Practice Final Questions

C
If a person with an abnormal behavior is unable to or unwilling to appreciate the extent of their problem or the impact it had on other people, what would psychologists say that person lacked?

a). logic
b). common sense
c). Insight
d). Ignorance

D
What is one of the major uses of case studies?

a). validating correlations established in the lab.
b). establishing the borderline between abnormal and normal behaviors
c). verifying the effectiveness of therapies
d). studying the unusual conditions

A
In twin studies the key comparison involves determining how many pairs of twins either have the same disorder or are free of the disorder; this involves the calculation of

a). concordance rates
b). discordance rates
c). nonshared environment rates
D). Shared Enviornment rates

d
According to Sigmund Freud, how does a boy resolve forbidden sexual desire for his mother?

a). by developing aggressive urges toward tehis mother
b). By becoming attracted to girls
c). by developing an Electra complex
d). by identifying with with his father

B
For an assignment you are asked to look up a group of drugs known as major tranquilizers. You consult a drug handbook and find that another term for these drugs is

a). antianxiety
b). antipsychotic
c). sedative hypnotic
d). antidepressant

D
Therapists representing the biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic orientations are discussing the case of Frances from the text. What common feature will these therapists see in this case of depression?

a). all focus on the influence of her family as a causative agent in the development of her depression
b). all focus on her use of defense mechanisms
c). All she how the basic cause of the depression can be traced to early childhood experiences
d). All note her tendency to blame herself for troubles in her relationship

B
A researcher wants to compare the use of rating scales to behavioral coding systems. After making the comparison, he concludes that behavioral coding systems tend to

a). be less reliable
b). require less inference by the observer
c). be more qualitative
d). require more subjective judgment

a
A psychologist administers a series of projective tests to a client. Which major theoretical orientation is most consistent with this psychologist’s preference in assessment methods?
a). psychodynamic
b). biological
c). behavioral
d). humanistic
A
According to cognitive theories of depression, various types of cognitive errors, or distortions in thinking, are partly responsible for the disorder. Which of the following is one of the cognitive distortions mentioned in your textbook?

a). a tendency to recalll selectively events w/ negative consquences
b). A tendency to turn suspicion toward others toward the self
c). a tendency to overgeneralize conclusions about the self based on positive experiences
d). assigning specfic, impersonal meaning to an experience of faillure.

d
A report in the newspaper describes the common epidemiological finding that the rate of depression is higher among women than among men. How have researchers evaluated the validity of this finding?

a). this gender difference is an artifact that occurs only in samples of patients that seek treatment.
b). men and women differ in their willingness to talk about their depressive symptoms
c). mental health professionals are more prone to diagnose depression in women than in men
d). this gender difference exists, but it cannot be explained by methodological or sampling differences

a
_____ has to be present in order for a fear to be considered a phobia.

a). avoidance
b). sudden onset
c). panic
d). excessive worry

a
What are the common side effects of benzodiazepines?

a). sedation of mild psychomotor and cognitive impairments
b). hyperactivity, insomnia, and overstimulation
c). food cravings, weight gain, high blood pressure
d). mania, dry mouth, overstimulation

a
Who commonly treats patients with somatic related disorders first, and what is the most important part of treatment?

a). primary care physicians; the relationship between the care provider and the patient
b). psychiatrists, the accuracy of the diagnosis
c). clinical psychologists; the support for the patient from family and friends
d). mental health professionals, the choice of treatment

a
What is the prescribed treatment for illness anxiety disorder?

a). exposure and response prevention
b). continued visits to medical doctors
c). Integration of personalities
d). psychodynamic therapy

a
There is no single, identifiable cause for ________ hypertension, which accounts for approximately 85 percent of all cases of high blood pressure.

a). esstential
b). systolic
c). secondary
d). diastolic

heart disease
What is the leading cause of death in the United States, taking more than 100,000 additional lives compared to the second leading cause?
c
Functional impairments in personality disorders are most often seen in what area?

a).congitive deficts
b). medical problems
c). Interpersonal Relationships
d). School

a
Which of the following is part of the definition of a person’s temperament?

a). emotional reactivity
b). guilt feelings
c). ego development
d). personality development

d
Which of the following symptoms is likely to show the most improvement with the use of antipsychotic medication?

a). avolition
b). diminished emotional expression
c). alogia
d). hallucinations

d
What diagnostic category is used to describe individuals who experience transient symptoms of schizophrenia and then complete recovery?

a) catatonia
b). split personality
c). anhedonia
d). brief psychotic disorder

a
Why is it important to study positive psychology?

a). psychology has been too focused on the negative
b). we get a fuller understanding of human experience by focusing on both positive and negative aspects of life
c). negative experiences in people’s lives tell us little about peoples mental processes
d). psychologists are only interested in the experiences of healthy persons.

b
Some psychologists study positive psychology, which is the study of

A). how our actions can influence the behavior, and emotions of others.
b). the features that enrich life, such as hope, creativity, and responsibility.
c). positive correlations such as those between height + age.
d). why those people who have more social contacts have a buffer against distress

a
________ is a state of full engagement with an activity, according to Csikszentmihalyi.

