Proactive Police Management Ch 6

Typical model of communication:
sender
receiver
encoding – translating personal meaning into symbols
decoding – translating symbols into personal meaning
channel – means by which stimuli is sent/received
Encoding and decoding
Symbols – includes all words
– people normally add their own subscript, thereby shaping the reality of the spoken word into a picture that may or may not be meant by various communicators.
– often used to describe a particular sensory experience
Subscripts – we all talk in subscript; what we say may have a different meaning to someone else
The police administrator, at a minimum, needs to know:
1. if the message was clear and specific enough
2. what kind of action took place as a result of the message (order)
3. what modifications should be made to the message as a result of the action taken or not taken
Managers who wish to communicate clearly have to understand:
1. The authority context of any message, giving relative status of the sender and receiver of messages
2. The audience receiving the message
3. The effect of the message on both the person receiving the message and the audience that may also be hearing the message
All-channel communication
A participatory management style with communication channels open between all parties
Chain communication
– chain of command style
– person 1 does not communicate with person 4 except through persons 2 and 3
Y Communication
– In which two superiors communicate to the same subordinate (2 bosses using one secretary)
– fails because of the built in conflicts
Obstacles to communication
– inference
– assumptions
– bypassing:
– overgeneralization
Inference
We attach meaning to the message the message giver never intended to be part of the communication

#1: “We need to roust that kid”
#2: “Yeah. I’ll go and jack him up and make him talk”
#1: “No, I didn’t mean that. We can just stop by and talk to him”

Assumptions
When you think that there are specific grounds for content of a message, but these grounds may not exist

Juv has a violent record. You have dealt with him in violent crime. A violent crime occurs, you assume he is involved.

Bypassing
When two people talk to each other and miss each other with their meaning (same words mean different things to different people)

Sgt asks officer to finish report. Officers works OT to complete report. Sgt says he meant him to do it during duty hours. Officer thought he meant immediately.

Overgeneralization
A variation using unwarranted assumptions

You refer someone to a “good guy”. They assume they will get special treatment by saying you referred them.

Certain objectives need to be established with written communication:
1. To make plans operational
2. To carry on day to day operations
3. To relay and interpret policies
4. To provide details for activity completion
5. To complete assignments satisfactorily
6. To provide for evaluation and feedback
Types of orders
SOP – standard operating procedure
TOP – temporary operating procedure
GO – general order
SO – special order
MEMO – memorandum
SOP
– A procedure that will affect the total dept on an ongoing basis over time.
– has a specific starting date but no ending date
– changed by creation of new SOP
– are numbered and dated for filing purposes
TOP
– has all the characteristics of a SOP with one exception: it has a termination date
– dated and numbered
– used for one-time events (parades, sporting events)
GO
– created for informational purposes
– numbered and dated
– used for procedural changes, legal changes
Special Orders
– refer only to personnel matters
– numbered and dated
– very specific (transfers, promotions, job assignments, disciplinary actions)
Memorandums
– written communication information or orders of short duration
– dated but not numbered
– generally for limited distribution
– used when a verbal order is adequate but putting the order in writing will eliminate all possible misunderstanding
– are especially useful in maintaining continuity of information to staff that is operating on various shifts
In general, a directive should be:
1. an order of some complexity
2. extend over a fairly long period of time
3. go to more than one officer
4. affect a fairly large number of personnel
Management needs to know that the directive was:
1. carried out
2. in what manner
3. with what effect
The Duty Manual
– the codification of written rules of the police agency
(also called operations manual, procedures manual, rules and regulations, and SOPs)
– governs many aspects of the officer’s private life as well as his behavior during a tour of duty
– most are very specific
– is a clear, concise and logical way in which to order procedure in the police dept
– general rule is that operations mandated must be of a recurrent nature
should be efficient, humane, reasonable
In general, the rules contained in the Duty Manual should be:
1. kept short
2. be consistent
3. be reasonable
4. confirm to principles of good management
5. be humane
6. be enforceable
7. be stated in an unambiguous manner
8. be related to the actual operations of police procedures
9. not deal with the trivial
10. be written in good English format with a professional tone to the choice of words
Proactive Police Communication Model has the following elements:
1. planning
2. organizing
3. operationalizing
4. evaluating
Planning
identifying needs
forecasting
researching and developing
ensuring conformity to goals and objectives
using staff in developing the planning process
getting input from police personnel
making decisions
Organizing
– hiring personnel
– training
– creating rules of procedure and directives
– developing auxiliary services and infrastructure support
– servicing, capitalizing, and maintaining physical plant and equipment
– drawing up implementation orders
Operationalizing
– supervising implementation procedures
– providing continuing direction and control
– coordinating various parts and segments of the police agency
– coordinating with outside agencies
Evaluating
– developing standards that lead to operationalized evaluations
– listing criteria of success
– developing evaluation procedures and relating them to empirical standards of success
– creating a centralized staff of research analyst
– outlining inspection procedures
– obtaining feedback with recommendations for planning
For communication to be understood by all parties involved, orders should be written in a _____ and _____ manner.
consistent, organized