Project Management – Kerzner – Chapter 5 – Management Functions

determining through formal and informal reports the degree to which progress toward objectives is being made.
determining cause of and possible ways to act on significant deviations from planned performance.
taking control action to correct an unfavorable trend or to take advantage of an unusually favorable trend.
seeing that a qualified person is selected for each position.
teaching individuals and groups how to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
giving others day-to-day instruction, guidance, and discipline as required so that they can fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
assigning work, responsibility, and authority so others can make maximum utilization of their abilities.
encouraging others to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
holding private discussion with another about how he might do better work, solve a personal problem, or realize his ambitions.
seeing that activities are carried out in relation to their importance and with a minimum of conflict.
Professional Needs
Interesting and challenging work
Professionally stimulating work environment
Professional growth
Overall leadership (ability to lead)
Tangible rewards
Technical expertise (within the team)
Management assistance in problem-solving
Clearly defined objectives
Proper management control
Job security
Senior management support
Good interpersonal relations
Proper planning
Clear role definition
Open communications
A minimum of changes
Providing Security
Letting people know why they are where they are
Making individuals feel that they belong where they are
Placing individuals in positions for which they are properly trained
Letting employees know how their efforts fit into the big picture
Power/Authority Problems
Poorly documented or no formal authority
Power and authority perceived incorrectly
Dual accountability of personnel
Two bosses (who often disagree)
The project organization encouraging individualism
Subordinate relationships stronger than peer or superior relationships
Shifting of personnel loyalties from vertical to horizontal lines
Group decision making based the strongest group
Ability to influence or administer rewards and punishment
Sharing resources among several projects
the ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders.
Legal authority:
the ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards (i.e., salary, promotion, bonus, future work assignments).
Reward power:
the ability to gain support because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other.
Penalty power:
the ability to gain support because personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise (that functional personnel consider as important).
Expert power:
the ability to gain support because project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or his project.
Referent power:
Negotiations should take place at the________ level of interaction.
Definition of the problem must be the first priority:
The issue
The impact
The alternative
The recommendations
_____ is the right of an individual to make the necessary decisions required to achieve his objectives or responsibilities.
______ is the assignment for completion of a specific event or activity.
________ is the acceptance of success or failure.
Barriers to Project Team Development (1/2)
Differing outlooks, priorities, and interests
Role conflicts
Project objectives/outcomes not clear
Dynamic project environment
Competition over team leadership
Lack of team definition and structure
Team personnel selection
Credibility of project leader
Lack of team member commitment
Communication problems
Lack of senior management support
Ways to Minimize Barriers to Project Team Development
Suggested handling approaches See page 244, Table 5-2
Steps to take early in the life of a team see page 245
Project leaders hold regular meetings to evaluate overall team performance and deal with team functioning problems “what are we doing well and what areas need our attention”
Dysfunctions of a Team
Absence of trust
Fear of conflict
Lack of commitment
Avoidance of accountability
Inattention to results
Comparison of teams that have dysfunctions to those that do not (pages 248-249)
Leadership Factors
The person leading
The people being led
The situation (i.e., the project environment or problem.)
Management Pitfalls
Lack of self-control (knowing oneself)
Activity traps
Managing versus doing
People versus task skills
Ineffective communications
Time management
Management bottlenecks
Communications Defined
Effective project communication is needed to ensure that we get the right information to the right person at the right time using the right media and the right format and in a cost-effective manner.
The project manager must know:
What kind of message to send
To whom to send the message
How to translate the message into a language that all can understand
An exchange of information
An act or instance of transmitting information
A verbal or written message
A technique for expressing ideas effectively
A process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols
Types of Communication
Written formal
Written informal
Oral formal
Oral informal (preferred by project managers)
Perhaps as much as _____ percent or more of the time the project manager spends in providing project direction involves some form of communications.
Written Media
Individually oriented media: These include letters, memos, and reports.
Legally oriented media: These include contracts, agreements, proposals, policies, directives, guidelines, and procedures.
Organizationally oriented media: These include manuals, forms, and brochures.
How to Communicate (Six Steps)
Think through what you wish to accomplish.
Determine the way you will communicate.
Appeal to the interest of those affected.
Give playback on ways others communicate to you.
Get playback on what you communicate.
Test effectiveness through reliance on others to carry out your interactions.
Communication Styles
Authoritarian: Gives expectations and specific guidance
Promotional: Cultivates team spirit
Facilitating: Gives guidance as required, but not interfering
Conciliatory: Friendly and agreeable while building a compatible team
Judicial: Uses sound judgment
Ethical: Honest, fair and by the book
Secretive: Not open or outgoing
Disruptive: Breaks apart unity of group
Intimidating: “Tough guy,” and can lower morale
Combative: Eager to fight or be disagreeable
Techniques to Improve Communication
Obtain feedback
Establish multiple communications channels
Use face-to-face communications
Determine how sensitive the receiver is
Be aware of symbolic meaning (facial expressions)
Communicate at the proper time
Reinforce words with actions
Use a simple language
Use redundancy (i.e., saying it two different ways)
Receiver hearing what he wants to hear. This results from people doing the same job so long that they no longer listen.

