Project Management Chapter 8 -11, 14

Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand on resources is known as

A) Shifting
B) Effectiveness
C) Manipulating
D) Smoothing
E) Allocation

D
If resources are not adequate to meet peak demands, the resulting reschedule is termed

A) Resource-constrained scheduling
B) Time-constrained scheduling
C) Mandatory leveling
D) Project resource adjustment
E) Allocation

A
When developing a new software package, the software must be designed, the code must be written, and the code must be tested. This is an example of a ______ constraint.

A) Physical
B) Technical
C) Resource
D) Schedule
E) Time

B
Sam the project engineer has been scheduled to run the product system test at the same time he is to build a marketing prototype. This is an example of a ______ constraint.

A) Physical
B) Technical
C) Resource
D) Scheduling
E) Time

C
Susan is to conduct environmental testing but the chamber cannot hold all the equipment that she wants to test. This is an example of a _________ constraint.

A) Physical
B) Technical
C) Resource
D) Scheduling
E) Time

A
All of the following are kinds of resource constraints except

A) Materials
B) People
C) Equipment
D) Information
E) All of the above are resource constraints

D
A special truck that George needs on his project has been scheduled on another project. This is a ______ constraint.

A) Working capital
B) People
C) Equipment
D) Information
E) Materials

C
Regina’s boss has told her that her project is very important. If the critical path is delayed, she will be given whatever she needs to get it back on schedule. Her project is ________ constrained.

A) Time
B) Quality
C) Cost
D) Performance
E) Resource

A
Scheduling time-constrained projects focuses on resource

A) Demands
B) Increases
C) Assumptions
D) Utilization
E) All are correct

D
Resource leveling can provide:

A) Lower peak demand
B) Reduced resource need over the life of the project
C) Reduced fluctuations in resource demand
D) Both A and B are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

E
In a resource-constrained project, which of the following is most likely to be changed?

A) The completion date
B) The budget
C) Project quality
D) Both A and B are equally likely
E) A, B, and C are all equally likely

A
In a resource-constrained project the second priority in assigning resources is usually given to activities with the

A) Smallest duration
B) Least slack
C) Most slack
D) Lowest identification number
E) Highest cost

A
Splitting an activity creates the following situation:

A) More people working on the same activity
B) There are possible startup and shutdown costs
C) A resource may be moved from one activity to another and then back
D) Both B and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

D
Which of the following is not one of the more common problems associated with scheduling multiproject resources?

A) Overall schedule slippage
B) Inefficient resource utilization
C) Resource bottlenecks
D) Both A and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

E
A project budget report is showing our project as spending $35,000 against a budgeted amount of $40,000. Which of the following is true?

A) We are spending less than we should for the project
B) We are doing a good job managing the project
C) We should check to see if all the bills have been paid
D) Both A and B are correct
E) We can’t be sure how the project is going

E
The president of a software company remarks in a speech that new technologically advanced software will be available in one year. This is an example of reducing project duration caused by:

A) Imposed project deadlines
B) Time to market
C) Unforeseen project delays
D) High overhead
E) Incentive contracts

A
Adverse weather, design flaws, and equipment breakdown can create negative slack. This is an example of reducing project duration caused by:

A) Imposed project deadlines
B) Time to market
C) Unforeseen project delays
D) High overhead
E) Incentive contracts

C
Which of the following is not considered a project indirect cost?

A) Supervision
B) Consultants
C) Equipment
D) Interest
E) All of these are considered project indirect costs

C
Low-cost, realistic, efficient methods for completing an activity under normal conditions are supported by ____ time

A) Normal
B) Budget
C) Optimized
D) Expected
E) Target

A
The shortest possible time an activity can be completed realistically is called ___ time.

A) Expedited
B) Accelerated
C) Crash
D) Optimistic
E) Optimal

C
____ costs are incurred when completing an activity in its realistically shortest time.

A) Normal
B) Reserve
C) Crash
D) Accelerated
E) Expedited

C
Cost slope can be determined by dividing the

A) Run by the rise
B) Rise by the run
C) Crash cost by the normal cost
D) Normal cost by the crash cost
E) Both B and C are correct

B
Which of the following correctly calculates an activity’s cost slope?

