Principles of Management Final ch.1-12

An Organization is _____.
a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose.
All Organizations have ______ that define(s) the organizations purpose and reason for existing.
Goals
Which of the Following is a key difference between managerial and non-managerial employees?
Non-managerial employees do not oversee the work of others.
Which of the following types of managers is responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization?
Top Manager
Another term efficiency is ____.
Doing things right
Another term for effectiveness is _____.
Doing the right things
The “father” of scientific management was ______.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Today, the basic management functions are considered to be_______.
Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
The controlling management function is largely a matter of ______.
monitoring to see that tasks are accomplished.
Organizing includes ______.
Determining who does what tasks
According to Mintzberg, which of the following fit into the category of interpersonal roles?
Figurehead, leader, and liaison
Non-profit organizations are different from for-profit organizations primarily ______.
In the way they measure success
Almost all managerial tasks involve_______.
Decision making
Understanding building codes would be considered a(n)_____ skill for a building contractor.
Technical
Good political skills would be most important to a manager who ______.
wants to rise through organizational ranks
Companies that are well managed can prosper during difficult economic times by depending on _______.
a loyal customer base
Even people who have no plans to be managers can benefit from studying management because _____.
They are likely to be managed in their work career
How do customers play a role in changing the job of the modern manager?
Managers are increasingly including customer satisfaction as a major goal.
What did the effect of a volcanic eruption in Iceland on production of Nissans in a plant in Japan illustrate?
How much organizations depend on their external environment
Which event triggered the recent recession that began in 2008?
Homeowners were unable to make mortgage payments
In the U.S. the gap between the rich and poor is?
accepted
Which demographic do manager pay closest attention to with respect to large-scale trends in the business world?
Age
Which of the following is likely to be the permanent result of the recent economic downturn in the United States?
About a quarter of the jobs lost will not return
Which of the following best defines environmental uncertainty?
the amount of change and complexity in an organizations external environment
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered a stakeholder for a newspaper company, The Daily Recorder?
Critics who claim that all newspapers are biased and dishonest
The Daily Recorder is considering raising its price from 60 cents to 75 cents. Which stakeholders should it consider most in making this decision?
Its customers
What do most high performing companies have in common when it comes to stakeholder relationships?
High performing companies tend to consider the interest of all stake holder groups when they make important decisions
The culture of an organization is analogous to the _______ of an individual.
Personality
Which of the following phrases best characterizes the culture of an organization?
How things are done around here
Sony Corporation’s focus on product innovation is an example of which of the following dimensions of organizational culture?
Risk tolerance
Which of the following factors has contributed to the current view that management is more unethical today than before?
Increasing government standards
A global village can be best characterized as a business climate in which there are ______.
No international boundaries
A multinational corporation (MNC) _____.
includes any company that exports goods overseas
A global corporation ________.
Centralizes management in a single home country
________ is a good example of a multi-domestic corporation.
John Deere
Which choice constitutes the typical first step for an organization that is “going global”?
Outsourcing
Franchising is used widely by _______.
restaurant chains
Which of the following is usually found in the final stage of an organization’s global evolution?
Establishing strategic alliances with partners
A fully global organization might set up a _____ with a foreign company to create a new, independent company that produces a specific product.
Joint venture
Joint ventures are a type of ______.
strategic alliance
A Coca-Cola bottling plant in Bolivia is wholly owned by a local businessperson. What kind of venture is this plant likely to be?
a licensed plant
Which of the following is the best synonym for the word parochial?
narrow
Societies with a high assertiveness rating would tend to be ______.
competitive
Which of the following best summarizes Blake Mycoskie’s ( the founder of TOMS shoes) business philosophy?
a business should be both ethical and socially responsible
the cases of Enron and Bernard Madoff go beyond a question of ethics because in both cases ______.
laws were clearly broken
The classical view of social responsibility that a for-profit organizations responsibility is ________.
to maximize profits only
A company that meets its social obligation ______.
fulfills its legal and economic responsibilities only
The Socioeconomic view of social responsibility states that a business ________.
is a moral agent
The socioeconomic view is that management’s social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include ______.
protecting and improving society’s welfare
When a company does the minimum that the law requires it is meeting its ______.
social obligation
Social responsiveness refers to the capacity of a firm to ______.
address some pressing public need
Proponents of the socioeconomic view of social responsibility believe that being socially responsive is ______.
good for business
_______ dictates that being socially responsible is the “right thing to do.”
An ethical obligation
Those arguing against being socially responsible might make the claim that costs for social goals are ultimately ______.
paid for by consumers in the form of higher prices
Which of the following best defines sustainability for a company?
running the company with a strategy that is both profitable and good for the environment.
