Principles of Management Final Exam – Chapter 15

What is the most important factor in advancing your career?
Communication skills
Define communication.
Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.
What is the result of efficient communication?
Transmitting a message accurately in the LEAST TIME.
What is the result of effective communication?
The other person ACCURATELY UNDERSTANDS your INTENDED MESSAGE.
Communication has been said to be a process consisting of a _____________ transmitting a _________ through media to a ____________ who responds.
Sender, message, receiver
Defined sender.
The person wanting to share information called a message.
Define message.
Information sent by a sender.
Define receiver.
The person for whom the message is intended.
Deciding what language to speak and what terms to use is an exampled of _____________.
Encoding
Define encoding. Define decoding.
Encoding is making a message understandable using symbols and simple language. Decoding is trying to make sense of the message.
Define medium.
The means by which a communicator sends a message. It is the pathway by which a message travels.
Define feedback.
The response or reaction to the message by the receiver. Ex.) Message: “Flight 123, do you copy?” Feedback: “Roger, Houston, I copy.”
Summarize the communication process.
Sender [Encoding] ——> Message [Medium] ——> [Decoding] Receiver ——-> Message [Feedback] ——> Sender
Define noise.
Disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message.
Where can noise occur?
1. The medium (ex. static, fadeout).
2. During encoding or decoding (ex. pharmacist can’t read prescription because of doctor’s poor handwriting).
3. Nonverbal communication (ex. when body language sends a different message than what we are speaking
4. Cross-cultural communication (ex. making assumptions about a received message based on own culture instead of theirs)
Give examples of mass media.
Public relations, advertising, news (print, radio, TV, internet).
What does media richness indicate? Who coined the term “media richness?”
How well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning. The richer a medium is the better it is at conveying information. Richard Draft and Robert Lengel (organizational theorists) came up with the term media richness.
List 5 mediums from richest to leanest.
1. Face-to-face
2. Video conferencing
3. Telephone
4. Personal (e-mail, text, memos, letters)
5. Impersonal (newsletters, fliers, general reports)
What type of medium is best for non routine situations and to avoid oversimplification?
Rich
What is the danger of using rich mediums of communication for routine matters?
Overloading – more information than necessary.
What type of medium is best for routine situations and to avoid overloading?
Lean
Give an example of a non routine matter. What is the danger of using lean mediums for non routine matters?
Announcement of a company reorganization. Oversimplification – doesn’t provide enough information.
What is a communication barrier?
Anything interfering with accurate communication between two people.
What are the three types of communication barriers?
1. Physical 2. Semantic 3. Personal
What is a sender barrier?
A barrier where no message gets sent. Ex.) A manager has an idea but is afraid to voice it.
What is an encoding barrier?
A barrier where the message is not expressed correctly. Ex.) Poor vocabulary or language barriers may cause an encoding barrier.
What is a medium barrier?
A barrier where the communication pathway is blocked. Ex.) Phone is busy or computer network is down
What is decoding barrier?
A barrier where the recipient doesn’t understand the message. Ex.) Afraid to show that you don’t know what something means
What is a receiver barrier?
A barrier where no message gets received. Ex.) You were talking to a coworker when your supervisor announce the day’s assignments
What is a feedback barrier?
A barrier where the recipient doesn’t respond enough. Ex.) You give someone directions and they just nod their head leaving you to wonder whether or not they really understood
What are some examples of physical barriers?
Sound, time and space. Ex.) Office walls
What are some examples of semantic barriers?
When your boss says “we need to get this done right away” does “right away” mean today, tomorrow, or next week?
Define semantics.
Semantics is the study of the meaning of words
Jargon can create semantic barriers. What is jargon?
Terminology specific to particular profession or group.
Buzzwords can create semantic barriers. What are buzzwords?
Buzzwords are annoying words designed to impress rather than inform.
What are personal barriers? List and describe nine personal barriers that contribute to miscommunication.
Personal barriers are individual attributes that hinder communication.

1. Variable communication skills: some people are simply better at communicating
2. Variations in how information is processed and interpreted: a chaotic house filled with alcoholism and fighting can be distracting and affect what you hear and don’t hear.
3. Variations in trustworthy and credibility
4. Oversized egos: can cause turf wars. Managers with egos tend to dismiss other people’s ideas
5. Faulty listening skills
6. Tendency to judge others’ messages: according to Carl Rogers, we all have a tendency to judge others’ statements from our own point of view
7. Inability to listen with understanding: Put yourself in the other persons shoes. Listening with understanding makes you less defensive and improves your accuracy in interpreting the message.
8. Stereotypes & Prejudices:
9. Nonverbal communication: gestures and facial expressions (do they contradict your words)

Define nonverbal communication
Messages sent outside of the written or spoken word
List and describe the six ways nonverbal communication is expressed.
1. Eye contact: serves four functions…(1) It signals beginning and end of conversation, (2) It expresses emotion, (3) gazing monitors feedback by reflecting interest and attention, and (4) gazing expresses the type of relationship (ex. westerners taught to look person in eye, asians are taught to avoid eye contact).

