Proactive Police Management Ch 4

Line organizations
Traditionally, most police agencies tend to be highly reactive line organizations, that is, the police wait for citizens to call them and then they react to that phone call for service
The police officer who is everywhere in his random patrol duties, deterring crime by his mere presence
Random patrol
– The omnipresent officer
– study in Kansas City seems to indicate that the mere presence of uniformed police and marked vehicles may not be the deterrent we once thought
Kansas City Experiment
– divided the area’s 15 precincts into three groups
1. respond to calls only
2. provide normal random patrols
3. provide 2-3 times the normal level of random patrol
– concluded that the three patrol conditions appeared not to affect crime, service delivery and citizen feelings of security
Traditional purposes of police organizations
1. protecting life and property
2. preserving the peace
3. preventing criminality
4. apprehending criminals
Uniform Crime Report
– The increase and decrease in crime as released to the media
– taken as an indication of the effectiveness of the police agency
Reality-based proactive purposes of police organizations
1. performance
2. preparedness
3. progressiveness
Specific definitions of productivity measures need to be created in terms of daily activityfor line officers and managers
– The needs of short-range as well as long-range planning and entails the relation of the policy agency to the other community and govt organizations
– entails the need for better communication among all agencies
– the basic management-for-change concept in which leaders are flexible and tolerant of ambiguity and are willing to institute new ideas because they may work
– the opposite of this type is the hierarchically oriented administrator who seeks closure and places limitations on his staff’s ideas
The following 6 principles allow for both the traditional reactive approach and the aggressive proactive approach:
1. respond
2. regulate
3. restrain (apprehension of criminals)
4. recover (recovery of stolen property for citizen)
5. repress (police coordination/displacement)
6. reinforce (reinforce good citizenship)
mechanical approach
– subdivision to secure economy of effort
– specialization and coordination to unity
– emphasizes the mechanics, or more physical aspects, of organization
– uses bodies to fill boxes in an organization chart
(police managers have been hiring and promoting to fill slots, without concern for the personal qualifications of the individual)
Humanist approach
– used in a more professional organization, where a particular skill must be developed at a particular level with the exact knowledge needed to fill a position