) drugs.
B) delinquency.
C) dating.
D) everyday events of family life.
C
Which of the following is MOST accurate about parent-adolescent conflict?
A) It most often occurs between the adolescent and his or her father.
B) It is more common today than it was in previous generations.
C) It may have originated before the onset of adolescence.
D) It is most likely to be about serious issues such as drugs and delinquency.
B
The increased independence that typifies adolescence is called
A) synchrony.
B) autonomy.
C) indulgence.
D) reciprocal socialization
A
Conflict between adolescents and parents is typically strongest in early adolescence and may be a healthy aspect of the development of
A) autonomy.
B) attachment.
C) parenting skills.
D) dating skills.
B
Tara’s parents are inconsistent in their availability to her and she is demonstrating high attachment seeking behaviors and anger in her relationships. According to attachment theory she would be classified as
A) dismissing / avoidant.
B) preoccupied / ambivalent.
C) unresolved / disorganized.
D) secure.
D
Which of the following is NOT one of the insecure attachment styles?
A) dismissing / avoidant.
B) preoccupied / ambivalent.
C) unresolved / disorganized.
D) neglectful / permissive.
D
Adolescents who are securely attached to their parents
A) cannot adequately develop autonomy.
B) show less secure attachment to peers.
C) have more difficulty engaging with peers and separating from parents.
D) have more positive peer relationships.
B
Erik is hesitant about getting romantically involved and once in relationships finds he trys to distance himself from his partner. Based on adult attachment theory, Hazan and Shaver would argue he most likely is showing a
A) secure attachment style.
B) avoidant attachment style.
C) anxious attachment style.
D) disorganized attachment style.
C
Sookie finds herself jealous, possessive and emotional in her romantic relationships. Based on adult attachment theory, Hazan and Shaver would argue she most likely is showing a
A) secure attachment style.
B) avoidant attachment style.
C) anxious attachment style.
D) disorganized attachment style.
D
Which of the following is NOT true regarding adult attachment styles in emerging adults?
A) Adults who were securely attached to their parents had more success in friendship in college.
B) Secure attachment predicts more positive romantic relationships.
C) Sexual satisfaction is higher for secure adults than avoidant and anxious adults.
D) There is no relationship between attachment and the development of disease or chronic illness
D
The relationship between emerging adults and their parents generally improves when the emerging adult
A) graduates from high school.
B) begins college.
C) embraces their parents’ values
D) leaves home.
C
Judy Dunn described three important characteristics of sibling relationships. These include all of the following EXCEPT
A) emotional quality of the relationship.
B) familiarity and intimacy of the relationship.
C) longevity of the relationship.
D) variation in sibling relationships.
A
Firstborn children are
A) usually more intelligent, achieving, and conscientious than those born later.
B) on the average, less achievement-oriented than those born later.
C) on the average, more psychologically well adjusted than those born later.
D) usually more rebellious, liberal, and agreeable than those born later
A
Which of these statements about divorced families is TRUE?
A) The majority of adolescents in divorced families do not have significant adjustment problems.
B) More girls than boys become disengaged from the family.
C) Divorced parents’ parenting skills diminish for at least five years after the divorce.
D) The large majority of children of divorced parents develop severe depression
B
The confusion in stepfamilies regarding the membership of the family and each individual’s responsibility is referred to as
A) family blending.
B) boundary ambiguity.
C) stepfamily dynamism.
D) stepfamily individuation.
B
After coming home from school, Juan washes the breakfast dishes, does a load of laundry, and starts dinner before his parents get home at 6 p.m. Juan is a
A) hurried child.
B) latchkey child.
C) neglected child.
D) stepchild
A
A consistent finding concerning working parents and adolescent adjustment is that
A) children of working mothers have more egalitarian views of gender.
B) children of working mothers develop insecure attachments in their relationships.
C) children of two working parents feel neglected.
D) children of fathers who work more than 60 hours a week develop a strong work ethic.
C
Which of these statements about adopted adolescents is TRUE?
A) They are less likely to have school problems than their non-adopted peers.
B) The earlier adoption occurs, the more problems they are likely to have.
C) The vast majority of adopted adolescents adjust effectively.
D) They have more problems than do adolescents in long-term foster care.
A
Which of these statements about children of gay and lesbian parents is TRUE?
A) Most of these children have a heterosexual orientation.
B) They are usually rejected by peers.
C) They have more mental health problems than do children of heterosexual parents.
D) They develop more slowly than do children of heterosexual parents
C
Ethnic minority families tend to differ from Caucasian American families in that
A) the ethnic minority families are smaller.
B) the adolescents from Asian American and Latino families feel less familial responsibility.
C) ethnic families show more extended networks.
D) ethnic families have parents with higher education levels
A
One of the most important functions of the peer group in adolescence is to
A) provide a source of information about the world outside the family.
B) offer a safe environment.
C) teach adolescents about intimate relationships.
D) provide an escape from the adolescent’s home.
B
Recent research suggests that adolescents who are characterized by _____ tend to engage in negative interpersonal behavior when interacting with friends or romantic partners.
A) shyness
B) negative emotionality
C) neuroticism
D) negative feedback
C
All of the following increase the likelihood that adolescents will be open to peer influence EXCEPT
A) when parents fail to monitor young adolescents adequately.