2. Facial expressions

3. Body movements & gestures: leaning forward is a body movement, and pointing is a gesture.

4. Touch: normal for two men in the middle east to hold hands…not common in the U.S.

5. Setting: Location of an office, its size and choice of furniture, etc. expresses the availability of the person in it

6. Time: how do you feel when your boss keeps you waiting 45 minutes for an appointment with him

According to Judith Hall ___________ nod their heads and move their hands more, and _________ exhibit large body shifts and foot and leg movements.
women, men
What are the four functions that eye contact serves?
1. It signals the beginning and end of a conversation
2. It expresses emotion (ex. avoid eye contact when conveying bad news)
3. Gazing monitors feedback: reflects interest and attention
4. Gazing expresses the type of relationship between the people communicating
When taking credit for something, men use the word __________ and women use the word _____________.
I, we
True or false? When displaying confidence men are less likely to indicate that they are uncertain about an issue.
True
True or false? Men are more likely to ask questions.
False
True or false? Men say I’m sorry more frequently than women.
False
When giving feedback _______ are more direct and blunt while __________ tend to temper criticism with praise.
men, women
True or false? Women give more compliments than men do.
True
_________ are indirect when it comes to admitting fault and ______________ are indirect when it comes to telling others what to do.
Men, women
What does it mean to “genderflex?” Who supports gender flexing?
Genderflexing is using communication behaviors typical of the other gender to increase the potential for influence. Judith Tingley supports gender flexing.
What are linguistic styles? Who recommends that people be aware of how differing linguistic styles affect our perceptions and judgments?
A person’s speaking pattern or style. Ex.) pacing, pausing, word choice, use of jokes/stories/questions, etc. Deborah Tannen
True or false? Women are better at multitasking and better at relationships than men.
True
What does it mean to use “soft” communication skills?
It means to be emotional in your communicating.
Define formal communication
Formal communication channels follow the chain of command and are official.
What are the three types of formal communication?
1. Vertical (up and down)
2. Horizontal (sideways)
3. External (outside the organization)
What is vertical communication? Explain the two directions. Read table 15.4 on page 489.
Communicating up and down the hierarchy. Bosses communicating with lower ranked staff and lower ranked staff communicating with bosses.

Downward communication: from a higher level to a lower level

Upward communication: from a lower level to a higher level

What is horizontal communication? What is its main purpose?
Flows within and between work units. Its main purpose is coordination. Ex.) solving problems, sharing information with people on the same level. Encouraged through matrix structures, task forces, and committees.
How can horizontal communication be impeded?
(1) Specialization that makes people focus on their jobs alone
(2) Rivalry between workers which prevents sharing of info
(3) Lack of encouragement from management
What is external communication?
Communication between people inside and outside of the organization. Ex.) communication with customers, suppliers, shareholders, or other owners.
What are informal communication channels?
Informal communication channels develop outside the organization and do not follow the chain of command.
What are the two types of informal communication?
(1) Grapevine: unofficial communication system consisting of rumors and gossip
(2) Management by wandering around: a manager literally walks around the organization speaking with people across all lines of authority
What does research about the grapevine show?
(1) It is faster than formal channels, (2) It is about 75% accurate, and (3) it is used when employees feel insecure or threatened.
What are some benefits of management by wandering around?
It reduces distortion, allows managers to learn about the employees problems, and allows them to express what values and goals are important.
What can you do as meeting participant to make them better?
1. Pull discussions back on track by summarizing a series of comments so that others do not cover the same ground.
2. Help the leader create the agenda
What can you do as a meeting leader to improve meetings?
1. Eliminate unnecessary meetings and meeting attendance
2. Distribute meeting agenda in advance
3. Stay in control: start on time, reserve judgments until after discussion, encourage silent members to participate
4. Do follow-up: type up assignments for distribution
Define multicommunicating
The use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time. Ex.) Texting during dinner
____________, such as answering e-mail messages during a lecture can create miscommunication, lead to stress, and hurt feelings.
Multicommunicating
List and describe the eight norms for the “Always On Generation” as identified by Don Tapscott.
1. Freedom: desire to experience new things. Includes the desire for flexible work hours, freedom of choice.
2. Customization: desire to have personalized products and choices
3. Scrutiny: not taking “facts” and authority at face value. This generation is skeptical, and asks probing questions.
4. Integrity: trust in people, products, and employers. This generation cares about honesty, and keeping commitments.
5. Collaboration: relationships are of key importance. This generation values volunteering, knows how to work with others, and are eager to share opinions.
6. Entertainment: keeping things moving and interesting.
7. Speed: instant feedback is expected. Ex.) texting, instant messaging, tweeting, etc.
8. Innovation: traditional hierarchy is rejected in favor of processes that encourage collaboration and creativity
List six rewards that are important to millennials (the “always on generation”), other than compensation.
1. High-quality colleagues
2. Flexible work arrangements
3. Prospects for advancement
4. Recognition from company/boss
5. Steady rate of advancement/promotion
6. Access to new experiences and challenges
What is videoconferencing (teleconferencing)?
Using video and audio links along with computers to allow people in different locations to see, hear, and talk with one another.
What is telepresence technology? What type of set up does it require.
High-def videoconferencing systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users. Telepresence systems require multiple cameras and high-definition video screens.
What is telecommuting? List its benefits. What types of jobs is telecommuting common for?
Doing work generally performed in the office away from the office using a variety of technologies.

