Proactive Police Management Ch 1

Metropolitan Police Act 1829
– Sir Robert Peel
– main purpose was to prevent crime and protect property
Principle 9
– one of the major management principles of the Metropolitan Police Act
– the test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder and not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with them
Local control
– another important component of the Metropolitan Police Act
– each separate police force in the provinces is established under local authority
Pendleton Act of 1870
– Federal employees were placed under a civil service merit system governing conditions of their employment in an effort to reduce the political interference that had prevailed since the Jacksonian era
– shortly after, civil service reform spread throughout the states
– gave rise to civil reforms in policing
– created by the scientific management writers and leaders after 1900
Scientific management
The machine model, where the emphasis is on efficiency, orderliness, and output
The four basic principles of scientific management
1. division of labor and specialization
2. Unity of command and centralization of decision making
3. One-way authority
4. Narrow span of control
Three stages of developing bureaucracies that are also characteristics of police organizations:
1. cash salaries replace unpaid work by family members
2. a clerical component is added and the owners are separated from management
3. Managers are expected to have professional qualifications
O.W. Wilson
– served as a police officer under August Vollmer, chief of Berkley PD
– author of “Police Administration”
– became the most influential management textbook for use by modern police managers and police management in the US
Wilson carried on Vollmer’s sound approach to police management under the main principles of encouraging the following:
1. a professional police dept divorced from politics
2. Rigorous police personnel selection and training processes
3. use of the latest technological innovations available for LE
Wilson organized his book, Police Administration”, around three basic administrative processes:
1. planning
2. activating
3. controlling
Planning (three basic administrative processes)
– based on the study of needs and used as a continuing process
– serves to bind an organization together, ti implement the policy underlying its aims and purposes
– to direct its efforts into the proper channels and to guide in both training and performance
Activating (three basic administrative processes)
the process of activating as one primarily of organization and leadership
Controlling (three basic administrative processes)
– Related to police organization’s accountability
opposed the creation of civilian review boards since police leadership should be accountable for all officer’s actions
– concerned with punishing officers who used excessive force
William H. Parker
– rose from officer to captain at LAPD
– uncovered a scandal in the police promotion process that resulted in a general cleanup of the dept
– implemented scientific management at LAPD
– demanded recruits have an IQ of 110 or above, supervised 1 yr probation, thorough psychiatric exam
– created an exhaustive MO file made up of over 2 million cards
Human Relations Approach
– considers the police executive to be a team leader who creates a cooperative effort among line officers through the use of a management team
A Behavioral goal has three major components:
1. a goal stated in an empirical manner so that any ordinary person would be able to see, hear, taste, smell, or fell something
2. a criterion of success that is normally less than 100%
3. a context in which to measure the goal developed in empirical terms
Proponents of the systems-behavioral approach developed a number of systems for accountability, forward planning and fiscal organization:
1. Management by Objectives (MBO)
2. Program evaluation and review techniques (PERT)
3. Programming, planning and budgeting (PPB)
4. Organizational development (OD)
5. Zero-based budgeting (ZBB)
The most significant elements of the Proactive Police Management Approach
1. objective of policing is crime prevention
2. strong commitment to community involvement
3. Modern bureaucracy, range of control techniques
4. fell-service department with multi-specialist teams
5. full use of modern communication models
6. Modern budgeting and accounting systems
7. great emphasis on forward emergency and crisis management planning
8. consultative management approach
9. data-driven dept with optimal use of modern technology
10. emphasis on art of the possible and operational utility of management approaches
William Bratton
– started off as patrol officer Boston PD
– attained rank of superintendent
– awarded highest medal for valor
– chief of NY Transit PD
– merged Transit Police and Housing Police with the NYPD
– elected president of Police Executive research Forum
– commissioner of NYPD
– reengineered (decentralized) NYPD and implemented Comstat
– major goals was to reduce fear in the neighborhoods and prevent crime
Comstat is based in four major principles
1. timely, accurate intelligence
2. rapid response (target hardening a site)
3. effective tactics
4. Relentless follow-up (review programs and strategies and keep them updated)
Lee P. Brown
– patrol officer San Jose, CA
– Sheriff of Mulnomah CO, Oregon
– commissioner of public safety, Atlanta
– COP, Houston
– NYC Police commissioner
– director of national drug policy
– mayor of Houston
– Implemented neighborhood-oriented policing in Houston (one of earliest community policing models)
Raymond W. Kelly
– first person to serve twice as NYC police commissioner
– focused dept on terrorism from a city and world wide perspective
– emphasized crime reduction and quality of life issues such as eliminating the “Squeegee man” annoying drivers and improving the quality of life in neighborhoods, which became the hallmark of community policing
National Association of Women Law Enforcement Executives (NAWLEE)
created primarily as a mentoring organization for rising female executives
The proactive approach is meant to be:
flexible and utilitarian yet adhere to principles that will give coherence to police management as it responds in the world of the 21st century