Project management ch. 11

Control is focused on ________ elements of a project
Performance, cost, and time
When performing control, project managers need to be attentive to ________.
Regulation and conservation equally
Physical asset control requires control of the ________ and is concerned with asset maintenance, whether preventative or corrective.
The use of physical assets
The stewardship of human resources requires ________ the growth and development of people.
Controlling and maintaining
Identify the item that is not one of the three types of control processes described by the authors.
Robotic control
The key feature of cybernetic control systems is ________.
Automatic operation
In a cybernetic control system using a negative feedback loop, the speed or force with which the control operates is, in general, ________ to the size of the deviation from standard.
Proportional
The following statement is a major disadvantage of third-order cybernetic control systems.
Their human elements lack predictability and reliability
In essence, the law of ________ dictates that a controller must be able to take a counteraction for every action the system can take in order to achieve total control over the system.
Requisite variety
Most control systems used in project management today fall into this category of control system.
Go/no-go control
Go/no-go controls operate ________.
Only when and if the controller uses them
Because project milestones do not occur at periodic intervals, go/no-go controls should be linked to ________; not simply to the calendar.
The actual plans and to the occurrence of real events
In order to gain user acceptance, the control system should appear to be ________
Sensible
In addition to being easy to maintain, a good control system will ________ if it goes out of order.
Signal the overall controller
The critical ratio control chart uses a ratio made up of two parts — the ratio of actual progress to scheduled progress, and the ________.
Ratio of budgeted cost to actual cost
________ controls work to conserve the organization’s assets by insisting that certain conditions be met before capital can be expended. Those same conditions usually regulate the use of capital to achieve the organization’s goal of a high return on investments.
capital investment
With respect to financial controls, courts will require the practice of ________ regarding financial controls, practices, and record-keeping.
due diligence
The most common type of control system is the ________, or steering, control.
cybernetic
The cybernetic control system that acts to reduce deviations from standard is called a ________.
negative feedback loop
A ________ device serves as an example of a simple, first-order cybernetic control system.
goal-seeking
The addition of a clock to the thermostat to allow it to maintain different standards during day and night makes the thermostat a ________ cybernetic controller.
second-order
The ________ is a type of cybernetic control system that can change its goals without specific preprogramming.
third-order control system
A third-order cybernetic control system is said to have ________ consciousness and, thus, must contain humans.
reflective
The preprogramming in second-order cybernetic control systems enables them to ________ and to react in specific ways.
recognize patterns
The ________ controls take the form of testing to see if some specific precondition has been met.
go/no-go
The Prime Law of Life on any project is ________.
Never let the boss be surprised!
Post project reviews are an example of ________.
postcontrols
________ are directed towards improving chances for future projects to meet their goals.
postcontrols
Because the critical ratio is the product of the two separate ratios for ________, this way of combining the two underlying ratios weights them equally. It allows a bad ratio for one part to be offset by an equally good ratio in the other.
CPI and SPI
Human response to steering controls tends to be positive because they are usually viewed as ________.
helpful rather than a source of unwelcome pressure
Many people perceive ________ to be equivalent to report cards
postcontrols
Investment in control systems is subject to ________, so it is important to balance the need for control with the cost of control.
sharply diminishing returns
A balanced control system is directed toward ________ rather than toward punishment.
correction of error
Configuration management activities are often part of an organization’s ________ process.
change control
An ________ is a monitoring system that forewarns the project manager if trouble arises.
early warning system