Benefits include:
1. Reduction of capital costs b/c employees work at home
2. Increased flexibility and autonomy for employees
3. Competitive edge in recruiting hard-to-get-employees
4. Increased job satisfaction and lower turnover
5. Increased productivity
6. Ability to tap nontraditional labor pools

Telecommuting is common for jobs that involve computer work, writing, and phone or brain work that requires concentration and limited interruptions.

What is teleworking?
Working from anywhere. It is a virtual office. It allows employees in different locations and time zones to work simultaneously (called synchronous communication) and team members can work on the same project at different times (called asynchronous communication).
What is synchronous communication? Asynchronous communication?
Synchronous communication: Employees in different locations and time zones can work simultaneously.

Asynchronous communication: Team members can work on the same project at different times.

What are some of the downsides of the digital age?
Security, privacy, e-mail overkill, and cellphone abuse.
Describe security in terms of the digital age.
Security is guarding against cyberthreats. It is a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access.
What is malicious software (malware)?
Software that tricks people into giving up passwords, social security numbers, and financial information.
Describe privacy in terms of the digital age. List and describe some threats to privacy.
Privacy is keeping things to yourself. It is the right of people not to reveal information about themselves.

Threats:
(a) Name migration: ex. a computer company sells its customer list to another company
(b) Online snooping
(c) Government spying
(d) Identity theft: thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash to buy things

Describe the downside of email and ways to handle these downsides.
Downsides:
1. Has led to a decrease in all other forms of communication
2. Emotions are miscommunicated
3. Leaves coworkers feeling less connected

Tips to handle e-mail:
1. Treat all e-mail as confidential
2. Be careful with jokes and informality: jokes may be taken as insults
3. Avoid sloppiness but do not criticize others sloppiness
4. When replying, quote only the relevant portion
5. Not every topic belongs on e-mail: some topics are better discussed over the phone or in person

Discuss the problems with smartphones and ways of handling these problems.
Problems:
(a) Annoying: loud ring tones, loud conversations
(b) Unethical and illegal: sending pornographic photos
(c) Deadly: distracting drivers on the road

Ways to avoid these problems:
(a) Shut off your “ringer” when in meetings or at public performances, set the phone on “vibrate” and return calls at a distance. Keep your voice down – no need to shout. Don’t force people on buses, in restaurants, etc. to have to listen to your phone calls. Don’t text during meetings or other conversations.
(c) Don’t dial/text when driving

