Project Scope and Time Management

Project Scope Management Definition
the process required to ensure the project includes all the work and only the work required to complete is successful.
Involves working with stakeholders to define, gain written agreement on and managing all work required for project success.
Project Time Management
includes all processes that are geared towards the timely completion of a project.
Scope Management Tools and techniques
Scope statement, WBS, mind maps, statement of work, requirements analysis, scope management
Time management Tools and techniques
Gantt charts, project network diagram, critical-path analysis, crashing, fast tracking, schedule performance measurements
Benefits of project management approch
Single point of responsibility, Estimating, a critical path method, fast tracking, gantt charts, WBS
Scope Statement definition
is the documentation of the output of the scope definition process which is meant to develop a detailed description of the project and the anticipated product.
Scope Definition
Identifies all the work required to complete the project and subdivides the major deliverables into smaller components
Scope Planning
Involves writing a scope statement
Techniques to create a good scope definition
Analysing products, Identifying alternative approaches, analysing stakeholder needs and using expert judgement
Contents of a scope statement
Objectives, Deliverables, Milestones, Technical requirements, Limits and Exclusions
Benefits of Scope Statement
Helps improve the accuracy of time, cost and resources, Defines a baseline, Aids in communication, ensures common understanding, Ensures customer satisfaction, prevents delays or scope creep
Approaches to WBS
GUIDELINES if company has guidelines must follow them, ANALOGY APPROACH use similar projects as a starting point, TOP DOWN start with largest items and break them down, BOTTOM UP identify as many specific tasks related to the project, MIND MAPPING
Scope Baseline
Approved project scope statement, associated WBS and dictionary
WBS dictionary
is a document that describes the actual tasks in detail.
Statement of Work
is a narrative description of products and services to be supplied under contract or done internally. provides clear direction to project.
SOW contains
goals, constraints, success criteria and management guidelines.
Requirements Analysis
process of understanding the customer needs and expectations from the project.
Goals should be SMART
Specific, Measurable, Assignable, realistic and time bound
Main planning tasks
Scope planning, Scope definition and WBS
Scope Management plan headings
Project Name, Introduction, Preparing the scope statement, Creating the WBS, Verifying completion of the project, Managing request for change.
Scope Verification
is the formal acceptance of the completed project scope by customer or stakeholder through customer inspection and sign off of key deliverables
Scope changes must be identified, evaluated and managed to ensure
they are beneficial, improve quality, reduce costs, save time or improve relationships.
Configuration management system allows for
document a procedure to make changes, lists those who have authority to make changes, current description of products, traceable history of changes, a monitoring and evaluation framework, automatic approval for emergency changes.
is a summary activity to gather together a number of sub activities into one master activity
Revised Gantt chart
Actual progress can be marked on the original plan
Rolling horizon Gantt chart
Simplified chart focusing on a short period ahead
Trend Gantt chart
a progress trend chart to show a summary of the direction and trend of a project
Logic Gantt chart
shows the activities logical relationships explicitly in Gantt chart format
Benefits of Gantt chart
Easy to assimilate, displays progress easily and clearly, activity float easier to comprehend, prerequisite for forecasting the procurement schedule, excellent management tool , used to communicate and disseminate schedule information, key document for management decisions.
Shortcomings of Gantt charts
Does not show interrelationships , not good for multiple decision making.
Types of dependencies
Mandatory, Discretionary, external
Activity on Arrow network diagram where activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes.
Finish to start (FS)
Task B cannot start until Task A finishes
Start to Start (SS)
Task B cannot start until Task A starts
Finish to Finish (FF)
Task B cannot finish until Task A finishes
Start to Finish (SF)
Task B cannot finish until task A starts.
PERT estimate
a network analysis to estimate project duration
Network diagram Legend includes
Eaerly start, Early Finish, Late Start, Late Finish, Activity name, Activity duration
Network diagram must include
Legend, Arrow, duration
Critical Path Method
uses network diagramming to predict the total project duration preventing schedule overruns.
Benefits of CPM
When will the project be completed, What are the critical activities, which are non critical activities, What is the probability that the project will finish by a specific date, At a point in time is the project on schedule, Are there enough resources to complete the project on time, What is the best way to reduce the duration of the project
a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least cost.
Crash Cost
When task is crashed the cost will be higher
Crashing is also called acceleration
The duration of an activity is reduced to meet project schedule requirements.
Methods to perform Crashing
transfer resources to activities on the critical path, Change activities on the critical path from to start at the same time, recalculate the estimate for activity duration, Increase working hours by implementing overtime, hire subcontractors, make technical changes, Improve education and training, reduce scope, Implement automation
Fast tracking
Doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence.
Schedule compression problems
causing cost, humane resource, quality
Ways to measure schedule performance
Indicators, high level colours green, red and yellow. Milestone completion, Workers morale and discipline and performance review meetings and tracking Gantt charts