Principles of Management Chapter 9

Human resource management (HRM)
The design and application of formal systems to ensure the effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals.
Human capital
The economic value of the combined knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees.
Discrimination
Hiring or promoting of applicants based on criteria that are not job relevant.
Affirmative action
Requires that employers take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups.
Contingent workers
People who work for an organization, but not on a permanent or full-time basis, including temporary placements, independent contractors, freelancers, and part-time employees.
Telecommuting
Using computers and telecommunications equipment to perform work from home or another remote location.
Human resource planning
The forecasting of human resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with anticipated job vacancies.
Matching model
a human resources approach in which the organization and the individual attempt to match each other’s needs, interest, and values.
Recruiting
Activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs.
Job analysis
The systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job.
Job description
A concise summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of that job.
Job specification
Outlines the knowledge, skills, education, physical abilities, and other characteristics needed to adequately perform a specific job.
Realistic job preview
Recruiting to give applicants all pertinent and realistic information, both positive and negative, about a job and the organization.
Selection
The process of assessing the skills, abilities, and other attributes of applicants in an attempt to determine the fit between the job and each applicant’s characteristics.
Application form
A selection device that collects information about the applicant’s education, previous work experience, and other background characteristics.
Structured interview
Uses a set of standardized questions that are asked of every applicant, so comparisons can easily be made.
Nondirective interview
The interviewer asks broad, open-ended questions and permits the applicant to talk freely with minimal interruption, in an attempt to bring to light information, attitudes, and behavioral characteristics that might be concealed when answering structured questions.
Panel interview
An interview in which the candidate meets with several interviewers who take turns asking questions.
Employment tests
Assess candidates of various factors considered important for the job to be performed; they include cognitive ability tests, physical ability tests, and personality tests.
Assessment center
Used to select individuals with high managerial potential based on their performance on a series of simulated managerial tasks.
Work sample tests
Used for front-line positions to evaluate performance in completing simulated tasks that are a part of the job.
on-the-job-training (OJT)
An experienced employee is asked to teach a new employee how to perform job duties.
corporate university
an in-house training and development facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees.
mentoring
refers to when an experienced employee or manager guides and supports a newcomer or less-experienced employee.
coaching
method of directing, instructing, and training a person, with the goal of developing specific management skills.
performance appraisal
The process of observing and evaluating an employee’s performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback.
360-degree feedback
Uses multiple raters, including self-rating, to appraise employee performance and guide development.
Stereotyping
A performance evaluation error that occurs when a manager places an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics.
halo effect
When a manager gives an employee the same rating on all dimensions of the job even though performance may be good on some dimensions and poor on others.
behaviorally anchored rating scale
A performance evaluation technique that related an employee’s performance to specific job-related incidents.
compensation
all monetary payments and all nonmonetary goods or benefits used to reward employees.
job evaluation
the process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content.
wage and salary surveys
show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of key jobs selected by the organization.
pay for performance (incentive pay)
Tying at least a portion of compensation to employee effort and performance.
Rightsizing (downsizing)
Intentionally reducing the company’s workforce to the point where the number of employees is deemed right for the company’s current situation.
Exit interview
An interview conducted with departing employees to determine reasons for their departure and learn about potential problems in the organization.
Diversity
All the ways in which employees differ.
Managing diversity
Creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized.
Prejudice
Tendency to view people who are different as being deficient
Stereotype
A rigid, exaggerated, irrational belief associated with a particular group of people
Stereotype threat
Occurs when a person who, when engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group suggesting that he or she will not perform well on that task.
monoculture
A culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs
Ethnorelativism
The belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal
Pluralism
An environment in which the organization accommodates several subcultures, including employees who would otherwise feel isolated and ignored.
glass ceiling
An invisible barrier that separates women from top management positions, impedes women’s career growth.
Cultural competence
The ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.
Mentor
A higher-ranking senior member of the organization who is committed to provided upward mobility and support to a proteges professional career.
Diversity training
Designed to educate employees about the importance of diversity, make people aware of their own biases, and teach them skills fro communicating and working in a diverse workplace.
Multicultural teams
Made up of members from diverse national, racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.
Employee network groups
BAsed on social identity, such as gender or race, and are organized by employees to focus on concerns of employees from that group.