Principles Of Management: Chapter 3

problem
the situation that exists whenever objectives are not being met.
problem solving
the process of taking corrective correction action to meet objectives.
decision making
the process of selecting a course of action that will solve a problem.
decision-making model
a six-step model that, when used properly, increases chances of success in decision making and problem solving.
programmed decisions
decisions that arise in recurring or routine situations, for which the decision maker should use decision rules or organizational policies and procedures.
nonprogrammed
significant decisions that arise in nonrecurring and nonroutine situations, for which the decision maker should use the decision-making model.
decision-making conditions
certainty, risk, and uncertainty.
criteria
the standards that an alternative must meet to be selected as the decision that will accomplish the objective.
creativity
a way of thinking that generates new ideas.
innovation
the implementation of a new idea.
creative process
the approach to generating new ideas that involve three stages: (1) preparation, (2) incubation and illumination, and (3) evaluation.
devil’s advocate approach
group members focus on defending a solution while others try to come up with reasons the solution will not work.
brainstorming
the process of suggesting many possible alternatives without evaluation.
synectics
the process of generating novel alternatives through role playing and fantasizing.
nomial grouping
the process of generating and evaluating alternatives using a structured voting method.
Consensus mapping
the process of developing group agreement on a solution to a problem.
participative decision-making model
a time-driven or development-driven decision tree that assists a user in selecting one of five leadership styles to use in a given situation to maximize a decision.