A) (normal cost-crash cost)/(normal time-crash time)
B) (crash cost-normal cost)/(normal time-crash time)
C) (normal time-crash time)/(crash cost-normal cost)
D) (normal time-crash time)/(normal cost-crash cost)
E) (crash cost-normal cost)/(crash time-normal time)

B
The optimum duration for a project is at the point where:

A) Direct costs are the lowest
B) Indirect costs are the lowest
C) Direct costs equal indirect costs
D) Total project costs are the lowest
E) The project changes from time-constrained to resource-constrained

D
Creating a Project Cost-Duration graph is useful:

A) During the pre-project planning phase
B) After the project has begun
C) After the completion of the project
D) Both A and B are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

D
If a network has several critical or near-critical paths it is deemed to be:

A) Well planned
B) The lowest cost alternative
C) Resource-constrained
D) Sensitive
E) Insensitive

D
A positive situation where moving toward the optimum time can result in very real, large savings—this occurs when the network is:

A) Insensitive
B) Sensitive
C) Ahead of schedule
D) Shifting to the critical chain
E) Implementing a fast-tracking system

A
Which of the following is the most common method for shortening project time?

A) Assigning additional staff and equipment
B) Subcontract work
C) Schedule overtime
D) Reduce project scope
E) Reduce the quality

A
Which of the following is the easiest method for shortening project time?

A) Assigning additional staff and equipment
B) Subcontract work
C) Schedule overtime
D) Reduce project scope
E) Reduce the quality

C
The Snapshot from Practice “Cell-Phone Wars” is an excellent example of reducing project duration due to

A) Imposed project deadlines
B) Time to market
C) Unforeseen project delays
D) High overhead
E) Incentive contracts

B
Well-defined projects that encounter no significant surprises require little:

A) Management
B) Leadership
C) Monitoring
D) Corrective action
E) All of these are only required to a minor extent

B
Groups such as human resources, information systems, purchasing agents, and maintenance are typically classified as:

A) Project managers
B) Administrative support
C) Functional managers
D) Project sponsors
E) Customers

B
The second ring in the network of relationships for project managers includes all of the following except:

A) Other project managers
B) Customers
C) Functional managers
D) Top management
E) Project sponsors

B
The outer ring in the network of relationships for project managers includes all of the following except:

A) Other organizations
B) Customers
C) Contractors
D) Government agencies
E) Administrative support

E
The new perspective of project management emphasizes which of the following?

A) Financial control
B) Managing project stakeholders
C) Schedule/cost tradeoffs
D) Both A and B are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

B
In terms of commonly traded organizational currencies, vision, excellence, and ethical correctness are part of ______ related currencies.

A) Task
B) Position
C) Inspiration
D) Relationship
E) Personal

C
In terms of commonly traded organizational currencies, acceptance, personal support, and understanding are part of _______ related currencies.

A) Task
B) Position
C) Inspiration
D) Relationship
E) Personal

D
In terms of commonly traded organizational currencies, learning, ownership, and gratitude are part of ______ related currencies.

A) Task
B) Position
C) Inspiration
D) Relationship
E) Personal

E
In mapping dependencies for a project, the project manager should:

A) Overestimate
B) Underestimate
C) Precisely estimate
D) Either B or C are correct
E) None of these are correct

A
In the Snapshot from Practice “Managing Expectations”, one of the key aspects to project success was stated to be the managing of stakeholder:

A) Relations
B) Expectations
C) Involvement
D) Influence
E) Input

B
In the Research Highlight, Ancona and Caldwell identified key patterns of activity which contribute to creating a high performance team. Which of the following is not one of those?

A) Negotiator
B) Ambassador
C) Task coordinator
D) Scouts
E) Guard

A
Unlike project leadership, project management is about coping with

A) Change
B) Aligning people to any new directions
C) Monitoring results against plans
D) Recognizing the need to alter plans
E) All of these are part of project management

C
In a survey of project managers, approximately what percentage reported that they encountered ethical issues in their work?

A) 22 percent
B) 40 percent
C) 65 percent
D) 81 percent
E) 100 percent

D
Which of the following is not one of the distinguishing traits of character?

A) Openness
B) Consistency
C) Empathetic
D) Sense of purpose
E) Hard work

E
Which of the following would be defined as the ability or skill to perceive, assess and manage the emotions of one’s self and others?