Which of the following is a basic definition of ethics?
Principles that define right a wrong
A _____ is a formal document that states an organization’s primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow.
code of ethics
In most cases, organizations that have managers who behave ethically tend to have ______.
more ethical employees
Which of the following is most likely at the root of the problems that befell an unethical company like Enron?
leaders with poor ethical standards
Which of the following is commonly considered a category of workforce diversity?
age
In global companies, a major cause of the line between work and non-work getting blurred is ______.
needing to communicated with overseas operations in different time zones
Part-time, temporary, and contract workers who are available for hire on an as-needed basis are known as ______.
a contingent workforce
Managers hire contingent workers because they are _____ than permanent workers.
Less costly
Decision making begins with _____.
identifying a problem
Which of the following defines a problem in the decision making process?
a discrepancy between what exists and what the decision maker desires to exist
The decision making process consists of a series of eight steps that identify a problem and work toward ultimately _____.
Solving the problem
A manager is determining what kind of new computers she should purchase for her department. she has made a list of five different computer models for consideration. Which stage for the decision making process is this?
Development of alternatives
After purchasing new computers for her department, a manager is now comparing the performance of the new computers to the computers they replaced. Which stage of the decision making process is she carrying out?
evaluation of decision effectiveness
In allocating weights to the decision criteria, which of the following is most helpful to remember?
Assign the most important criterion a score, and ten assign weights against that standard
What is Heuristic?
a shortcut or rule of thumb that is used for decision making
Because they are not systematic or comprehensive, using heuristics in place of an eight-step decision making process can lead to ______.
errors and biases
A banker opts for short-term gain despite indications that his decision might not pay off in the long run. which error or bias is the banker guilty of?
immediate gratification
The three main models that mangers use to make decisions are _____.
rational, bounded rational, and intuitive
It is assumed that a rational decision maker ______.
would be objective and logical
Maximizing value for an organization means making sure that ____.
the best interests of the organization are addressed
Which of the following is the best definition for the word satisfice?
accepts a less than perfect solution
Sticking to a decision despite evidence that it is a mistake is called _____.
escalation of commitment
which model of decision making takes advantage of unconscious reasoning?
intuitive
Compared to fully rational decision making, what is a major advantage of intuitive decision making?
speed
Structured problems are _____.
clear and straightforward
unstructured problems are _____.
situations in which all options are not known
Which of the following is an example of a structured problem?
deciding shipping options for a vacuum cleaner
Structured problems typically have ______ while unstructured problems typically have ______.
only one solution ; many solutions
Programmed decisions work well for solving _____.
structured problems
programmed decisions draw heavily on which of the following?
past solutions that were successful
Following the directions to put together an elliptical exercise machine is an example of which way to solve a problem?
procedure
A judge consults guidelines before handing down and award for damages in a legal case. What kind of decision making is she doing?
following a policy
Top managers in an organization tend to ______.
make non-programmed decisions
Which three conditions do decision makers face?
certainty, risk, uncertainty
In a condition of certainty, ______.
all outcomes of all alternatives are known
If a car buyer knows the inventory dealer price of the same care at different dealerships, he or she is operating under what type of decision making conditions?
certainty
A retail clothing store manager who estimates how much to order for the current spring season based on last spring’s outcomes is operating under what kind of decision making condition?
