Project management chapter 2

Program
Is a group of related projects managed together to achieve a common benefit
Project
Is a temporary group of related tasks, to create a unique product
Phases
breaking a project down into sub-projects called phases with each phase producing one or more deliverable. The deliverables are reviewed at the end of each phase to determine if the project should continue. This decision point is known as a “Kill Point” or “Exit Gate” and is typically made by someone external to the project.
Process
is a package of inputs, tools and techniques, outputs (ITTOs) used to accomplish something of value for the project. There are 47 unique processes. Typically, outputs from one process are inputs to subsequent processes in the same Knowledge Area; many times it’s the next process.
Portfolio
represents all of an organizations programs and projects in alignment with its strategic goals.
Progressive elaboration
Identifying and adding new requirements about the project/product that emerge over time.
Project Management
Using skills, knowledge and resources to satisfy project requirements.
Success
Delivering the project within the boundaries of scope, schedule, cost, quality and risk.
Historical Information
Records from previous projects that can be used to

-benchmark current projects
-predict trends
-evaluate the project’s feasibility
-create metrics, validate assumptions
-help prevent repeated mistakes.

Considered one of the most important Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) because of it benefit when used on future projects.

Baseline
The original approved plan, plus any approved changes. Baselines are used to measure performance and how it changes. Once a change is approved, the revised plan becomes the new baseline. There are three baselines; scope, schedule and cost.
Lesson Learned
Identified at the end of the phase or project and focuses on the changes between the plan and results.
Regulation
An official document with guidance that must be followed; i.e., mandatory.
Standard
A document approved by a recognized body that provides recommended guidance that is not mandatory, but is helpful.
System
formal procedures and tools to manage something. A key system is the Project Management Information System (PMIS)
Project Manager
The person ultimately responsible for the outcome of the project.
-use organizations resources
-Controls the projects
-can spend the budget and make decisions

wrong for them to put a problem on someone else

Project Coordinator
This person is weaker, has less responsibility than the project manager and cannot make budget or overall project decisions.

-allowed to reassign, coordinate resources.

Project Expeditor
The weakest of the three project management roles and serves as a staff assistant with little or no authority.

-makes sure items arrive and tasks are completed on time.

Senior Manager
-prioritizes projects
-assure project manager has authority and access to resources
-issues plans and goals
-ensures that the project is going according to plan
Functional Manager
-A department manager
-usually owns the resources
-has human resource responsibilities for them.

The functional manager is most likely to be the one with whom the project manager experiences conflict.

Stakeholder
Individuals or organizations that are involved in the project

-can impact positively or negatively
-affected by the project.

Sponsor
-person paying for the project
-sometimes called the project champion.
-The sponsor and the customer may be the same person
-sponsor is typically internal to the performing organization
-customer is external.
Project Management Office (PMO)
A department that supports project managers with system of methods, tools, training.

-assigning resources, priorities, funding, etc.
-supporting role, defining standards providing best practices and auditing.

Program Manager
Responsible for managing programs made of multiple related projects.
Project Manager Skills
-experience in leading
-communicating,
-negotiating
-problem solving
– influencing.

Problem solving is favored skill and should be given careful consideration if a choice on the exam.

Project Governance
A group that looks at how the project work is being performed to ensure compliance. It may be used to define processes and rate project manager’s performance.
Project Life Cycle
Representation of

• Resource, cost, Stakeholder and Risk Influence is greatest early in the project and decreases throughout project.

Triple constraint (iron triangle)
A term that reflects the integration of scope, time and cost. Any change in one area will have some impact on one or both of the other two.
Work Authorization System (WAS)
Part of the overall Project Management Information System (PMIS)
-Makes sure that work is at the right time and order
Common ITTOs
Input, tools, technology and outputs
There are 618 ITTOs in the 47 processes. Many of them are common to multiple processes.
Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs)
Things that are external to the project and impacts or affects the project, such as:

• Organization structure
• Corporate culture
• Values and work ethic
• Laws and regulations
• Stakeholder characteristics
• Marketplace

Organization Process Assets (OPAs)
Information, tools, knowledge and documents (assets) the organization has that can help project planning.