A) Emotional stability
B) Coolness under pressure
C) Emotional intelligence
D) Empathy
E) Management sensitivity

C
During which stage of team development is high performance not a top priority and team member emotions run from upbeat to depressed?

A) Norming
B) Storming
C) Performing
D) Adjourning
E) Forming

D
Roger is new-product project manager for a retail company. Recently the team has exhibited a high degree of conflict over who will control the group and how decisions will be made. Which stage of development is the team in?

A) Norming
B) Storming
C) Performing
D) Adjourning
E) Forming

B
Experience and research indicate that high-performance project teams are much more likely to develop under all the following conditions except:

A) Members are assigned to the project full time
B) Members report solely to the project manager
C) There are 10 or fewer members per team
D) Team members are selected by their managers
E) The project involves a compelling objective

D
Which of the following are considered very important in the recruiting of project members?

A) The budget available
B) The importance of the project
C) The management structure for the project team
D) Both B and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

D
Which of the following is an objective of the first project team meeting?

A) Overview the project’s scope and objectives
B) Address interpersonal interaction concerns
C) Model how the team will work together
D) Both A and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

E
Researchers have found that high performance teams will have which of the following norms?

A) Hard work does not get in the way of having fun
B) No information is shared outside the team unless all agree to it
C) It is acceptable to be in trouble, but not to surprise others
D) Both B and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

E
Establishing a team identity is facilitated by:

A) Team members working in a common space
B) Creation of a project team name
C) Effective use of meetings
D) Both A and B are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

E
Which of the following would be considered the most effective project reward?

A) Individual member rewards
B) Lump-sum cash award
C) All-expenses-paid trip for team members and their families
D) Using negative reinforcement to motivate adequate performance
E) All of these are equally effective

C
The first step in facilitating group decision making is to:

A) Call a meeting to discuss the problem
B) Identify the problem
C) Agree that there is a problem
D) Quantify the problem
E) Generate alternatives

B
The biggest challenge to managing a virtual project team is:

A) Getting reports and technical information communicated
B) Developing trust
C) Establishing effective patterns of communication
D) Both B and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

D
Which of the following is not one of the steps in facilitating group decision making?

A) Identifying the problem
B) Analyzing the situation
C) Generating alternatives
D) Reaching a decision
E) Follow-up

B
Two of the biggest challenges involved in managing a virtual project team are:

A) The language barriers and time management
B) Time management and developing trust
C) The language barriers and developing effective patterns of communication
D) Developing trust and effective patterns of communication
E) Time management and developing effective patterns of communication

D
Which of the following is not one of the most significant sources of conflict during the project definition phase?

A) Priorities
B) Administrative procedures
C) Schedule
D) Workforce
E) Costs

E
Which of the following is not one of the most significant sources of conflict during the project planning phase?

A) Priorities
B) Procedures
C) Schedule
D) Technical requirements
E) Costs

E
Which of the following is not one of the tips for alleviating communication problems of virtual teams?

A) Include face-to-face time if at all possible
B) Keep team members informed on how well the overall project is going
C) Share the pain
D) Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
E) Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays

A
The content of the final report typically includes the following topics:

A) Lessons learned
B) Review and analysis
C) Recommendations
D) Executive summary
E) All the above are correct

E
Many projects will fail because of circumstances beyond the control of the project team is called:

A) Normal
B) Premature
C) Perpetual
D) Failed Project
E) Changed Priority

D
Implementing closedown includes the following major activities except:

A) Getting delivery acceptance from the customer.
B) Shutting down resources and releasing to new uses.
C) Closing accounts and seeing all bills are paid.
D) E-mail the project team that the project is complete
E) Creating a final report

D
Under which heading of the Wrap-up closure checklist should the question “Have project accounts been finalized and all billing closed?” be answered.

A) Team
B) Vendors/contractors
C) Customer/Users
D) Equipment and facilities
E) Profit and loss statement

B
In the Snapshot from Practice, New Balls Goes Flat in NBA, is an example of a project gone wrong when the _______ is/are not consulted.

A) Manufacturer
B) Equipment and facilities managers
C) End-users
D) Project manager
E) The Fans

C
Information on the project type, size, number of staff, and technology level would be included in which section of the audit report?

