Project Management Exam 2

All the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them
Product produced as a part of a project, such as hardware or software, planning documents, or meeting minutes
Project Scope Management Processes (6)
1. Planning scope
2. Collecting requirements
3. Defining scope
4. Creating the WBS
5. Validating scope
6. Controlling scope
Planning Scope
Determining how the project’s scope and requirements will be managed
Outputs: Scope management plan, requirements management plan
Collecting Requirements
Defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them
Outputs: Requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix
Defining Scope
Reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement
Outputs: Project scope statement, project documents updates
Creating the WBS
Subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components
Outputs: Scope baseline, project documents updates
Validating Scope
Formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables
Outputs: Accepted deliverables, change results, work performance information, project documents updates
Controlling Scope
Controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project
Outputs: Work performance information, change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, organizational process assets updates
Project Scope Management Summary
Planning: Planning Scope, Collect Requirements, Define Scope, Create WBS
Monitoring and Controlling: Validate Scope, Control Scope
Conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification
Requirements Management Plan
Documents how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed
Methods for Collecting Requirements (7)
1. Interviewing
2. Focus Groups
3. Using group creativity and decision-making techniques
4. Questionnaires and surveys
5. Observation
6. Prototyping (Big in IT)
7. Benchmarking
Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization
Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)
Table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed
Project Scope Statements
Should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria, and detailed information on all project deliverables. Also helpful to document other scope related info such as project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions. Should also reference product specifications
Deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines that total scope of the project. It is a foundation document that provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes
Subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces
Work Package
Task at the lowest level of WBS
Scope Baseline
Includes approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary
Approaches to Developing WBSs (4)
1. Analogy Approach
2. Top-Down Approach
4. Bottom-Up Approach
5. Mind-Mapping Approach
Mind Mapping
Technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas
WBS Dictionary
Document that describes detailed information about each WBS item
Difference between planned and actual performance
Project Time Management Processes (7)
1. Planning Schedule Management
2. Defining Activities
3. Sequencing Activities
4. Estimating Activity Resources
5. Estimating Activity Durations
6. Developing the Schedule
7. Controlling the Schedule
Planning Schedule Management
Determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project schedule
Outputs: Schedule management plan
Defining Activites
Identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to product the project deliverables
Outputs: Activity list, activity attributes, milestone list, project management plan updates
Sequencing Activites
Identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities
Outputs: Project schedule network diagrams, project documents updates
Estimating Activity Resources
Estimating how many resources a project team should use to perform project activities
Outputs: Activity resource requirements, resource breakdown structure, project documents updates
Estimating Activity Durations
Estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities
Outputs: Activity duration estimates, project documents updates
Developing the Schedule
Analyze activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create project schedule
Outputs: Schedule baseline, project schedule, schedule data, project calendars, project management plan updates, project documents updates
Controlling the Schedule
Controlling and managing changes to the project schedule
Outputs: Work performance information, schedule forecasts, change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, organizational assets updates
Project Time Management Summary
Planning: Plan schedule management, define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity resources, estimate activity durations, develop schedule
Monitoring and Controlling: Control schedule
Element of work normally found on the WBS that has an expected duration, cost, and resource requirements
Activity List
Tabulation of activities to be included on a project schedule that includes the activity name, identifier/number, brief description
Activity Attributes
Provide more info such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity
Significant event that normally has no duration
Sequencing of project activities or tasks
Types of Dependencies (3)
1. Mandatory
2. Discretionary
3. External
Mandatory Dependencies
Inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project, sometimes referred to as hard logic
Discretionary Dependencies
Defined by the project team. Sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options
External Dependencies
Involve relationships between project and non-project activities
Network Diagram
Schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities. It is the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing
—–>arrow and precedence methods
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) network diagrams. Activities are represented by arrows. Nodes or circles are the starting and ending points of activities. Can only show finish to start dependencies
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Activities represented by boxes. Arrows show relationships between activities. More popular than ADM and used by PM software. Better at showing different types of dependencies
Task Dependency Types (4)
1. Finish to start
2. Start to start
3. Finish to finish
4. Start to finish
Finish-to-start (FS)
Task B cannot start until task A finished
Start-to-start (SS)
Task B cannot start until task A starts
Finish-to-finish (FF)
Task B cannot finish until task A finishes
Start-to-finish (SF)
Task B cannot finish until task A starts
People, equipment, and materials
Resource breakdown structure
Hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type
Actual amount of time worked on an activity plus elapsed time
Number of workdays or work hours required to complete a task. Does not normally equal duration
Three-point Estimate
Estimate that includes an optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimate, such as three weeks of optimistic, four weeks for most likely, and five weeks for pessimistic
Gantt Charts
Provide a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format
SMART Criteria
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration
Critical path
Series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed. Is the longest path and has the least amount of slack or float
Amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date
Free Slack/Free Float
Amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities
Total Slack/Total Float
Amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date
Forward Pass
Determine early start and finish dates
Backward Pass
Determines late start and finish dates
Techniques for Shortening Schedules
1. Shorten durations of critical activities/tasks by adding more resources or changing their scope
2. Crashing activities by obtaining the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost
3. Fast tracking activities by doing them in parallel or overlapping them
