A.) 100% Rule
B.) 80/20 Rule
C.) WBS Rule
D.) Create WBS Rule of Thumb
Explanation: In the PMBOK Guide, this is referred to as the ‘100% rule’, which means that a WBS must include 100% of the work to be performed on the project, including all product and project work.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 131
A.) Product Analysis
B.) Alternatives Identification
C.) Expert Judgment
D.) Value Engineering doesn’t relate to any of the Define Scope process tools and techniques
Explanation: Value Engineering relates to the Product Analysis tool and technique of the Define Scope process. It is used to translate high level product descriptions into tangible, cost-effective deliverables.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 122
A.) Work Breakdown Structure
C.) Progressive Elaboration
D.) Work Packages
Explanation: The question is referring to the activity that breaks down project deliverables into smaller components, i.e., the work packages. This activity is called Decomposition, which is a tool and technique of the Create WBS process.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 128
A.) Product Analysis
C.) Scope Creep
D.) Variance Analysis
Explanation: There is only one tool and technique used during the Control Scope process and that is Variance Analysis. This is performed in order to assess the magnitude of variation from the original Scope Baseline.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 139
A.) Acceptance Criteria
Explanation: This is imposing an early finish date on the project. This is considered a project constraint.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 124
A.) Alternatives Generation
B.) Expert Judgment
D.) Focus Groups
Explanation: Brainstorming and Focus Groups are not tools and techniques used in the Define Scope process. Lateral thinking relates to the Alternatives Generation tool and technique and is used to identify different approaches that can be used to carry out the project work.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 123
A.) Focus Group
B.) Facilitated Workshop
C.) Nominal Group Technique
D.) Delphi Technique
Explanation: Mary is planning to invite key stakeholders and not the subject matter experts. Therefore it isn’t a Focus Group because that requires the presence of pre-qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to help ‘understand’ the project requirements. What Mary is doing is an example of a Facilitated Workshop where the key stakeholders, who indirectly own the project, ‘define’ the project requirements. There is a very subtle difference between the two techniques. During Focus Group meetings, the idea is to obtain subject matter experts’ opinions on a product’s requirements and other details. A Facilitated Workshop is used to collect the project’s requirements, based on the expectations of the key stakeholders.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 114
A.) Define Scope
B.) Integrated Change Control
C.) Validate Scope
D.) Control Scope
Explanation: The answer should be a monitoring and controlling process. If a change request regarding changes in project scope is requested after the approval of the Scope Baseline, the change request must be analyzed during the Control Scope process before forwarding it to the Integrated Change Control process for approval.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 136
A.) It involves inspection of the completed deliverables with the project customer or sponsor.
B.) It involves formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
C.) It involves quality control checks by the project team.
D.) In can be performed parallel to the Control Quality process.
Explanation: Although the Validate Scope process differs from the Control Quality process, both of these processes can be performed in parallel. The quality control checks by the project team occur during the Control Quality process, not the Validate Scope process.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 134
A.) Issue a change request
B.) Negotiate with the customer to approve the deliverable
C.) Escalate the issue to the project sponsor
D.) Ask the project team to make the required changes immediately
Explanation: The rejection may be based on found defects or changes in customer requirements. No matter what the reason is, changes have to be made because the project customer has asked for them. Therefore, a proper change control process needs to be followed and the next logical action for Julie is to issue a change request.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 136
B.) Nominal Group Technique
C.) Affinity Diagram
D.) Mind Map
Explanation: Brainstorming and Nominal Group Techniques are not graphical analysis techniques. Although the Affinity Diagram is a type of graphical analysis technique, this technique sorts different ideas into groups but does not record their trail. A Mind Map is a diagram that spawns from a point and records each idea as a branch of its parent idea, and therefore records the trail.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 115
B.) Questionnaires and Surveys
Explanation: “Job shadowing” involves witnessing a process during its execution by the team member. It is a very helpful technique to use in order to understand the details involved in a process. “Job shadowing” is also called Observation.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 116
A.) Code of Account Identifier
B.) Responsible Organization
C.) Resource List
D.) Resources Required
Explanation: The WBS Dictionary is created during the planning phase of the project. The Resource List is usually created when the resources are actually acquired, which occurs during the executing phase of the project.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 132
A.) Project Budget
B.) WBS Dictionary
C.) Communications Management Plan
D.) Human Resource Plan
Explanation: The question is asking for a document that must be updated every time there is a change in project scope. Whenever there is a change in project scope, the project Scope Statement must be updated. As a result, the project WBS will be updated and in turn so will the WBS dictionary.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 140
A.) Lessons Learned
B.) WBS Templates
C.) Scope statement
Explanation: The required knowledge does not currently exist in the company. The project manager must look for external sources for this information. WBS templates can be very helpful to the project manager when drafting his project’s WBS.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 127
a. Proper project scope definition
b. Project stakeholders
c. Scope change control system
d. Customer’s strategic plan
Progressive elaboration of a project’s specification must be coordinated carefully with proper scope definition, particularly when the project is performed under contract. When properly defined, the project scope—the work to be done—should remain constant even when the product characteristics are elaborated progressively. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 6, 107-108
a. Preliminary scope statement
c. Change management plan
d. Scope management plan
The WBS, along with the detailed scope statement and the WBS dictionary, defines the project’s scope baseline, which provides the basis for any changes that may occur on the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131-132