A) Analysis
B) Recommendations
C) Classification of project
D) Lessons learned
E) Strategic objectives

C
Project mission and objectives, procedures and systems used, and organization resources used typically appear in the _____ section of the final project report.

A) Analysis
B) Recommendations
C) Classification of project
D) Lessons learned
E) Strategic objectives

A
The section of the final project report that new project teams are likely to find most useful is the:

A) Analysis
B) Recommendations
C) Classification of project
D) Lessons learned
E) Strategic objectives

D
Corrective actions that should take place (such as shifting to more resilient building material) would typically appear in the _____ section of the final project report.

A) Analysis
B) Recommendations
C) Classification of project
D) Lessons learned
E) Strategic objectives

B
The most common circumstance for project closure is:

A) Premature completion with some features eliminated
B) Project completion meeting costs, schedule, and quality
C) Project completion after modification of costs, schedule, or quality
D) Project termination due to technical difficulties
E) Perpetual projects that seem to go on and on before completion

C
Project closures can fall into all of the following categories except:

A) Premature
B) Perpetual
C) Failed
D) Changed priority
E) All of these are categories for project closure

E
In the Research Highlight, Chaos: Software Projects, the criterion which was deemed the most important for project success was

A) Realistic expectations
B) Hard-working, focused staff
C) User involvement
D) Proper planning
E) Clear vision and objectives

D
____________ begins with a review of the strategic intent of the project, selection criteria, project charter, project objectives, project scope, and acceptance criteria.

A) Process Review
B) Project Overview
C) Analysis
D) Recommendations
E) Directing

A
More and more companies are discarding the traditional superior-subordinate performance feedback process and replacing it with:

A) Critical incidences review
B) Management by objectives
C) The 360-degree feedback
D) Both B and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

C
In organizations where projects are managed within a ____________, the team member’s area manager, not the project manager, is responsible for assessing performance.

A) Functional organization
B) Matrix organization
C) Flat organization
D) Both A and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

A
Performance evaluations of project teams should:

A) Provide the basis for individual development
B) Provide the basis for participation on future projects
C) Provide the basis for salary increases
D) Both A and C are correct
E) A, B, and C are all correct