Critical Chain Scheduling
Method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date
Theory of Constraints (TOC)
Management philosophy by Eliyahu M. Goldratt and introduced in his book The Goal
Resource works on more than one task at a time
Additional time to complete a task
Murphy’s Law
If something can go wrong, it will
Parkinson’s Law
Work expands to fill the time allowed
Project Buffer
Additional time added before the project’s due date
Feeding Buffers
Additional time added before tasks on the critical path
Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
Network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree on uncertainty about the individual activity duration estimates
Probabilistic Time Estimates
Duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations, or a three-point estimate
The additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual costs exceed estimates
resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective or something given up in exchange
Project Cost Management
Processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget
Project Cost Management Processes (4)
1. Planning cost management
2. Estimating costs
3. Determining the budget
4. Controlling costs
Project Cost Management Summary
Planning: Plan cost management, estimate costs, determine budget
Monitoring and Controlling: Control costs
Planning Cost Management
Determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling the project
Outputs: Cost management plan
Estimating Costs
Developing an approximation or estimate of the costs of the resources needed to complete a project
Outputs: Activity cost estimates, basis of estimates, project documents updates
Determining the Budget
Allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance
Outputs: Cost baseline, project funding requirements, project documents updates
Controlling Costs
Controlling changes to the budget
Outputs: Work performance information, cost forecasts, change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, organizational process assets updates
Revenues minus expenditures
Profit Margin
Ratio of revenues to profits
Life Cycle Costing
Considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a project
Cash Flow Analysis
Determines the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cost flow
Tangible Costs or Benefits
Costs/benefitss that an organization can easily measure
Intangible Costs or Benefits
Costs/benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms
Direct Costs
Costs that can be directly related to producing the products and services of the project
Indirect Costs
Costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project
Sunk Costs
Money that has been spent in the past; when deciding what projects to invest in or continue; you should not include sunk costs
Learning Curve Theory
When many items are produced repetitively, the unit cost of those items decrease in a regular pattern as more units are produced
Dollars are included in a cost estimate to mitigate cost risk by allowing for future situations that are difficult to predict
Contingency Reserves
Allow for future situations that may be partially planned for (known/unknowns) and are included in the project cost estimate
Management Reserves
Allow for future situations that are unpredictable (unknown/unknown)
Cost Estimates for Construction Projects (5)
1. Order of magnitude
2. Conceptual
3. Preliminary
4. Definitive
5. Control
Analogous/Top-down Estimates
Use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current project
Bottom-up Estimate
Involve estimating individual work items or activities and summing them to get a project total
Parametric Modeling
Use project characteristics (parameters) in a mathematical model to estimate project costs
Cost Baseline
A time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance
Earned Value Management (EVM)
Project performance measurement technique that integrates scope, time, and cost data
The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements
Conformance to Requirements
The project’s processes and products meet written specifications
Fitness for Use
A product can be used as it was intended
Project Quality Management
Ensures that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
Project Quality Management Processes (3)
1. Planning quality management
2. Performing quality assurance
3. Performing quality control
Project Quality Management Summary
Planning: Plan quality management
Executing: Perform quality assurance
Monitoring and Controlling: Perform quality control
Planning Quality Management
Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them
Outputs:Quality management plan, process improvements plan, quality metrics, quality checklists, project documents updates
Standard of measurement
Performing Quality Assurance
Periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards
Outputs: Change requests, project management plan updates, project documentation updates, organizational process asset updates
Performing Quality Control
Monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards
Outputs: Quality control measurements, validated changes, validated deliverables, etc….
Degree to which a system performs its intended function
System’s special characteristics that appeal to users
System Outputs
The screens and reports the system generates
How well a product or service performs as expected under normal conditions
Ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions
The ease of performing maintenance on a product
Quality Assurance
All activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project
Generates ideas for the quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization
Quality Audit
Structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects
Seven Basic Tools of Quality
1. Check sheet
2. Scatter Diagram
3. Cause-and-Effect Diagram
4. Pareto Chart
5. Flowchart (Process Diagram)
6. Histogram
7. Statistical Process Control Chart
Check Sheet
Used to collect and analyze data
Scatter Diagram
Helps to show if there is a relationship between two variables
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
Trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations. Helps you find the root cause of a problem. Also known as fishbone or Ishikawa diagram
Pareto Chart
Histogram that can help you identify and prioritize problem areas
Pareto Analysis
80/20 Rule; 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes
Graphic displays of the logic and flow of processes that help you analyze how problems occur and how processes can be improved
Bar graph of distribution variables. Each bar represents an attribute or characteristic of a problem or situation, and the height of the bar represents its frequency
Control Chart
Graphic display of data that illustrates the result of a process overtime
Seven Run Rule
If 7 data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems
Run chart
Displays the history and pattern of variation of a process over time
Six Sigma
A comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success. Six Sigma is a uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes
Define, measure, analyze, improve, control. An improvement system for EXISTING processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement
Define, measure, analyze, design, verify. An improvement system used to develop NEW processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels
Standard deviation
Standard Deviation
How much variation exists in a distribution of data
Six 9’s of Quality
Measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunites
Types of Tests (4)
1. Unit testing
2. Integration testing
3. System testing
4. User acceptance testing
Unit Testing
Tests each individual component (often a program) to ensure it is as defect-free as possible
Integration Testing
Occurs between unit and system testing to test functionality grouped components
System Testing
Tests the entire system as one entity
User Acceptance Testing
Independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system