Risk
______ is a situation in which a decision maker has incomplete information about outcomes and does not have the ability to reasonably estimate outcomes that are not known.
uncertainty
Managers in organizations make group decisions ______.
frequently
One advantage of group decision making is that it usually provides _______ than individual decision making.
more information
Group decisions generally feature ______ acceptance than decisions made by an individual.
greater
Group decisions making typically increases the legitimacy of a decision because the decision was made _______.
democratically
______ can cause people in a group to fail to express their true opinions.
Pressure to conform
Which of the following is used exclusively to generate creative ideas in a group setting?
brainstorming
Which of the following is NOT allowed in a brainstorming session?
criticism or dismissal of poor ideas
What advantages does video conferencing provide for group decision making?
Savings on travel and time
The use of ringisei in Japanese organizations reflects which of the following values in Japanese culture?
Consensus- seeking
French management style tends to be _____ in style.
Autocratic
When dealing with international organizations, managers must be _______ in order to accommodate the managing styles of different cultures.
as flexible as possible
______ helps people find better solutions to problems using innovative problem solving methods.
Creativity
Which of the following is NOT a function of planning?
settling disputes between employees
In informal planning, goals are usually _____ shared with others in organization.
unwritten, and little is
In formal planning, _______.
specific goals covering a period of years are defined
Planning gives organizations direction that primarily helps them ______.
Improve team work and coordinate activities
Planning gives organizations a way to deal with change that ______.
reduce uncertainty
One effect of planning on mangers is that it forces them to ______.
anticipate and consider the effect of change
One criticism of formal planning is that it focuses on how to beat the competition rather than how to ______.
Focus on new opportunities
Studies of performance in organizations that plan have reached _____ with respect to the benefits of formal planning
generally positive conclusions
In studies in which high-quality formal planning did not lead to higher performance, ______ usually the culprit.
unforeseen events or conditions were
The first step in the six-step strategic management process is to______.
identify the organizations mission
The first three steps of the strategic management process involve _____ strategies.
planning
A mission statement includes identification of an organization’s ______.
purpose and basic philosphy
An external analysis, the second step of the strategic management process, helps identify _____.
a company’s opportunities and threats
Which term refers to an organizations capital, works, and patents?
resources
An organizations capabilities identify ______.
what the organization can do
SWOT analysis identifies and analyzes an organizations _______.
Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
SWOT analysis combines ______.
external and internal analyses
The three different types of strategies that managers implement are ______.
corporate, competitive, functional
A corporate strategy focuses primarily on _______.
an organizations mission
A salad dressing company that buys a large olive grove to produce olive oil is practicing which of the following?
backward vertical integration
In forward vertical integration a company becomes its own ______, while in backward vertical integration, the company is its own _______.
distributor; supplier
Two movie studios combining to form on larger studio is an example of which of the following?
horizontal integration
When Google purchased youtube, a company that featured different, but related products, Google was engaging in which of the following?
Diversification
A company who goal is to retain its ideal size and market share is employing which kind of strategy?
stability
Remedies that all renewal strategies employ include which of the following?
cutting costs
A diversified corporation is likely to have_____.
multiple competitive strategies
The thing that makes your product special is known as your ______.
competitive advantage
A company with differentiation strategy focuses on making its products or services ______.
unique and special
A differentiation strategy ______.
can focus on a brand image
Most successful companies find that _____ a competitive advantage is almost as difficult as developing a competitive advantage.
sustaining
To gain a sustainable competitive advantage, a pharmaceutical company might _____.
secure exclusive rights to produce a drug
A company’s strategic weapon in any product, service, or other attribute it has that __________.
gives it an edge over its competitors
To create a competitive advantage that is sustainable, a company can begin by focusing on quality, then ______
Make incremental improvements to keep quality levels high
This term describes an electric shaver company that carefully observes its competitor’s production line to look for ways to improve its own manufacturing process.
benchmarking
which of the following best defines goals?
Desired outcomes for the future
In reality, all organizations have _____.
multiple goals
_____ are important because they provide the standards against which all organizational accomplishments are measure.
Goals
In traditional goal setting, these individuals sets goals
top managers
In traditional goal setting, as they work their way from top management to employees, goals are likely to _____.
become less clear
In management by objectives (MBO), goals ______.
are jointly determined by employees and managers
In addition to being made by both managers and employees, MBO goals must be ______.
specific and include and explicit time limit
strategic plans address ______.
overall organizational goals
tactical plans are operational plans that identify ______.
how overall goals are to be achieved
standing plans typically can be used _____.
repeatedly
Top managers, for the most part, focus on this type of planning.
strategic
The more uncertain a situation is, the more ______ plans must be.