D
The most common circumstance for project closure is simply a ________ project.
A. Completed
B. Overdue
C. Overbudget
D. Under achieving
E. All the above are correct
A
What is not a wrap-up closure activity?
A. Facilities
B. Vendors
C. Customer
D. Profit report
E. Report
D
__________ of lessons learned are designed to improve performance on current and future projects.
A. Retrospectives
B. Corrective action plans
C. Introspective
D. Culmination
E. Evolution
A
When the project may be completed early with some parts of the project eliminated this is considered to be ___________ closure.
A. Normal
B. Premature
C. Perpetual
D. Changed Priority
E. Failed Project
B
This type of closure occurs when the project may never seem to end. This is considered to be ___________ closure.
A. Normal
B. Premature
C. Perpetual
D. Changed Priority
E. Failed Project
C
When a project may start with a high priority but see its rank erode or crash during its project life cycle as conditions change this is an example of:
A. Normal
B. Premature
C. Perpetual
D. Failed Project
E. Changed Priority
E
Which is not part of the team portion of the Wrap-up closure checklist?
A. Has a schedule for reducing project staff been developed and accepted?
B. Has staff been offered outplacement services and career counseling activities?
C. Have performance reviews for team members been conducted?
D. Has staff been released or notified of new assignments?
E. All are included.
E
Releasing the project team typically occurs _________ during the closure phase.
A. Gradually
B. Rarely
C. Without bombast
D. Rapidly
E. All at once
A
Closing out _________ is often messy and filled with untied ends.
A. Project review meetings
B. Reports
C. Invoices
D. Teams
E. Contracts
E
The typical mechanism for evaluation of teams is normally:
A. A survey completed by the team members
B. A personal interview of each team member
C. An analysis by an outside consultant
D. A survey completed by members of top management
E. A survey completed by the internal or external customers
A
The project closure process includes all of the following except:
A. Shutting down resources and releasing to new uses
B. Reassigning project team members
C. Conduct an audit
D. Getting delivery acceptance from the customer
E. Closing accounts and seeing all bills are paid
C
________ is the most common circumstance for project closure is simply a completed project.
Normal
The project may be completed early with some parts of the project eliminated is known as _________.
premature
____________ are usually easy to identify and easy for a review group to close down
failed project
Projects in process may need to be altered or canceled. Thus, a project may start with a high priority but see its rank erode or crash during its project life cycle as conditions change. This is called __________.
changed priority
A schedule for reducing project staff been developed and accepted is a question that is asked in the completion of the ___________.
wrap up closure checklist
The summary simply highlights the key findings and facts relating to the project implementation is called the ___________.
executive summary
Some organizations have project closure checklists of over _____ wrap-up tasks
100
The ________ section of the final project report includes succinct, factual review statements of the project such as, project mission and objectives, procedures and systems used, and organizational resources used.
analysis
Perhaps _________ are the most valuable contribution of the closure process
lesson learned
The ________ section of the final project report are often technical in nature and focus on solutions to problems that surfaced.
recommendation
A completed ___________ is a good example of the need to work out the details in advance.
software program
A project closure is considered ________ if it never seems to end due to constant “add-ons” in attempt to improve the project outcome.
perpetual
The purpose of ____________ is to assess how well the project team, team members, and project manager performed.
performance evaluation
The ________ feedback approach gathers anonymous feedback solicited from others is compared with the individual’s self-evaluations, the individual may form a more realistic picture of her strengths and weaknesses.
360
In some ____________, project managers conduct the performance reviews, while area managers are responsible for pay reviews
matrix organization
Project managers should be ________ giving team members feedback throughout the project so that individual team members can have a pretty good idea how well they have performed and how the manager feels before the formal meeting.
constantly
The _________ of projects by characteristics allows prospective readers, teams, and project managers to be selective in the search and use of report content
classification
The most common reason given for not creating lessons learned is _________.
lack of time
A ________ is a methodology that analyzes a past project event to determine what worked and what didn’t, develops lessons learned, and creates an action plan that ensures lessons learned are used to improve management of future projects
retrospective
_________ are binary; either you have reached requirements completion or you have not
milestones
A __________ is a guide who leads the project team through an analysis of project activities that went well, what needs improvement, and development of a follow-up action plan with goals and accountability.
project facilitator
Delaying noncritical activities to lower peak demand and, thus, increase resource utilization is called _______ leveling.
resource
A(n) ________ constraint addresses the sequence in which project activities must occur.
technical
Having one person responsible for performing several activities, all due at the same time, is an example of a(n) ________ constraint
resource
Trying to renovate a ship compartment that is too small for more than one person is an example of a(n) ________ constraint.
physical
A shortage of programmers to write software is an example of a(n) ________ type of resource constraint.
people
The shortage of computer chips to produce a circuit board is an example of a(n) ________ type of resource constraint.
material
If three copiers are needed to produce a final report on time and only two are available, the project is facing a(n) ________ type of resource constraint
equipment
In order that the new product is on the shelf for the Christmas buying season, the development of the new product would be classified as a(n) ________ constrained project
time
list types of project constraints
technical
physical
resource
different kinds of resource constraints
people
material
equipment
Beth has two engineers assigned to her project and cannot get any more even if it means slipping the due date on her project. She is managing a(n) ________ constrained project.
resource
All leveling techniques delay noncritical activities by using ________ to reduce peak demand.
positive slack
Scheduling activities in a constrained project typically has ________ as the top heuristic rule.
minimum slack
The ________ is the most widely used approach to apply heuristic rules to scheduling activities in a constrained project
parallel method
When using the ________ scheduling technique, the work in an activity is interrupted to work on another activity and is then resumed at a later point in time
splitting
In scheduling resource-constrained projects, _________ are typically used rather than optimum mathematical solutions.
heuristics
In scheduling terms, ________ constrained means that project duration is fixed and resources are flexible
time
In scheduling terms, ________ constrained means that a specific resource is fixed and the duration of the project is flexible.
resource
Start-up and shutdown costs are major considerations when using the ________________ scheduling technique
splitting
Many companies are using ________ from contractors and consultants as a means of dealing with the peaks and valleys of resource allocation among projects
outsourcing
The ______________ is the most widely used approach to apply heuristics in resource-constrained projects.
parallel method
Without a time-phased __________ good project schedule and cost control are impossible.
budget
A project cost baseline is also called __________.
planned value