Principles of Computing Final

Actual computer errors are very rare. t/f
true
Computer memory is divided into bytes of 9 bits. t/f
false
Every memory location in the computer is numbered, starting at 0. t/f
true
Each byte in memory is limited in size. t/f
true
A megabyte is exactly a million bytes. t/f
false
The ADD instruction adds the contents of a location, not the number of the location. t/f
true
The ability to store different values in its memory locations makes the computer a flexible tool. t/f
true
Device drivers must be purchased separately from the peripheral. t/f
false
Any 2 GHz computer will always run faster than a 1 GHz computer. t/f
false
Starting a computer is called booting. t/f
true
An interrupt is a request for the operating system to do something. t/f
true
Miniaturization is the biggest achievement of microchip technology. t/f
false
A canal is the path in a semiconductor where electricity travels. t/f
false
A field effect transistor controls the flow of electricity through a circuit without ever touching the circuit. t/f
true
The fear of computers taking over the world has died down since the 1950s and 1960s. t/f
true
Memory is measured in:
a) megabytes
b) bytes
c) MB
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Computer memory is like:
a) a rule
b) a row of plastic cups
c) a number line
d) an analog clock
b) a row of plastic cups
The control unit of the computer is involved in the:
a) Instruction Fetch & Instruction Execute Cycle
b) Control Cycle
c) Instruction Execution
d) Data Fetch
a) Instruction Fetch & Instruction Execute Cycle
The peripheral most closely tied to the computer is the:
a) monitor
b) mouse
c) hard disk
d) keyboard
c) hard disk
Computer instructions are:
a) 1 byte long
b) 2 bytes long
c) 4 bytes long
d) 8 bytes long
c) 4 bytes long
The program counter keeps track of the:
a) number of programs the computer is running
b) number of memory addresses used
c) next instruction in the Control unit
d) current instruction in Fetch/Execute
c) next instruction in the Control unit
The computer’s speed is measured in megahertz, that is:
a) thousands of cycles per minute
b) millions of cycles per minute
c) thousands of cycles per second
d) millions of cycles per second
d) millions of cycles per second
On the computer, a billion clock ticks in a second is called:
a) megahertz
b) gigahertz
c) bilahertz
d) terahertz
b) gigahertz
Computer speed is dependent upon all of the following except:
a) processor speed
b) memory size
c) byte size
d) instruction set
c) byte size
A clock speed of 1 GHz means the computer runs:
a) exactly 1 billion instructions per second
b) at least 1 billion instructions per second
c) up to 1 billion instructions per second
d) around 1 billion instructions per second
d) around 1 billion instructions per second
A page fault is:
a) an attempt by the computer to run instructions stored on the hard disk
b) the process the computer uses to start itself
c) an error the computer makes when a device driver is missing
d) an out of memory error
a) an attempt by the computer to run instructions stored on the hard disk
Which of the following is not controlled by the operating system?
a) printing and mouse movement
b) system integration
c) monitor display
d) memory management
b) system integration
Integrated circuits are so remarkable because:
a) they use a photographic process in manufacturing
b) the entire circuit is made of the same types of materials
c) they combine millions of programs on the same chip
d) more than one of the above
d) more than one of the above
The “wires” on a computer chip are made from:
a) copper
b) aluminum
c) iron
d) gold
b) aluminum
The lowest programming language that humans use is:
a) binary
b) assembly
c) Java
d) HTML
b) assembly
Which of the following is not an operating system?
a) Apple Mac X
b) Unix
c) Linux
d) Assembly
d) Assembly
Management of a computer’s hardware is done with:
a) a programming language
b) a compiler
c) an operating system
d) all of the above
c) an operating system
How many steps are a part of the Fetch/Execute cycle?
a) 2
b) 4
c) 5
d) 8
c) 5
The next instruction must be at the memory address:
a) PC
b) PC + 4
c) PC-2
d) PC*4
b) PC + 4
Information is generated when buying goods and services at a store. t/f
true
The vast majority of business transactions are anonymous. t/f
false
American privacy laws are much stricter than European laws. t/f
false
The United States has not adopted the OECD principles. t/f
true
Globalization is likely to increase privacy. t/f
true
The laws protecting the information of individuals place more limits on the government than on business. t/f
true
The United States provides almost no enforcement of OECD privacy principles. t/f
true
A company can place a cookie on your computer even if you’ve never visited the Web site. t/f
true
Linking third-party serial numbers embedded in cookies is illegal. t/f
false
Cooking can be used to track ad placement on Web sites. t/f
true
The biggest information privacy issue in the United States is the concern between approval and objection of information use. t/f
true
The RSA public key cryptosystem code has not been cracked. t/f
false
The Do-Not-Call List was so successful, it has now been applied to email. t/f
false
Identity theft is the crime of posing as someone else for fraudulent purpose. t/f
true
Partial bakcups should be made more often than full backups. t/f
true
Emptying the trash is no guarantee that the data has been erased. t/f
true
Privacy laws in Hong Kong are stricter than those in the United States. t/f
true
There are only two basic threats to privacy. t/f
true
Non-EU countries that want information on Eu citizens must show that they have privacy laws consistent with the OECD principles. t/f
true
“Opt-in” means the business can use it unless the person explicitly prohibits the new use. t/f
false
Modern browsers let you control the cookie policy for your computer. t/f
true
In the United States the protection of an individual’s privacy is the responsibility of the government. t/f
false
The purpose of encryption is to allow private transmission and storage of sensitive information. t/f
true
The frequency count of English is fixed. t/f
false
Personal computers can only be backed up to another hard disk. t/f
true
Most Americans wrongly assume that their privacy regarding business information is restricted to __________.