a). flow
b). active present focus
c). being in the now
d). concentration

d
Sigmund Freud had much to do with the belief that

a). positive behaviors are as common as negative ones
b). unconscious motivations for goodness are overriden by self interested conscious motives
c). human nature is basically good, but society prevents this goodness from being expressed
d). human behavviors have negative motivations underlying them

b
What is the problem in Rh incompatibility during pregnancy?

a) brain infections causes damaging cranial pressure
b). the mothers antibodies attack the blood cells of the fetus
c). unmetabolized amino acids cause brain damage
d). chromosomal abnormalities cause intellectual disabiity

c
IQ scores are derived from standard scores, and to calculate a standard score, you need to know

a). the normal distribution
b). the mode/median
c). mean/standara deviation
d). mode

b
Research indicates that the highly structured intensive behavior therapy techniques developed by Ivor Lovaas and his colleagues

a). only work when combined with antipsychotic medications
b). can be effective but only when they are provided many hours a week and for many years.
c). can be very effectie within short periods of time
d). lead only to temporary improvements

d
What types of intellectual disability are described by the term cultural-familial?

a). those that are due to chromosomal abnormalities common in certain ethnic groups
b). those resulting from sexually transmitted diseases
c). those due to drug abuse during pregnancy
d). those that run in families and are linked to poverty

c
_______ has been found to have success in treating symptoms of autism, particularly regarding behavior management.

a). dopamine therapy
b). secretin therapy
c). risperidone therapy
d). chelation therapy

b
Support for a neurodevelopmental basis of autism spectrum disorder is found in

a). an identified specfic genetic mechanism that causes brain abnormalities
b). unusually accelerated head and brain growth in the first few years of life
c). low levels of specific neurotransmitters in children with the disorder
d). OVerActivation in certain areas of the brain that are associated w/ facial recognition and the recognition of facial expressions

a
What have researchers determined concerning the treatment of anxiety disorders in children?

a). Cognitive behavior therapy and family therapy both have been successful
b). psychodynamic therapy seems to be the most effective treatment
c). drug treatments have been shown to be unhelpful in treating these problems
d). family therapy seems to be the most effective long-term treatment b/c these are really family caused disorders

b
Kesha’s doctor decided to put her on medication for her ADHD. He would probably have prescribed any of the following EXCEPT __________.

a). clonidine
b). fluoextine
c). strattera
d). psychostimulants

a
The most common form of enuresis is

a). primary nocturnal enuresis
b). primary diurnal euresis
c). secondary dirunal enuresis
d). secondary nocturnal enuresis

c
In a hospital corridor, you overhear physicians discussing a patient’s soft signs. You ask your own physician what they meant and find that they were referring to

a). symptoms that only appear in evidence from low-tech types of testing equipment
b). an area of the brain that experienced a direct blow that causes seizure-like symptoms
c). neurological symptoms, such as delays in fine motor coordination
d). indications that suggest a low level of a certain neurotransmitter is present

a
What is the long-term prognosis for children who have oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder into adulthood?

a). about half will have problems with anti social behavior in adulthood
b). There is a high probability of full recovery of normal functioning on the majority of cases
d). some of their symptoms will decrease unless they also have ADHD

d
The continuous performance test is used to measure

a). accademic achievement
b). hyperactivity
c). neurological abnormalities
d). sustained attention

b
Encopresis is best treated by

a). social skills training
b). medical-behavioral treatment
c). psychodynamic therapy
d). behavioral interventions

d
What is the typical outcome among nonhuman primates who are raised in isolation without a parent or substitute attachment figure?

a). they show problems until adolescence
b). their social development is normal
c). they show no problems until adolesence
d). they have dramatically troubled social relationships

B
Encopresis is best treated by…

a). social skills training
b). medical – behavioral treatment
c). psychodynamic therpay
d). behavioral interventions

c
In a hospital corridor, you overhear physicians discussing a patient’s soft signs. You ask your own physician what they meant and find that they were referring to

a). symptoms that only appear in evidence from low-tech types of testing equipment.
b). an area of the brain that experienced a direct blow that causes seizure- like symptoms
c). neurological symptoms; such as delays in fine motor coordination
d). indications that suggest a low level of certain neurotransmitter is present.

b
A teacher is concerned about a student who seems depressed. She asks the school psychologist whether her student is likely to outgrow his current problems. How would the school psychologist respond?
a). children are resilient and usually outgrow their depression
b). children who have experienced childhood depression are 6x more likely to commit suicide as young adults.
c). what looks like depression in young children is almost always a form of age-approrpiate behavior
d). depression in young girls may get worse with age, but with young boys it usually gets better.
a
What have researchers determined concerning the treatment of anxiety disorders in children?

a). cognitive behavior therapy and family therapy both have been successful
b). psychodynamic therapy seems to be the most effective treatment
c). drug treatments have been shown to be unhelpful in treating these problems.
d). family therapy seems to be the most effective long term treatment b/c these are really family caused disorders

b
Research indicates that the highly structured intensive behavior therapy techniques developed by Ivor Lovaas and his colleagues

a) only work when combined w/ antipsychotic medications
b). can be effective but only when they’re provided many hours a week for many years
c). can be very effective within a very short period of time
d). lead only to temporary improvements.

c
Both the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and DSM-5 recognize that

a). IQ measures social intelligence
b). IQ scores define intelligence
c). intelligence is much more than an IQ score
d) conceptual skills are part of IQ scores.