Flexible
The commitment concept states that plans should ______.
stake out a time period that is neither too long nor too short
In the twenty-first century, managers increasingly need to consider their plans as ______.
flexible road maps with destinations that may change
Which statement accurately defines work specialization?
individual employees specialize in doing part of an activity rather than the entire activity
Functional departmentalization groups jobs by _____.
tasks they perform
A soap company that features a bath soap department, a laundry detergent department, and a dish soap department is using which of the following?
product departmentalization
State motor vehicle offices usually use this kind of departmentalization.
process
The line of authority that extends from the upper levels of management to the lowest levels of the organization is termed the ______.
chain of command
______ prevents a single employee from getting conflicting orders from two different superiors.
unity of command
_____ is the power that rest on the leader’s ability to punish or control.
coercive power
A traditional “top down” organization is ______ organization.
a largely centralized
In todays decentralized business world, _____ the most important strategic decisions .
top managers still primarily make
Today’s top managers are moving away from formalization and trying to be this.
More flexible
strategy, size, technology, and the degree of uncertainty in the environment together make up what are called ______.
contingency variables
What is a strength of a simple structure?
accountability is clear
In a team structure, _____.
there is no clear line of managerial authority
In a matrix structure, a group member will typically report to ______.
Both a project manager and functional department head
In a project structure, when the employees finish a project they ______.
move on to another project
Boundaryless organizations try to eliminate _____ within their organization.
horizontal specialization and vertical hierarchy
A learning organization develops the capability to _____.
continuously learn, adapt, and change
Human resource management is concerned with ______ competent employees.
obtaining, training, motivation, and retaining
For the most part, _______ are involved in HR decisions within their own department or unit.
all managers
The most important environmental factor in the HRM process is ______.
the legal environment
The ____ prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, or sex.
Title VII of the civil rights act
The lengthy process by which a job is examined in detail in order to identify the skills, knowledge and behaviors necessary to perform the job is known as a ______.
Job analysis
A job description is ______.
a written document used to describe a job to job candidates
A job specification is ______.
a list of job qualifications only
Recruitment is the process of _____.
locating, identifying, and attracting potential employees
Which of the following is an advantage of using private employment agencies for recruiting?
careful screening of applicants
Which of the following downsizing methods can “happen on its own” if management suspends hiring practices?
attrition
an accept error occurs when an applicant ______.
who is hired performs poorly on the job
To use a physical test as a selection device, a company must demonstrate that ______.
physical ability is related to job performance
Few people are ever selected for a job without this.
undergoing an interview
How effective are behavioral interviews?
eight times as effective as ordinary interviews
A realistic job review (RJP) includes _______ a job.
both positive and negative aspects of
Most training in U.S. organizations is _____.
on the job training
Why do managers often offer counseling to underperforming employees rather than just fire them?
to avoid the cost of replacing the employee
Health insurance is an example of which of the following?
employee benefit
According to the EEOC, sexual harassment is _____ that creates a hostile environment, interferes with a person’s work or diminishes the person’s employment opportunities.
any speech or physical conduct of a sexual nature
What financial threat does sexual harassment pose to companies?
enormous risk of major lawsuit settlements
Change can’t be eliminated, so managers must learn to _________ successfully.
manage it
Which of the following is an example of a technology change within an organization?
workers using new software
Which of the following is an organizational structure change?
changing who reports to whom
The patient protection and affordable care act is an example of which of the following forms of environmental change?
government laws and regulations
In organizations, people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called _____.
change agents
The “calm waters” metaphor envisions an organization as _______.
a large ship on a calm sea
The “white-water rapids” metaphor envisions an organization as ______.
a small raft on a raging river
The first step in Lewin’s three-step description of the change process involves ________.
unfreezing the status quo
Which phenomenon in today’s business climate has mad the “white-water rapids” metaphor popular?
constant and chaotic change
Organization development (OD) helps employees _____.