a. Clearly distinguish between project scope and product scope
b. Prepare a scope management plan
c. Define and document your stakeholders’ needs to meet the project’s objectives
d. Capture and manage both project and product requirements
The work involved in the six Project Scope Management processes begins by preparing a scope management plan, which is a subsidiary plan for the project management plan. It describes the Project Scope Management processes from definition to control. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 109-110
a. Personnel administration
b. Marketplace conditions
c. Historical information
d. Organizational culture
Organizational process assets that can influence plan scope management include formal and informal policies, procedures, and guidelines impacting project scope management. Historical information and the lessons learned knowledge base are other examples. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 109
a. Scope management plan
b. Project management plan
c. Product requirements
d. Requirements management plan
Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan, and completion of the product scope is measured against the requirements. In the project context, product scope consists of features and functions that characterize the product, service, or result. Project scope is the work that must be done to deliver the product, service, or result with specified features and functions. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 106
a. Templates, forms, and standards
c. Expert judgment
d. Project management methodology
Expert judgment is used to analyze the information needed to develop a project scope statement. It is applied to any technical details. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 122
a. Sensitivity analysis
b. Decision trees
c. Mathematical model
d. Lateral thinking
Lateral thinking, brainstorming, and analysis of alternatives are examples of alternatives generation that can be used to develop as many potential options as possible to execute and perform the project’s work. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123
a. Value engineering
b. Value analysis
c. Systems analysis
d. Bill of materials
Product analysis techniques vary by application area, and each application area generally has accepted methods to translate project objectives into tangible deliverables and requirements. Other product analysis techniques include product breakdown, requirements analysis, and systems engineering. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 122
a. Project management plan
b. Project scope statement
c. Project scope management plan
d. WBS dictionary
Project exclusion identifies generally what is included within the project, and state explicitly what is excluded from the project, if a stakeholder might assume that a particular product, service, or result could be a project component. Project boundaries are described as part of the detailed project scope statement. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
a. An external event
b. An error or omission in defining the scope of the product
c. A value-adding change
d. An error or omission in defining the scope of the project
The bill of materials provides a hierarchical view of the physical assemblies, subassemblies, and components needed to build a manufactured product, whereas the WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project components used to define the total scope of the project, providing a structured vision of what has to be delivered. Using a bill of materials where a WBS would be more appropriate may result in an ill-defined scope and subsequent change requests. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 125, 140; Ward 2008, 40
a. Scope management plan
d. Scope change control system
Collecting requirements provides the basis for defining project scope and product scope. It also involves determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs to meet project objectives. The requirements become the foundation for the WBS; moreover, cost, schedule, and quality planning are built upon the requirements. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 110, 127
a. Project exclusions
b. The relationship between the deliverables and the business need
c. Product scope description
d. Project management methodology (PMM)
The PMM is an organization-approved approach for project management that is used on every project. It is not part of the project scope statement, which describes the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. It describes the project’s deliverables and the work required to complete them. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
a. Talk with the project stakeholders through interviews
b. Review the scope management plan
c. Conduct facilitated workshops with stakeholders
d. Prepare a requirements document template that you and your team can use throughout the collect requirements process
The scope management plan is reviewed first as it provides clarity as to how the project team will determine which requirements need to be collected on the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 113
a. Deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS
b. Task with a unique identifier
c. Required level of reporting
d. Task that can be assigned to more than one organizational unit
A work package is the lowest or smallest unit of work division in a project or WBS. The work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 126
a. Determine the voice of the customer
b. Build the house of quality
c. Address the functional requirements and how best to meet them
d. Hold a focus group of prequalified stakeholders
Quality function deployment is an example of a facilitated workshop used in the manufacturing industry as a tool and technique to collect requirements. It helps to determine the critical characteristics for new product development and starts by collecting customer needs, known as the voice of the customer. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 114
a. Phases of the project life cycle
c. Major deliverables
d. Project organizational units
The WBS includes all work needed to be done to complete the project. The organizational breakdown structure (OBS) includes the organizational units responsible for completing the work. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 126, 548
b. Scope creep
c. Configuration items
d. Emergency changes
Project scope creep is typically the result of uncontrolled changes. Scope control works to control the impact of any project scope changes. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 137
a. Link the WBS to the bill of materials
b. Enable the WBS to follow a similar numbering system to that of the organization’s units as part of the organizational breakdown structure
c. Sum costs, schedule, and resource information
d. Link the WBS to the project management plan
The key document generated from the create WBS process is the actual WBS. Each WBS component is assigned a unique identifier to provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs, schedule, and resource information. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 132
a. Root cause analysis
b. Control charts