• Templates
• Project plan examples
• Organizational policies, procedures and guidelines
• Software tools
• Databases of project information
• Estimating data
• Historical information
• Lessons learned

Project Documents
Any document the project produces or influences the project
-contracts or agreements.
Project Management Plan
A document that includes all of the Knowledge Area
-subsidiary plans (9)
-the baselines (3)
-few specific plans (4); the Configuration Management Plan, the Change Management Plan, the Requirements Management Plan, and the Process Improvement Plan.
Analytical Techniques
Techniques used to understand
-root causes
-forecast scenarios
-structured or unstructured analysis.
Expert Judgement
Used whenever the project manager or team do not have sufficient expertise.
Facilitation Techniques
Techniques designed to help groups resolve issues and reach consensus.
Project management Information System (PMIS)
An automated system to support the project manager by
-optimizing the schedule
-collecting and distributing information
– producing and tracking documents.

It also contains the Configuration Management system which manages changing configurations, physical or functional characteristics of deliverables.

Work performance Data
Shows how much work is being executed
Work performance Information
Data that has been analyzed and processed and is useful for evaluating performance.
Work performance Reports
Information put together into the format of a presentation or report.
Change Request
-corrective actions to bring future results in line with the plan
-preventive actions to avoid the occurrence of a problem

Only approved changes can modify the project management plan and baselines.

Processes
Composed of 3 elements; Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs.
Inputs
-Unique starting points for processes
-used to get things done associated with the process.
Tools and techniques
The actions that are used to transform inputs into outputs.
Outputs
-The ends of each process
-A document, product, results.

Outputs are usually inputs to other processes and generally the subsequent process.

Initiating Process Group
1. Develop Project Charter
2. Identify Stakeholders

-The project or phase is formally authorized,
-The project manager is named
-stakeholder register is produced
The business need is clearly defined by a clear direction for the scope. Information on why this project was chosen is created, as well as a list of stakeholders.

Planning process group
This is the largest of the Process Groups with 24 processes. It is in this group that all 16 subsidiary plans are created and integrated into the Project Management Plan. The order in which the planning processes are performed is primarily determined by how the outputs of those planning processes are used. However, they should all be done as early as possible. The outputs of one process are often inputs into a subsequent planning process dictating a general order in which they must take place. There will be several questions on the exam that will require knowing the sequence or order that processes occur.
executing process group
This is the Process Group where the work is actually carried out and the products, services, results (deliverables) are created. The processes produce the deliverables, as well as supporting activities like acquiring, developing and managing the project team, managing communications, conducting procurements and managing stakeholders. All activities related to the execution of Scope, Time, Cost and Risk are captured in the Integration Management Knowledge Area process, “Direct and Manage Project Work.”
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
In this Process Group, things are measured, inspected, reviewed, compared, monitored, verified and reported. Adjustments are made to correct future results. If there is a difference (variance) between the plan and the results, corrective action is taken either to change the plan and/or the way that it is being executed. It is about influencing future results and not fixing past mistakes.
Closing Process Group
Closing processes occur after the product has been verified against the requirements and delivered to the customer’s satisfaction. Closing activities include contracts closed out and project records updated, project team released, documents archived and lessons learned updated.
47 Processes table
• There are only 2 processes in Initiating and Closing Process Groups
• There are no processes in Scope, Time, Cost and Risk in the Executing Process Group
• The most processes are in Scope, Time, Cost and Risk in the Planning Process Group
• There are no processes in Human Resource Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
• Almost every process in Monitoring and Controlling follows the pattern, “Control Knowledge Area”
• The verbs on the Executing Processes are more active than on others; e.g., perform, acquire, develop, manage, conduct, direct
• The first process in 9 of the 10 Planning Process Group Knowledge Areas follow the pattern, “Plan Knowledge Area”
• The processes in the HR Executing Process Group are all about the Project Team