Police Final

The ________ began as early Roman firefighters and eventually became the first civil police protect citizens
Vigiles
In the latter part of the ninth century, Kind Alfred the Great of England and King Cnute II of Denmark devised the ________, a form of community self-protection.
Frankpledge or mutual pledge
In 1285, the Statue of Winchester established ________.
All of the above
_______ formed the Bow Street Runners.
Henry Fielding
_______ is generally credited with establishing the first police department in London, England.
Robert Peel
The first American police Department was organized in 1838 in _______.
Boston
Many historians and scholars argue that ________ in the American south were the precursors to the American system of policing.
Slave Patrols
The only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier were the ______ and the ______.
County Sheriff, Town marshal
The Latin term _______ means “the power of the county.”
Posse Comitatus
The first state police agency was the _______
Texas Rangers
In 1929, President Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. This commission as known as the _______.
Wickersham Commision
The ______ investigated police corruption in the New York City Police Department.
E. Knapp Commission
1. The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders also known as the ______, released a report stating, “Our nation is moving towards two societies, one black, one white, separate and unequal.
Kerner Comm.
______ served as chief of police in Berkeley and instituted many practices that started to professionalize the U.S Police, including incorporating university training as a part of police training.
August Vollmer
_____ is noted for developing modern management and administrative techniques for policing.
OW Wilson
The majority of law enforcement agencies in America are ______.
Local
Nationwide, in 2008, the sworn law enforcement employee average was _____ law enforcement employees per 1,000 citizens.
2.5
In the United States, _____ percent of police departments have 25 or fewer officers.
87
Racial and ethics minorities constitute approximately ______ percent of full time sworn personnel in local departments
24
Among local departments, women for approximately _____ percent of sworn personnel
12
______ is the management concept that says that each individual in an organization is supervised by one immediate supervisor who in turn reports to a higher supervisor
Chain of Command
_______ is the number of officers or subordinates a supervisor can supervise effectively
Span of control
The civil service system was created by the ______.
Pendleton Act
The civil service system is a ______ system.
Merit
______ is the process of removing sworn officers from nonenforcement jobs and replacing them by non-sworn personnel.
Civilization
______ is an example of an operations unit in a police department
patrol
______ is an example of an administrative unit in a police department
Personnel
______ is an example of an auxiliary unity in a police department
Communications
1. A ______ identifies the important tasks performed by police officers and then identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform those tasks.
Job Analyses
1. When a proper job analysis is done, tests in the police screening process are considered to be ______.
Job related
Hrand Saxenian says ______ is the single most important criterion in the police selection process
Maturity
1. Physical agility testing has been criticized for discriminating against _______.
Women
The _____ stage of the police selection process receives the most litigation
Written entrance exam
The purpose of the medical examination is to screen out ______
Candidates who cannot perform the required job tasks
The Sherman Report criticized current police higher education and suggested that higher education programs for the police should offer them a _____ experience
Broadening
The Sherman Report suggested recruiting police applicants from _____ college programs
Liberal Arts
1. The U.S. Supreme Court case of Dothard v. Rawlinson (1977) dealt with ____.
Height/Weight
Most police agencies require the vision of the police to be correctable to
20/20
According to John Firman, the research director for the International Association of Chief’s of Police (IACP), the most common restriction on hiring applicants for police service with a history drug use within the recent past is _____ years free from using hard drugs and _____ years free from marijuana
10;5
1. Adverse impact or different rate of selection occurs when the selection rate for any gender, race, or ethnic group is less than ____ percent of that group the highest selection rate.
80
After the conditional offer of employment has been made to a potential police applicant, the final stage of the selection process is _____.
Psychological and medical eval
1. The _____ can be used to examine a candidate’s characteristics that might be otherwise difficult to assess, including poise, presence and communication skills.
Oral Board
In 1985, the fleeing felon rule declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark case of
Tennesee V garner
The police make more arrests for _____ crimes than for the other types.
Property
Most police contacts involve ______.
Motor vehicle or traffic related issues
Egon Bittner has stated that police work has, from its earliest origins been a
tainted occupation
sheean and cordner state that the two primary goals and objectives of police departments are
maintianing order, and protecting life and property
_____ is one of Broderick’s police operational styles
all of the above
Is Not one of James Q wilson’s operating styles
Aggressive
Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons police exercise discretion.
The police want to show they have a caring attitude toward the community
The refusal of some police officers to report fellow officers’ misconduct is called
Blue Wall Silence
___ is indicative of police culture
all the above
___ is a trait of the police personality
All the above
__ is not one of the important features of an officers environment that can account for an officers working personality, according to BUrbeck and Furnham
Rotating Shifts
The majority of recent studies have found that law enforcement “working personality” stems from the officer’s
Socializationg process in the training academy, field training, and patrol experience
The Dirty Harry DIlemma refers to
The moral dilemma of using evil means to achieve good ends
Stress produced by real threats and dangers, such as responding to gun runs and other dangerous assignments, is classified as _____ stress
External
The stress produced by elements inherent in the quasi-military character of the police service, such as adjusting to changing tours of duty, odd working hours, and working holidays, is classified as _____ stress
Organizational
1. The stress produced by the interpersonal characteristics of belonging to the police organization, such as difficulties in getting along with other officers, is classified as _____ stress.