private use
__________ and __________ are the two biggest threats to privacy.
Government and Business
Five principles for the collection and use of personal information were first laid out by the __________.
Code of Fair Information Practices
The __________ limits the government’s ability to interfere with people’s privacy.
Privacy Act of 1974
The United states takes a __________ approach to individual privacy by passing laws to limit specific industries or business practices.
sectoral
The concept of __________ allows data on people from EC countries to be transferred to other countries, providing the company complies with OECD rules.
Safe Harbor
__________ is the process of recovering encrypted cipher text.
Decryption
__________ can be described as x or y but not both.
XOR
Public key encryption techniques are known as __________.
strong encryption
A(n) __________ is a security bypass that could be used to send cleartext to security officials.
trapdoor
__________ systems would bypass security by requiring software vendors to register their encryption keys.
Key escrow
Which principle of the OECD Fair Information Practices states that personal data gathered should be relevant to the purposes for which it is used, and should be accurate, complete, and up-to-date?
Quality Principle
A(n) __________ solution provides consistent protection to all information.
Omnibus
FTC guidelines require __________ only for highly sensitive information like medical data.
opt-in
__________ are an elegant way for servers to give clients the illusion they are the only one being served.
Cookies
Spreadsheets are used primarily in:
a) education
b) business
c) government
d) the home
c) government
The basic unit of a spreadsheet is a:
a) box
b) cube
c) cell
d) grid
c) cell
Speadsheets:
a) can only be sorted by column A
b) can be sorted by any column provided the column is named
c) are sorted by rows then columns
d) can be sorted by any column
d) can be sorted by any column
A range of cells can include:
a) cells from more than one row
b) cells from more than one column
c) the entire spreadsheet
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Data too wide to fit in a cell:
a) is truncated
b) is abbreviated
c) is hyphenated
d) cannot be entered into a cell
a) is truncated
The main purpose of a spreadsheet is to:
a) display numerical results
b) process numerical data
c) organize factual data
d) graphically present data
b) process numerical data
To stop editing a cell and move to another cell, use the:
a) arrow key
b) tab key
c) Enter key
d) escape key
c) Enter key
Common, summary applications in a spreadsheet are handled by:
a) formulas
b) functions
c) tables
d) formatting
b) functions
Spreadsheets have:
a) over 50 build-in functions
b) 76 built-in functions
c) nearly 100 built-in functions
d) over 100 built-in functions
d) over 100 built-in functions
To get a cell to display $10.00 you must:
a) enter 10.00 and format the cell to currency
b) enter $10.00 in the cell
c) enter $1&0 in the cell
d) it cannot be done
a) enter 10.00 and format the cell to currency
To select a range of cells:
a) double-click the first and last cells
b) drag the cursor across the cells
c) click Select on the Edit menu
d) click the Add icon
b) drag the cursor across the cells
To clear cells using Excel, select:
a) Edit>Clear>Cells
b) Edit> Delete Cells
c) Edit> Clear> All
d) Edit> Delete Contents…
c) Edit>Clear>All
A formula reference begins with:
a) f()
b) a cell reference
c) any number
d) the equal sign (=)
d) the equal sign (=)
Spreadsheet columns are labeled with __________.
letters
The rows of a spreadsheet are designated with __________.
numbers
The __________ determines whether a spreadsheet cell contains a formula or data.
equal sign
Spreadsheet formulas are edited in the __________.
edit window
An absolute cell reference makes use of the __________ symbol in its formula.
$
The process of copying from one cell to many others by simply dragging is called __________.
filling
Control over the style of the display of a cell is called ___________.
formatting
Cell references that do not change when copied from one cell to another are called __________ references.
absolute
The Min function is used to display the __________ item in a list.
smallest
A file with a .txt extension probably contains __________.
text
To change the way contents of a cell appears, you change its __________.
format
To help us create a list, spreadsheets give us an array of __________ that we fill in to set up our list.
cells
Flexibility is an important characteristic of a spreadsheet. t/f
false
Summary information should be placed at the top of a spreadsheet. t/f
false
When working with a spreadsheet, use different fonts for headings and data. t/f
true
Use the Edit menu to insert comments in Excel. t/f
false
In a spreadsheet, conditional formatting allows to you specify a format for cells that meet certain criteria. t/f
true
Excel provides automatic currency conversion with no need to write special formulas. t/f
false
In a spreadsheet, names can only be applied to cell references, not individual cells.
