Principles of Marketing: Chapter 6: Consumer Behavior

Consumer Buying Behavior
Buying behavior of people who purchase products for personal use and not for business purposes
Consumer Buying Decision Process
Problem Recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of Alternatives, Purchase, Postpurchase evaluation
Level of Involvement
An individual’s degree of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person
Enduring Involvement
Ongoing and long term
Situational Involvement
Temporary and Dynamic
High-involvement products
Products that are visible to others and/or are expensive (a home, new car)
Low-involvement products
Products that tend to be less expensive and have less associated social risk (grocery items, a t-shirt)
Routinized Response Behavior
The process used when buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that require little search-and-decision effort
Limited Problem-Solving
The process that buyers use when purchasing products only occasionally or when they need information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category
Extended Problem-Solving
The process employed when purchasing unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products
Impulse Buying
An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately
Problem Recognition
When a buyer becomes aware of a difference between desired state and an actual condition (dis-equilibrium: Desired-Actual=+ve)
-May occur rapidy or slowly, naturally, biogenetically, or when prompted externally
Information Search
Internal Search: Buyers search their memories for information about products that might solve their problem

External Search: Buyers seek information from outside sources
-Personal Contacts: Family, Friends, Relatives
-Marketer-dominated sources: Sales people, labels, Internet, spokespersons, advertising
-Independent sources: Gov’t, Credible news, Organizations, Publications, Unbiased sources

Evaluation of Alternatives
Consideration Set (aka Evoked Set): A group of brands/choices that the buyer views as alternatives for possible purchase.
(Example: To what breakfast cereals do you limit choices?)

Evaluative Criteria (attributes): Identifying objective and subjective characteristics that are important to the buyer
-Overall, what factors/underlying dimensions did you use to compare cereals in your consideration set (e.g. brand name, sweetened, ingredients, price, etc.)

Attribute/Criteria Salience: How important is a specific attribute of a product?

Attribute/Criteria Valence: How much of that attribute is available in a specific product?

Reaching a decision–Combining Salience and Valence: E (Si x Vi)

“Framing” the Alternatives
Describing the alternatives and their attributes in a “certain manner” to make a particular characteristic appear more important especially to the inexperienced buyer. (Examples: “Melt in your mouth, not in your hand, quicker-picker-up, don’t get mad, get glad)
Purchase
Choosing the product or brand to be bought based on the outcome of the evaluation stage; the choice of seller may affect the final product selection; factors such as terms of sale, price, delivery, and warranties may affect the sale
Postpurchase Evaluation
After purchase: Does the actual performance meet expectations?
Cognitive Dissonance (aka Buyer’s Remorse)
A buyer’s doubts shortly after a purchase about whether the decision was the right one (What else could I have done, or should I have done?)
-Buyers are most likely to seek/need reassurance after the purchase of an expensive, risky, high-involvement product
-Markets need to provide “anti-dissatisfaction inoculation” (Guarantees, warranties, 800-numbers, follow-ups)
Possible Influences on the Decision Process
Situational Influences: Factors that can influence a buyer’s purchase decision and may cause the buyer to shorten, lengthen, or terminate the process. (Physical Surroundings, Social Surroundings, Time, Purchase Reason, Buyer’s Mood and Condition)

Psychological Influences: Several factors that in part determine the people’s general behavior, thus influencing their behavior as consumers.
(Perception, Motives, Learning, Attitudes, Personality and Self-Concept, Lifestyles)

Social Influences: The forces other people exert on one’s buying behavior
(Roles, Family, Reference Groups, Opinion Leaders, Social Classes, Culture and Subcultures)

Perception
The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning
Selecting Information Inputs
Sensations received through the sense organs (sensory thresholds) but not at once: selective perception
Selective Exposure
The process of selecting inputs to be exposed to our awareness while ignoring others
Selective Distortion
An individual’s changing or twisting of information when it is inconsistent with personal feelings or beliefs
Selective Retention
Remembering information inputs that support personal feelings and beliefs and forgetting inputs that do not
Perceptual Organization
Organizing and Integrating new information with what is already stored in memory
Closure
When a person mentally fills in missing elements in a pattern or statement (Example 123-123-12…)
Perceptual Interpretation
The assignment of meaning to what has been organized based on what is expected or what is familiar
Attempts by marketers to influence interpretation can and usually do fail because
Consumers block out seller’s information (never reaches them)

Consumers interpret seller’s information differently than intended

Consumers discard information that is inconsistent with prior beliefs

Motives
Internal energizing forces that direct a person’s behavior toward satisfying needs or achieving goals
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The five levels of needs that humans are motivated to seek and satisfy, from most to least important are:
-Physiological needs: food, water, sex, clothing, shelter
-Safety needs: security, freedom
-Social needs: love, affection, belonging
-Esteem needs: respect, recognition, self-worth
-Self-actualization needs: personal growth needs
Learning
Changes in an individual’s thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience

Behaviors that produce satisfying consequences are likely to be repeated

Consumers learn about products by:
Experiencing the products personally

Gaining additional product knowledge from seller-provided information

Indirect information from other purchasers/users

Attitudes
An individual’s emerging evaluation of, feelings about, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea
Additional Components of Attitudes:
Cognitive: knowledge and information about the object or idea

Affective: feelings and emotions toward the object or idea

Behavioral: individual’s action regarding the object or idea

An attitude scale
A means of measuring consumer attitudes by gauging the intensity of an individual’s reactions to adjectives, phrases, or sentences about an object (Example: Strongly Agree, Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, etc.)
Personality
A set of internal traits and distinct behavioral tendencies that result in consistent patterns of behavior in certain situations
Self-concept (self-image)
Perception or view of oneself
Lifestyle
An individual’s pattern of living expressed through activities, interests, and opinions (AIO’s)
Roles
Actions and activities that a person in a particular position is supposed to perform based on expectations of the individual and surrounding persons
-Multiple role-expectation sets affect behavior
-Roles influence both buying and non-buying behaviors
Consumer Socialization
The process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer
Family Decision-Making Processes
Autonomic–only one (could be either)

Husband-dominant–husband makes decisions

Wife-dominant–wife makes decision

Syncratic–decisions made jointly

Reference Groups
Any group that positively or negatively affects a person’s values, attitudes, or behavior
-Membership: belonging to
-Aspirational: wanting to belong to
-Diassociative: not wanting to belong to
Opinion Leader
A knowledgeable, accessible individual who provides information about a specific sphere of interests to followers
-Selected, chosen, not imposed
Social Class
An open group of individuals with similar social rank
Individuals in the same social class:
Develop and assume common behavioral patterns and have similar attitudes, values, language patterns, and possessions

Influences many major life decisions, including shopping patterns and spending habits

Culture
The accumulated values, knowledge, beliefs, customs, objects, and concepts of a society
-Culture influences buying behavior
-Cultural changes affect product development, promotion, distribution, and pricing
Sub-cultures
Groups of cultures whose characteristic values and behavior patterns are similar and differ from those of the surrounding culture
Patronage motives
Motives that influence where a person purchases products on a regular basis
Consumer Misbehavior
Behavior that violates generally accepted norms of a particular society