deal with planned change
The primary goal of the OD method called team building is to _______.
increase trust and openness
Uncertainty causes people to resist change because it ______.
replaces the known with the unknown
Older workers tend to resist change more than younger workers because they ______.
have more invested in the current system
Workers seem to reject a simple new manufacturing method that has been shown to increase company sales because they say, ” that is not the way we do things around here.” these workers are most likely to be resisting change due to which of the following?
habit
Workers in a company are complaining about a new employee evaluation system. which kind of resistance to change are they demonstrating?
resistance because of uncertainty
A technique that helps employees deal with change that includes them in the decision-making process is _____.
participation
When managers threaten to fire workers unless they agree to go along with new company policies, they are using which of the following?
coercion
Stress in the workplace is an adverse reaction that people have in response to _______.
demands, constraints, and opportunities
which statement is correct?
stress can be bad or good
potential stress can become actual stress when the outcome of an event is uncertain and ________.
important to the individual
Stress has ______ symptoms.
psychological, behavioral and physical
An employee’s blood pressure rise, indicating a(n) ______ symptom of stress.
physical
A stressor is defined as ______
a personal or job related factor that causes stress
A head football coach who tries to coach every phase of the team-offense, defense, and special teams-rather than delegate authority is likely to suffer from _______.
role overload
George constantly strives to excel. He must always get the highest grade in the class and has a sense of urgency about him at all times. George probably has which of the following?
Type A personality
Kara is very relaxed, easygoing person who appears to have all the time in the world. she is never too busy to stop and chat for a moment. Kara has which of the following?
Type B personality
A key to dealing with stress is to recognize that all stress _______.
cannot be eliminated from an employees life
to reduce stress, managers need to make sure that employees ________.
have jobs that match their abilities
Stress from an employee’s personal life can best be helped by this.
employee assistance programs
_______refers to the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas.
creativity
_______Is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into something useful.
innovation
An innovative organization needs to tolerate _______ because creative ideas sometimes seem foolish at first.
the impractical
An innovative organization needs to tolerate risk because employees_______ the creative process.
making mistakes is part of
_______actively support innovation and every step of the process that leads to innovative ideas
idea champions
Many managers in today’s business world have restructured work _______.
around teams rather than individuals
This kind of work group brings individuals together from different work disciplines with different knowledge and skills.
cross-functional team
During a recent meting, a shouting match arose between a design manager and a marketing representative about a marketing plan for a new product. This team seems to be at the _______ stage of group development.
storming
Al is given two different “top priorities” from two different managers. Al is experiencing _________.
role conflict
Group norms typically are established ______.
informally by the entire group
A low-ranking employee having the best parking space in the company parking lot is an example of ______.
status incongruence
Small groups appear to perform better when it comes to _____
speed of performing tasks
Group cohesiveness is largely a measure of how ______.
much individuals share the group’s goals
Teams are increasingly popular among successful organizations because they have been found to _____.
outperform individuals in many tasks
The main difference between work groups and work teams is that _______.
Work teams have a common goal
Teams composed of individuals from the same department or functional area and are involved in efforts to improve work activities are called _______.
problem solving teams
Teams composed of individuals who function without a supervisor are called ______.
self-managed work teams
The team that meets each week in room 201 has a goal of creating a new cell phone model. The teams consists of an engineer, a designer, a computer software specialist, and a marketing specialist. The team has full authority to make and implement its own decisions. This is likely to be a ______.
cross-functional team
A major contextual factor that contributes to making a team effective is ______.
trust
When team members complain that they aren’t being paid enough, the team has this kind of contextual problem.
performance evaluation and reward system
These are the Big Five personality traits that seem to have the greatest influence on team performance.
conscientiousness and openness to experience
the “two pizza” rule holds that work teams should _______.
be small enough to fed by two pizzas
Team efficacy is a measure of how ______ a team is.
confident
A major drawback of using global team is _______
cultural differences
A major benefit of global team is ______
idea diversity
The direction of an individuals motivation can be channeled to benefit ______.
both individuals and/or organizations
Maslow’s theory is a hierarchy because ______.
needs are satisfied sequentially
Self-actualization most closely corresponds to ______.
be all you can be
Theory X assumes that people work hard _____.
only when they are forced
According to Herzberg, which kind of characteristics are most closely associated with job dissatisfaction?