false
Direct changes to a spreadsheet’s values are the best way to perform what if analysis.
true
To run the actual filtering operation in a spreadsheet, select a cell in the column to be filtered.
true
The first rule of setting up effective spreadsheets is:
a) make if visually interesting
b) focus on form
c) avoid explanations that clutter the spreadsheet
d) explain everything
b) focus on form
Place descriptive information:
a) on the top and left
b) on the top and right
c) on the bottom and left
d) on the bottom and right
a) on the top and left
In the Conditional Formatting dialog box, the default condition is:
a) equal to
b) less than
c) greater than
d) between
d) between
What symbol is used to denote absolute cell references?
a) equal sign (=)
b) dollar sign ($)
c) percent sign (%)
d) tilde (~)
b) dollar sign ($)
The IF function specifies:
a) action on true outcome
b) condition
c) action of false outcome
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
To access letters of a cell value for such comparisons, use the function:
a) LETTER()
b) INDEX()
c) IF()
d) LEFT()
d) LEFT()
A word or a phrase applied to a cell or range of cells is called its:
a) value
b) name
c) literal
d) range id
b) name
The Scenario Manager window is accessed via the:
a) Tools menu
b) File menu
c) Edit menu
d) Formulas menu
a) Tools menu
What method is used to access subsets of information?
a) logging
b) conditional formatting
c) sorting
d) filtering
d) filtering
Inconsistency is the main reason to avoid redundancy of information in a database. t/f
true
Relationships connect rows of one table with rows of another table. t/f
true
Relationships are part of the metadata of a database. t/f
true
Relationships are specified by the user of the database. t/f
false
For two tables to be related, they must share a common field. t/f
true
The shared field between two tables cannot be unique. t/f
false
Access to sensitive information in a database should be limited. t/f
true
Logical database duplicates information that exists in the tables of a physical database. t/f
true
Queries are used to create views. t/f
true
A logical table can be created with information from no more than two physical tables. t/f
false
To successfully use a database, a user should know SQL.
false
An instance of a database table is a table with a specific set of rows. t/f
true
A root element is the tag that encloses all of the content of the XML file. t/f
true
The key field for the student database on a campus is probably the student:
a) address
b) ID
c) phone
d) last name
b) ID
A unique identifier stored in place of information that might be repeated is known as a:
a) key field
b) foreign key
c) data key
d) lookup key
b) foreign key
A logical database:
a) is created from existing information
b) is created fresh each time it is needed
c) usually uses information from multiple tables
d)
all of the above
d) all of the above
Associating information from two or more tables is done with a:
a) Join operation
b) Bind operation
c) Combine operation
d) Unite operation
a) Join operation
Logical tables are created with a:
a) view
b) query
c) relationship
d) key
b) query
Queries are a part of the:
a) logical database
b) database schema
c) metadata
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
In SQL, the INNER JOIN is used to combine:
a) two or more logical tables to form a physical table
b) two or more physical tables to form a logical tables
c) tables in the same way the Product operation is used
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
The SQL WHERE clause is similar to the:
a) Join operation
b) Select operation
c) Union operation
d) Add operation
Relationships in a database schema show how:
a) tables are related to one another
b) queries are related to one another
c) information in a table is related to information in another table
d) fields are related to one another in a table
a) tables are related to one another
An ER diagram shows relationships between:
a) tables in a database
b) entities in a database
c) fields in a database
d) queries in a database
b) entities in a database
A set of attributes for which all entities are different is known as a:
a) primary key
b) secondary key
c) candidate key
d) provisional key
c) candidate key
XML should be edited using a:
a) word processor
b) text editor
c) Web browser
d) spreadsheet program
b) text editor
XML tags may not contain:
a) spaces
b) uppercase letters
c) lowercase letters
d) numbers
a) spaces
When Turing developed his test, researchers believed that “natural language” was beyond the abilities of computers. t/f
true
Any computer using only very simple instructions can simulate any other computer. t/f
true
When a computer plays chess, the information is represented in:
a) natural language
b) bits
c) black and white
d) integers
b) bits
__________ computer problems are problems that have no practical solution because the data set involved is so large to defy a practical solution.
Intractable
__________ use a “brute force” approach to solving a problem by trying every possibility and then picking the best solution.
The __________ is a famous computation that computers cannot solve.
Halting Problem
Computers don’t understand __________, that is, the language humans use.
natural language
A(n) __________ is a procedure that assigns a numerical value to each chess piece when calculating the best possible move.
evaluation function
In chess or other games, looking ahead to future moves is describes as __________.
game tree
Getting two or more computers to work on a problem at the same time is called __________.
parallel computation
Increasing the number of CDs that need to be alphabetized would increase the size of the computation according to the __________ algorithm.
work-proprotional to n2
The Face Forward algorithm is an example of the __________ algorithm.
work-proportional to n
The fastest computers can calculate at rates of __________ instructions per second.
200 million
A(n) __________ test attempts to define thinking.
Turing