Principles of Marketing, Lamb, Chapter 6

Consumer behavior
Processes a consumer uses to make purchase decisions, as well as use and dispose of goods and services
Consumer decision making process
Five step process used by consumers when buying goods or services
Consumer decision making process
Need recognition
Information search
Evaluation of alternatives
Post purchase behavior
Need recognition
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states
Want
Recognition of an unfulfilled need and a product that will satisfy it
Stimulus
Any unit of input affecting one or more of five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing
Internal information search
Process of recalling past information stored in the memory
External information search
Process of seeking information in the outside environment
Non marketing controlled information source
Product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion
Marketing controlled information source
Product information source that originates with marketers promoting the products
Evoked set
Group of brands resulting from an information search from which a buyer can choose
Cognitive dissonance
Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions
Involvement
Amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation and decision processes of consumer behavior
Routine response behavior
Type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently purchased, low cost goods and services; requires little search and decision time
Limited decision making
Type of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category
Extensive decision making
Most complex type of consumer decision making, used when buying and unfamiliar expensive product or an infrequently bought item; requires use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking info
Previous experience
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
——– ———-
Interest
Perceived risk of negative consequences
Financial risk
Social risks
Psychological risks
Social visibility
Interest
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
——–
Perceived risk of negative consequences
Financial risk
Social risks
Psychological risks
Social visibility
Perceived risk
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
Interest
——— —- of negative consequences
Financial risk
Social risks
Psychological risks
Social visibility
Financial risk
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
Interest
Perceived risk of negative consequences
——— —-
Social risks
Psychological risks
Social visibility
Social risks
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
Interest
Perceived risk of negative consequences
Financial risk
—— —–
Psychological risks
Social visibility
Psychological risks
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
Interest
Perceived risk of negative consequences
Financial risk
Social risks
————- —–
Social visibility
Social visibility
Factors determining level of consumer involvement
Previous experience
Interest
Perceived risk of negative consequences
Financial risk
Social risks
Psychological risks
—— ———-
Product involvement
Type of involvement when a product has a high personal relevance
Situational involvement
Type of involvement when a low involvement decision becomes a high involement one
Shopping involement
Type of involvement which represent personal relevance of the process of shopping
Enduring involvement
Type of involvement when there is an ongoing interest in some product or activity
Emotional involvement
Type of involvement which represents how emotional a cosumer gets during consumption
Culture
Set of values, norms, attitudes and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior
Value
The enduring believe that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another
Subculture
Homogenous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group
Social class
Group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally
Reference group
All formal and informal groups in society that influence an individuals purchasing behavior
Primary membership group
Reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends and coworkers
Secondary membership group
Reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally than a primary membership group, such as a club, professional group or religious group
Aspirational reference group
Group that someone would like to join
Norm
Value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group
Nonaspirational reference group
Groin with which an individual does not want to associate
Opinion leader
Individual who influences the opinions of others
Socialization process
How cultural values and norms are passed down to children
Personality
Way of organizing and grouping the consistencies of an individuals reactions to situations
Self-concept
How consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and self-evaluations
Ideal self-image
The way an individual would like to be perceived
Real self-image
The way an individual actually perceives himself or herself
Perception
Process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture
Selective exposure
The process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others
Selective distortion
Process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs
Selective retention
Process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports his or her personal beliefs
Motive
Diving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Method of classifying human needs and motivation: physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization
Learning
Process that creates changes in behavior, immediate or expected, through experience and practice
Stimulus generalization
Form of learning that occurs when one responds is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first
Stimulus discrimination
Learned ability to differentiate among similar products
Belief
Organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world
Attitude
Learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object