principle management 3

omnipotent view of management
The view that managers are directly responsible for an organization’s success or failure
symbolic view of management
The view that much of an organization’s
success or failure is due to external forces
outside managers’ control
environmental uncertainty
The degree of change and complexity in an
organization’s environment
stakeholders
Any constituencies in the organization’s
environment that are affected by an
organization’s decisions and actions
strong cultures
Organizational cultures in which the key values
are intensely held and widely shared
socialization
The process that helps employees adapt to the
organization’s culture
components of external environments
technological, sociocultural, global, economics, demographics, political/legal
Research shows that spiritual organizations tend to have five cultural characteristics.
Strong sense of purpose, Focus on individual development, Trust and openness, Employee empowerment, Toleration of employee expression
Characteristics of
Customer-Responsive Culture
Type of employee, Type of job environment, Empowerment, Role clarity, Consistent desire to satisfy and delight customers
What does an innovative culture look like?
Challenge and involvement, Freedom, Trust and openness, Idea time, Playfulness/humor, Conflict resolution, Debates, Risk-taking
Managerial Decisions Affected
by Culture
Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling
How Employees Learn Culture?
The most common are stories, rituals, material symbols, and language.
Why is having a strong culture important?
Employees are more loyal than employees in organizations with weak cultures.
Attention to Detail
Degree to which employees are expected
to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail
Innovation and Risk Taking
Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and to take risks
Stability
Degree to which organizational decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo
Aggressiveness
Degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative
Team Orientation
Degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals
People Orientation
Degree to which management decisions take into account the effects on people in the organization
Outcome Orientation
Degree to which managers focus on results or outcomes rather than on how these outcomes are achieved
Three ways the environment constrains and challenges managers.
Its impact on jobs and employment; the environmental uncertainty that is present; the various stakeholder relationships that exist between an organization and its external
constituencies
challenge and involvement
means employees are involved in, motivated by, and committed to the long-term goals and success of the organization.
conflict resolution
means individuals make decisions and resolve issues based on the good of the organization as compared to personal interest.
Environmental uncertainty
the degree of change and complexity in an organization’s environment
risk taking
means managers tolerate uncertainty and ambiguity, and employees are rewarded for taking risks.
trust and openness
employees are supportive of and respectful to each other
Symbolic view of management states
much of an organization’s success or failure is due to external forces outside the manager’s control
plan
An organization’s culture, especially a strong one, influences and constrains the way managers __________ , such as whether plans should be developed by individuals or teams.
rganizational culture, stability
the degree to which organizational decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo
people orientation
Environmental complexity
is the number of components in an organization’s environment and the extent of the organization’s knowledge about those components.
External environment
the factors and forces outside the organization that affect its performance
Organizational culture
shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act and that distinguish the organization from other organizations.
Workplace spirituality
a culture wherein organizational values promote a sense of purpose through meaningful work that takes place in the context of community
team orientation
is the degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals.
In organizational culture, attention to detail
the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail
aggressiveness
In organizational culture, __________ is the degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative.
freedom
In an innovative culture, __________ means employees can independently define their work, exercise discretion, and take initiative in their day-to-day activities.
attention to detail
In organizational culture, __________ is the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
playfulness/humor
the workplace is spontaneous and fun
debates
employees are allowed to express opinions and put forth ideas for consideration and review