Extrinsic things that come from the outside
According to Herzberg, which of the following is considered a motivator?
responsibility
Which three needs are recognized in McClelland’s three-needs theory?
achievement, power, affiliation
Successful managers tend to be better at ______.
Helping others achieve goals than achieving their own goals
Setting goals definitely seems to ______.
Increase performance and motivation
The job characteristics model (JCM) maintains that _____ is critical to motivating workers.
how jobs are designed
Autonomy is important in the JCM because it gives the worker ____.
A sense of personal responsibility
Equity theory is based primarily on ideas about which of the following?
fairness
In equity theory, procedural justice is concerned with which of the following?
determining how fair the system is
The first variable in expectancy theory might be summarized by saying _______.
different rewards motivate people in different ways
The integrated model for motivation as shown in the chapter reading features the following basic sequence.
effort-performance-rewards-individual goals
Expectancy theory and goal-setting theory align well with American workers because American culture places a strong emphasis on ______.
achievement and individualism
One factor that seems to motivate workers across all cultures is seeking ______.
interesting work
In today’s diverse workforce, which factor do managers need to focus on most to maximize motivation?
flexibility
_______allow companies to accommodate the needs of workers with nonstandard family situations
Flextime, compressed work weeks, and job sharing
Which of the following is thought to best motivate professionals?
Challenging problems and important work
_______ can improve employee performance by sharing the financial circumstances of the organization with the employee.
open-book management
Because leading is one of the four basic managerial functions, _____leaders.
all managers should be
Leaders are _____.
individual people, while leadership is a process
If a trait theory of leadership were true, then all leaders would possess ______.
the same traits
Trait theory helps explain why _______.
successful leaders are effective
Which leadership style tends to centralize authority and make unilateral decisions?
autocratic style
Monica’s boss allows her to make any decision she thinks is important on the spot without consulting anyone. Monica’s boss has this kind of leadership style.
Laissez-faire style
The behavioral theories of leadership began around this time.
1940-1960
On the managerial grid, a leader who is high in both concern for people and concern for production would rate _______
9,9
The key to the Fiedler contingency model of leadership is to match ______.
leadership style and situation
Fiedler’s LPC ratings concluded that leaders were either ______.
task oriented or relationship oriented
your boss has total control over hiring, firing, and promotions in your department. He has ______.
high position power
Jobs in a firm are quite informal. Workers are versatile and switch tasks a responsibilities depending on the situation. In Fielder’s model, this firm would be said to have________.
Low task structure
In the situational leadership theory (SLT), readiness is defined as _______ to perform a task.
both the ability and willingness
A leader who pretty much leaves employees on their own is assuming this SLT role.
delegating
The leader participation model contends that leader behavior should ______.
adjust to the structure of the task involved
The most important conclusion from the leader-participation model is that _____.
a leader must change his or her leadership style depending on the situation
The path-goal theory sees the job of an effective leader as ______.
clearing the path between followers and their goals
A (n) ______ leader in path-goal theory gives specific guidance in performing tasks
directive
an important trait of a(n) ______leader in path-goal theory is friendliness.
supportive
A(n) _______leader in path-goal theory often makes decisions collectively with followers.
participative
Leaders who are looking for exceptionally high performance from subordinates might try this approach.
achievement oriented
Visionary leaders are leaders who guide by _______.
articulating a vision of the future
Transformational leaders are leaders who guide by ______.
Inspiring followers
Which team is most closely associated with transformational leaders?
inspiring
Visionary leadership differs from charismatic leadership because of its focus on _______.
a positive image of the future
This team leader role requires leaders to try to get the best out of their team.
Coach
When two members of a team are having a personal conflict, the team leader takes on this role.
Conflict manager
A unique problem that virtual leaders face is being understood without a _______ form of communication.
nonverbal
Studies show that the higher the rank a star performer has in an organization, the more he or she relies on ______ for success.
emotional intelligence
This is the dimension of trust that includes how honest a leader is.
integrity