Project management Chapter 1 – the project

3 types of activities within an organization
1) Improvised activities
2) Routine activities
3) Project-based activities
A project
a group of people (from various fields), collaborating temporarily with the aim of reaching a predetermined goal/result within a predetermined budget & time frame
Categories of projects
-Technical projects
-Social projects
-Commercial projects
-mixed projects
technical projects
a project whose aim is to change technology or come up with a new product
Social projects
their aim is to change the corporate culture or organizational structure of an organization
Commercial projects
The ultimate goal is earning money. this includes market research, developing/introducing new products
Mixed projects
combine aspects of both technical and social projects
types of Project phases
-preparation
-realization
-aftercare
phases of a project
Concept, definition, design, preparation, realization, aftercare
Concept
the project only exists as a problem. An investigation is conducted into the current state of affairs, what the extent of the problem is, what the desired out come is, and if its feasible
Definition
The projects objectives emerge. It should answer what will be achieved when the project is complete
Design
thinking of a way of resolving the problem through brainstorming. By the end of this phase a design should have been created that:
-Shows the sponsor exactly what he will be getting
-shows those who will be actively involved in the next phase exactly what has to be done
Preparation
The design in the previous phase is made ready for production
Realization
the actual work can now get underway
Aftercare
the project outcomes are put to use
Advantages of project based approach
-the project is not part of every day work
-Since the members of the project team can focus on the project it can have better results
-There is a sponsor for the project who can make better decisions
-a project plan allows all parties involved to know what they have to do and when they have to do it
-Everyone’s responsibilities are clearly defined
-If the project is organized in phases it will be well organized
-If the team is well chosen, the members will complement/support each other & increase productivity
-smaller risk of failure
-its a valuable experience
Disadvantages of a project based approach
-setting up and organizing costs time
-a variety of individuals must be consulted and a project team has to be put together & it takes time to formulate a good plan
-Since members come from a previous department they leave a “gap” there
-Inexperienced members might need training
-although the team learns from the experience it will have less effect outside the group