D
What evidence do psychologists put forth in support of the validity of intelligence tests?

a). the mean IQ score in the population is 100
b). estimates of the heritability of intelligence is50 %
c). IQ scores in preschool years are moderately correlated w/ IQ score and based on tests administered at the end of high school
d). IQ scores precisely measure the potential for school achievement

b
In the behavior modification program called __________, the first goal is to identify target behaviors, while the second is to gain control over these behaviors through the use of reinforcement and punishment.

a). systematicc desensitization
b). applied behavior analysis
c). operant conditioning
d). classical conditioning

b
A basic premise of positive psychology is that the field of psychology

a). has no examined how every positive contains a negative
b). is out of balance with too much focus on negative human behaviors
c). has placed too much emphasis on genetic determinants, leaving little room for positive change.
d). needs more effective methods for treating mental illness

b
The idea that the “bad is stronger than the good” comes from research showing that

a). a single negative event can overwhelm a persons coping defenses
b). negative information and behaviors command more attention and have a greater impact than positive ones
c). from the perspective of evolution, human nature is basically self-centered and focused on self-perpetuation
d). it is only through negative life events that people develop the capacity for goodness and achieve health/happiness

d
Sigmund Freud had much to do with the belief that

a). positive behaviors are as common as negative ones
b). unconscious motivations for goodness are overridden by self-interested conscious motives
c). human nature is basicallygood; but society prevents this goodness from being expressed
d). human behaviors have negative motivations underlying them.

c
In January, Rita was beginning to perform poorly at work; she was neglecting her appearance, becoming withdrawn, and exhibiting odd behaviors. In June, Rita showed the full-blown symptoms of schizophrenia. Her behavior in January can be considered part of which phase of the disorder?

a). undifferentiated
b). active
c). prodromal
d). residual

d
Which of the following might a person suffering from alcohol withdrawal delirium experience?

a). metabolic tolerance
b). amnesia
c). pharmacodynmaic tolerance
d). auditory hallucinations

b
The most widely studied form of family therapy for eating disorders involves parents initially taking complete control over the child’s eating. Age-appropriate autonomy is returned to the child as eating improves. This system is called the

a). montreux method
b). maudsley method
c). parental control method
d). psychodynamic method.

c
If you focused your research efforts on problems associated with psychophysiological arousal, you would be interested in activity within the

a) the early signs of Alzheimers disease and Korsakoff’s Syndrome
b). Brain Stem/Temporarl Lobes
c). Endocrine System
d). Hormone Levels and Corpus Callosum

a
Contingency management involves changing the relationship between

a). a behavior and its consequences
b). a behavior and the stimulus that triggers it
c). one behavior and another
d). what one thinks + how one acts

A
A psychologist is reviewing results of the MMPI-2 test administered to a client who was mandated by a judge to seek therapy. The psychologist is concerned that the client may not have answered the questions consistently and honestly. Which part of the MMPI-2 will be of special interest to this psychologist?

a). validilty scales
b). reliability scales
c). actarial scales
d). projective scales

d
A report in the newspaper describes the common epidemiological finding that the rate of depression is higher among women than among men. How have researchers evaluated the validity of this finding?

a). this gender difference is an artifact that occurs only in samples of patients that seek treatment
b). men and women differ in their willingness to talk about their depressive symptoms
c). mental health professionals are more prone to diagnose depression in women than in men
d). this gender difference exists but it cannot be explained by methodological or sampling differnece

a
Factitious disorders differ from somatic symptom and dissociative disorders in that they

a). are intentioally produced to assume a sick role
b). have real physical bases and may be life-threatening
c). remit once the patients reassured about good health
d). are prevelant in childood and early adolescence.

A
In 1996, AIDS was the eighth leading cause of death in the United States. Today, AIDS is:

a). no longer in the top 15 causes
b). second only to heart disease
c). down to the 10th leading cause
d). second only to cancer

d
Comprehensive reviews of the research literature regarding treatment of alcoholism and drug abuse tell us that

a). success rates are higher for drug abuse than for alcoholism
b). most people in treatment show long-term improvement
c). success rates are higher for alcoholism than for drug abuse
d). many people improve for a while but relapse is common.

b
The emergence of positive psychology in the late 1990s had much to do with cultural trends, or zeitgeist, captured in the phrase

a). the misery index
b). tired of the negative
c). the paradox of affluence
d) money doesnt buy happiness

CC
Different types of research have shown that early childhood programs such as Head Start contribute to the __________ of cultural-familial retardation by influencing adaptive behaviors.

a). teritary prevention
b). primary prevention
c). secondary prevention
d). propagation

C
Worldwide, more children with mild intellectual disability are from

a). mothers who abused drugs or alcohol during pregnancy regardless of socioeconomic class
b). middle class families
c). The Lower Socioeconomic Strata
d). The enviornments with high rates of physical abuse.