B) when the adolescent is in a subordinate social position in a group.
C) when the adolescent has a defined social identity.
D) when the adolescent is in 8th or 9th grade.
A
Research by Judith Smetana has found that parents and adolescents perceive that parents have little authority over which adolescent arena?
A) peer relations
B) morality
C) religion
D) education
D
The term _____ describes the extent to which children and adolescents are liked or disliked by their peers.
A) norms
B) conglomerate strategy
C) conformity
D) sociometric status
A
Children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers are
A) popular children.
B) neglected children.
C) rejected children.
D) controversial children.
B
Children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers are
A) popular children.
B) neglected children.
C) rejected children.
D) controversial children.
C
Children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers are
A) popular children.
B) neglected children.
C) rejected children.
D) controversial children
D
Children who are frequently nominated both as a best friend and as being disliked are
A) popular children.
B) neglected children.
C) rejected children.
D) controversial children.
B
An adolescent in which of these sociometric statuses would be at greatest risk for serious adjustment problems?
A) neglected
B) rejected
C) controversial
D) neglected, rejected, and controversial children are all equally at risk for adjustment problems
C
According to John Coie, aggressive peer-rejected boys have problems in social relationships for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A) they are more impulsive.
B) they are more emotionally reactive.
C) they are excessively shy.
D) they have problems making and keeping friends.
B
Knowing that a friendship will be improved by sharing intimate conversations is an example of
A) social competence.
B) social knowledge.
C) social reciprocity.
D) social conscience
A
Which of the following is an emotional quality that is linked to successful peer relations?
A) self efficacy
B) social knowledge
C) self concept
D) coaching
C
Coaching, or _____, involves the use of a combination of techniques, rather than a single approach, to improve adolescents’ social skills.
A) youth organizations
B) peer strategies
C) conglomerate strategies
D) norms
B
Which of these is NOT one of the six functions served by friendship?
A) Intimacy/Affection
B) Personal gain
C) Ego support
D) Stimulation
D
_____ has been the most influential theorist in the study of adolescent friendships.
A) Kenneth Dodge
B) Erik Erikson
C) Jean Piaget
D) Harry Stack Sullivan
B
The term “intimacy in friendship” is defined as
A) “friends with benefits.”
B) self disclosure.
C) best friends.
D) a romantic relationship.
C
When Karen tells her friends that their friendship is based on homophily, she is correctly stating that she and her friends
A) are lesbians.
B) do not like homosexuals.
C) have similar attitudes toward school and their educational expectations.
D) are all females.
C
Compared to adolescent groups, children’s groups
A) include a broader array of members.
B) have well-defined rules and regulations.
C) are not as formalized.
D) are composed of large cliques.
A
Small groups that range from two to about twelve individuals and average about five to six individuals are called
A) cliques.
B) power groups.
C) crowds.
D) youth organizations
A
Sarah is 16 years old and does not want to belong to any clique or crowd. She is independent and does not feel that group membership is important. Her level of self-esteem is likely
A) the same as the jocks.
B) lower than the populars.
C) lower than the normals.
D) the same as the nobodies.
C
Which of the following is NOT true regarding gender and friendships?
A) Girls friendships are deeper and more intimate.
B) Boys give more importance to having a congenial friend to share interests in hobbies and sports.
C) Girls are more cooperative in their friendships than boys.
D) Boys friendships emphasize power and excitement.
A
Candice, Juana, Milly, and Olga are close friends who spend a lot of their time together discussing problems they have with their parents, their siblings, and their boyfriends. A negative outcome of this co-rumination is that
A) they may experience increased depression and anxiety.
B) no one else will want to be around them.
C) it will begin to cause problems with their boyfriends.
D) they will be at higher risk for running away from home.
C
Which of these is NOT a main function of adolescent dating?
A) Recreation
B) Status
C) Studying
D) Socialization
C
Which statement concerning romantic relationships in sexual minority youth is consistent with the research?
A) The average age of the initial same-sex activity for females ranges from 18 to 20.
B) The average age of the initial same-sex activity for males ranges from 8 to 13.
C) The most common initial same-sex partner is a close friend.
D) Most of the sexual minority youth who have same-sex experiences are in long-term relationships with their sex partner.
C
Francine loves Pat and desires to have them near. There is also a deep caring for this companion. This is often called
A) romantic love.
B) agape love.
C) affectionate love.
D) empty love.
D
Which of the following is characteristic of affectionate love?
A) It predominates in the early part of a love relationship.
B) It characterizes most adolescent love relationships.
C) It has strong sexual and infatuation components.
D) It occurs when individuals have deep, caring feelings for another person
B
In general, marriage rates in the U.S. are
A) increasing.
B) decreasing.
C) staying the same.
D) have not changed since 1980
C
Which of these factors is NOT associated with increased risk of divorce?
A) having a baby before marriage
B) low educational level
C) marrying late
D) having parents who are divorced
D
Which of the following is an accurate statement about most gay male and lesbian couples?
A) One partner is masculine and the other is feminine.
B) At least half of gay male and lesbian relationships are open and allow the possibility of sex outside the relationship.
C) Gay males prefer short-term relationships.
D) Gay males and lesbians both prefer long-term, committed relationships.