Sender and receiver having different perceptions. This is vitally important in interpreting contractual requirements, statements of work, and proposal information requests.

Receiver evaluating the source before accepting the communications.

Receiver ignoring conflicting information and doing as he pleases.

Words meaning different things to different people.

Communicators ignoring nonverbal cues.

Receiver being emotionally upset.

Types of Project review meetings
Project team review meetings
Executive management review meetings
Customer project review meetings
Skills that are needed throughout the project are referred to as “cross-cutting” skills and include:
Active listening
Brainstorming ideas
Conflict resolution
Cultural sensitivity
Data-gathering techniques
Facilitation techniques
Information management including knowledge repositories
Motivation techniques
Presentation skills
Prioritizing techniques
Problem solving
Relationship management
Stakeholder identification and impact analysis
Active Listening
is a communication techniques that requires the listener to understand, interpret, and evaluate what (s)he hears.
___________ is due to distractions, thinking about other things or thinking about what you are going to say next.
Inactive listening
Techniques for Active Listening
Always face the speaker
Maintain eye contact
Look at the speaker’s body language
Minimize distractions, whether internal or external
Focus on what the speaker is saying without evaluating the message or defending your position
Keep an open mind on what is being discussed and try to empathize with the speaker even if you disagree
Do not interrupt the speaker even if you have a different position
_________ is a deviation between an actual and desired situation
A problem
______ and _______ go hand in had
Problem-solving and decision-making
_________ involves selecting an appropriate alternative
Core Variables for Evaluating Alternatives
________-any alternative that does not have this feature would be eliminated from consideration
Must have:
_________ any alternative that does not have these could result in degradation of performance, unfavorable consequences
Should have:
_______ are usually features that are add-ons to enhance performance, but not a necessity
Might have:
Critical Brainstorming steps:
Set the problem
Create a background memo
Select participants
Session conduct
Methods for Brainstorming
Nominal group technique
Group passing technique
Team idea mapping method
Electronic brainstorming
Directed brainstorming
Individual brainstorming
Question brainstorming
Decision-making involves:
Establish objectives
Classify and prioritize objectives
Develop alternatives
Evaluate alternatives against the objectives
Determine which alternative can best achieve the objectives (the tentative decision)
Evaluate the tentative decision for possible consequences
Take decisive actions and any additional actions to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming problems and start both problem analysis and decision-making all over again
Decision-Making Tools
SWOT analysis
Pareto analysis
Multiple criteria decision analysis
Paired comparison analysis
Decision trees
Influence diagrams
Affinity diagrams
Game theory
Cost-benefit analysis
Nominal groups
Delphi technique
Linear programming applications
Trial-and-error solutions
Heuristic solutions
Scientific methods