Personal
The stress produced by the daily need to confront the tragedies of urban life, such as the need to deal with derelicts, criminals, and the mentally disturbed, and the need to engage in dangerous activity to protect a public that appears to be unappreciative of the police, is classified as _____ stress
Operational
The first African-American police officers were appointed in _____.
New Orleans
According to the text, which of the following is not an example of discrimination against African-American police officers in the early 1900s
The establishment of jjob-related standards
Which of the following is not a reason for the recent disappearance of institutional discrimination against African Americans in police departments, according to Stephen Leinen
The urban riots of the 60’s
1. The first “officially designated” policewoman was appointed in _____.
Los Angelas
_____ is a possible cause for the acceptance of women in police departments in the late 1960s and early 1970s
All of the above
In 1968, the _____ Police Department was the first to assign women to patrol duties where they wore a uniform and drove a marked police patrol vehicle
Indianapolis
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was designed to prohibit job discrimination based on
All of the above
1. The most prevalent early form of discrimination was _____.
Disparate Treatment
1. A substantially different rate of selection resulting from hiring, promotion, and other employment decisions that work to the disadvantage of members of a particular race, gender, or ethnic group is called _____.
Disparate impact
In Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971), the Supreme Court established the concept that job requirements must be _
Job related
_____ requires employers to take active steps to ensure equal employment opportunity and to redress past discrimination
Affirmative Action
_____ is an example of the ethical standards established to determine how police officers should act
All the above
_____ is an administrative action coordinated through a state police standards organization that will determine whether cause exists to strip an officer of his or her certification to be a police officer
Decertification
_____ is the most prevalent type of corruption in law enforcement
Noble Cause Corruption
According to a Department of Justice study, the most common disposition of 26,000 complaints of excessive force against police officers was _____.
The investigation turned up insufficient evidence to prove the allegation
When excessive force is used with the public and there is a significant disparity between the level of compliance by the person and the level of force used by the officer, the use of force is considered to be police _____.
Brutality
_____ has been proposed as a solution to police brutality
All of the above
Police officers who violate a person’s civil rights can be sued in federal court under _____.
42 U.S.C. 1983
Which of the following is not an argument in favor of citizen review boards?
Citizens review boards make police officers more aggressive in enforcing law
Which of the following is not an argument against citizen review
All of the above
1. Police officers who participate in more passive types of police corruption are referred to as _____.
Grass-Eaters
1. Officers who participate in more aggressive types of corruption by seeking out and taking advantage of opportunities for corruption are called _____.
Meat Eaters
1. Any police-initiated activity that relies on a person’s race or ethnic background as a basis for suspicion in involvement in criminal activity is called _____.
Biased-based policing
_____ is not one of the three traditional ways to do police work in the United States.
Proactive Investigation
Random patrol is commonly believed by police administration to create a sense of
Omnipresence
_____ is a goal of patrol as defined by Gay, Schell, and Schack.
All of the above
_____ is a functional category of routine patrol as defined by Gay, Schell, and Schack.
All the above
_____ is/are the most expensive costs in a police department’s budget.
Personnel
The calls radioed to patrol officers, or assignments given to police patrol units by 911 dispatchers, reveal the types of problems for which people call the police and the types of problems _____.
The police feel deserved a response by patrol units
When researchers examined the reinstitution of foot patrol in Newark and Flint, they arrived at the conclusion that when foot patrol is added in neighborhoods _____.
Levels of fear decrease significantly
In differential response to calls for service, responses to citizens’ calls to 911 are matched to the type and _____ of the calls
severity
The classic study of random routine patrol was the _____ study
Kansas City
Prior to the Rand study, it was common for police departments to have policies and procedures in place that emphasized _____.
Retroactive Invesigations of past crimes by detectives
1When Mark Willman and John Snortum duplicated the Rand and PERF findings in a study of detective work in 1984, they found that in cases reported to a suburban police department, most cases that were solved when _____.
The perpetrator was identified at the scene of the crime
The single most important determinant of whether a case will be solved is the information the victim supplies to the _____.
Immediately responding officer
The idea that detective work is glamorous, exciting, and dangerous, as it is depicted in the movies and on television, is called the detective_____.
Mystique
The MCI program involves all of the following except _____.
Enhanced patrol techniques
The MCI program is designed to put most of an investigator’s time and effort into _____.
Only very important cases and cases that actually can be solved
The Rand report said that half of all detectives could be replaced with civilian staff without negatively influencing _____ rates
Case Clearance
An investigative unit that reexamines old cases that have remained unsolved is called a _____.
Cold Case Squad
Everything done with each other as human beings in all kinds of relationships is the definition of _____.
Human Relations
The police-community relations movement (PCR) developed out of the ____
Riots and Civila disorders of the 60’s
The human relations training program that is designed to provide participants an opportunity to learn more about themselves and their impact on others is called _____.
Sensitivity Training
James Q Wilson said that the single most striking fact about the attitudes of citizens, both black and white, toward the police is that these attitudes generally are
positive
According to the text, most police officers feel that the public _____
Does not support the police
According to the text, one of the best ways to improve relationships between the police and minority groups is to _____.
Ensure that minority groups are adequately represented in a jurisdiction’s police department
Today, police departments have created numerous special programs to assist with the challenges faced by the aging population. One such program is _____.
Tridad
1. Crime Stoppers is a program in which police _____.
Ask television and radio stations to publicize a crime of the week so citizens can call tips into a special police phone number