Define social media.
Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network.
What are some business benefits of social media?
1. Connectivity: allows people to connect in real time and over distances with many customers, suppliers, employees, potential talent, and other stakeholders.
2. Crowdsourcing: obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially the online community. Ex.) Sam Adams took to Facebook to ask fans what a good beer should taste like.
Discuss some downsides of social media.
1. Distraction: Productivity guru David Allen believes that social media isn’t the problem but people let themselves get distracted because they’re not clear about their own goals
2. Leaving wrong impression: Ex.) Think twice before tweeting
3. Replacing real conversation: Psychologist Sherry Turkle says people are using technology to hide from rich, messy, demanding human relationships. People think constant connection makes them feel less lonely but the opposite is true.
What does productivity guru David Allen believe about social media in terms of it being distracting?
He believes that social media isn’t the problem but rather people get distracted because they aren’t clear about their own goals.
What’s the general recipe for effective listening?
Listen, watch, write, think, question
People generally comprehend about ______% of a typical verbal message.
35
The average speaker communicates ________ words per minute while we can process ______ words per minutes.
35, 50
What is active listening and what does it require?
Active listening is the process of actively decoding and interpreting a verbal message. It require full attention and processing of information.
List and describe the five listening styles.
1. Appreciative style: listening to be amused. Listening for pleasure and tuning out if there is not amusement or humor.
2. Empathetic style: tuning into the speakers emotions. Focus on feelings, reading body language and reactions.
3. Comprehensive style: focusing on the speaker’s logic. Prefer logical presentations, focus on relationships among ideas, relating messages to own experiences, waiting for all information before expressing an opinion.
4. Discerning style: focusing on the main message. Determine main message and important points, taking notes, and concentrating hard on what is being said. Discerning listeners like information that flows evenly.
5. Evaluative style: challenging the speaker. Listens analytically, formulates challenges to the speakers point, asks a lot of questions – sometimes interrupting.
What are some tips to help listeners pay attention to the CONTENT of a message?
1. Don’t rush to respond: let the other person finish talking
2. Judge content, not delivery: forget the persons accent/clothing/personality
3. Ask questions, summarize remarks:
4. Listen for ideas: concentrate on the main ideas
5. Resist distractions, show interest: periodically restate in your own words what you’ve heard
6. Give a fair hearing: don’t shout out when hearing terms like “Republican,” “Democrat,” “corporate welfare,” etc. This suggests ideas your are uncomfortable with.
How can you be an effective reader? Discuss each way.
1. Realize the speed reading doesn’t work: may work well with familiar material but can lead to problems with unfamiliar material
2. Learn to streamline reading: Kathryn Alesandrini offers the following suggestions to help streamline reading:
(a) Be savvy about periodicals and books: limit magazine and news subscriptions. Read summaries and reviews that condense books and articles.
(b) Transfer reading load: have employees scan readings and attach sticky notes to items that need additional readings. Have staff read important books and summarize them to you.
(c) Make internal memos and e-mail more efficient: ask people to include summaries of reports. Ask people to tell you what they want in the beginning of the e-mail.
3. Do top-down reading (A variant of SQ3R): produce meaningful connections between what you already know and what you’re reading
What does SQ3R stand for?
Survey, question, read, recite, review.
List 5 steps to better reading according to the top-down approach.
1. Rate reasons to read
2. Question and predict answers: formulate questions that you want to be able to answer by reading
3. Survey the big picture: get an overview so you’ll be better able to read with purpose
4. Skim for main ideas: similar to surveying but on a smaller scale. Look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph.
5. Summarize: verbally restate or write notes of main points. Answer your initial questions as you skim.
List and discuss some tips for becoming a more effective writer.
(A)Don’t show your ignorance: reread, and proofread

(B)Understand your strategy before you write: The following are strategies.
1. Most important to least important: use this strategy when the action you want your reader to take is logical, NOT POLITICAL.
2. Least controversial to most controversial: this builds support gradually and is best used when the decision is controversial.
3. Negative to positive: establishes a common ground, puts the positive argument last which makes it stronger.

(C) Put your purpose first: start by telling the reader your purpose and what you expect from the reader

(D) Write simply, concisely, and directly: Simple words, short sentences and phrases. Be direct and use an active voice.

(E) Use a Powerful Layout:
1. Highlighting: boldface and italics to emphasize key concepts, and bullet points to emphasize list items. RARELY USE ALL CAPS.
2. White space: wide margins, breaks between paragraphs.

One study shows that the top predictor of success is how much you enjoy _____________ ___________ and how effective you are at it.
Public speaking
What is glossophobia?
Fear of public speaking
How does Gael Lindenfield suggest you can prepare your nerves before public speaking?
1. Practice your speech until it is near perfect
2. Visualize yourself giving a great performance
3. Get reassurance from a friend
4. Get to the speaking site early and do deep breathing techniques
What advice does Phil Theibert offer in regards to the content of a speech?
1. Tell them what you’re going to say: prepare audience for speech. Avoid jokes and tired phrases. Everything in your speech should be relevant – go right to the point!
2. Say it: Main Body. Audience won’t remember more than a few points so decide what points those will be and cover them as clearly as possible. Always use transitional phrases so listeners know where you’re going.
3. Tell them what you said: conclusion is as important as introduction. It should be upbeat, a call to action, a thought for the day, a little story, or a quote.