d. Project performance measurements
Variance analysis is a tool and technique for control scope. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variance, to determine the cause of the variance, and to decide whether corrective or preventive action is required. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 139
b. Nominal group technique
c. Delphi technique
d. Affinity diagram
The nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process, which is used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 115
a. Determine the cost and duration estimates for each project deliverable
b. Identify and analyze the deliverables and related work
c. Identify the components of each project deliverable
d. Determine the key tasks to be performed
Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work is the first step in the decomposition of a project. The deliverables should be defined in terms of how the project will be organized. For example, the major project deliverables may be used as the second level. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 128-129
a. Be identical to that of the prime contractor
b. Follow the rigor of international configuration management standards
c. Comply with relevant contractual provisions
d. Only consider approved change requests
In addition to complying with any relevant contractual provisions, scope change control must be integrated with the project’s overall change control system and with any systems in place to control project and product scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 96, 137
a. An assumption
b. A risk
c. A specification
d. A technical requirement
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. They are listed in the project scope statement. [Planning]
Ward 2008, 24; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 124 and 529
a. Improves cost and schedule accuracy, particularly on projects using innovative techniques or technology
b. Is the last activity performed on a project before handoff to the customer
c. Documents the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken to create
d. Differs from perform quality control in that validate scope is concerned with the acceptance—not the correctness—of the work results
Documentation that the customer has accepted completed deliverables is an output of validate scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 134
a. Performance evaluation
b. Corrective action
c. Preventive action
d. Defect repair
Recommended corrective action is an output from control scope. In addition to bringing expected future performance in line with the project management plan, it also serves to bring expected future performance in line with the project scope statement. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140, 534
a. All projects, large and small
b. Only large projects
c. Projects with a formal configuration management system in place
d. Projects for which the cost of a change control system can be justified
A system is needed for careful monitoring of changes made to the requirements. Use of written change requests encourages the individuals asking for changes to take responsibility for their requests and reduces frivolous requests that may adversely affect the project. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 94-97 140
a. Causes of variations
b. Lessons learned
c. Work authorization system
d. Reasons certain corrective actions were chosen
The work authorization system is not used in control scope. The others are examples of organizational process assets that may require update as a result of scope control. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140
a. Started deliverables
b. Costs authorized and incurred
c. Progress of deliverables
d. Completed deliverables
Work performance information is an output of validate scope. It emphasizes deliverables—whether or not they have started, their progress, and ones that have finished or have been accepted. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 136
a. The phase-to-phase relationship
b. A set of procedures by which project scope and product scope may be changed
c. Requirements traceability matrix
d. Requirements documentation
The requirements management plan defines how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. It is strongly influenced by the phase-to-phase relationship. The project manager selects the most effective relationship for the project and documents it in the plan. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 42-44, 110
a. Business needs
b. Product design
c. Product development
d. Project verification
The requirements traceability matrix is an output of the collect requirements process. It includes tracing requirements to business needs, opportunities, and objectives; project objectives; project scope: WBS deliverables; product design; product development; test strategy and scenarios; as well as high-level requirements to more detailed requirements. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 118-119
a. Should be reviewed according to the perform integrated change control process
b. Results in a change to all project baselines
c. Requires adjustments to cost, time, quality, and other objectives
d. Results in a lesson learned
A requested change is an output from the control scope process. Such a change should be handled according to the integrated change control process and may result in an update to the scope baseline or other components of the project management plan. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140
a. The project management plan (scope management plan and scope baseline)
b. Change requests
c. Validated deliverables
d. Requirements traceability matrix
The change requests are not an input of the validate scope process but are an output. The other items are all inputs to help the project manager validate the scope of the project. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2008, 124-125
a. Replanning is an output of control scope
b. Scope creep is common on projects
c. Rebaselining will be necessary
d. Variance is relative to the scope baseline
Approved change requests will most likely impact and cause updates to the WBS, WBS dictionary, and project scope statement. In other words, they will cause variance to the scope baseline. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 139-140
a. Stakeholder requirements
b. Transition requirements
c. Project requirements
d. Business requirements
Various components of requirements documentation can be used. Examples are: business requirements, stakeholder requirements, solution requirements, project requirements, and requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints. Project requirements consist of acceptance criteria and levels of service performance, safety, and compliance. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 117-118
a. Requirements traceability matrix
b. Work performance data
d. Scope management plan
Verified deliverables that are completed and checked for correctness are inputs to validate scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 135, 138-139
a. Follow the WBS that the prime contractor developed for the project and use the work packages you identified during the proposal
b. Develop a subproject WBS for the work package that is your company’s responsibility
c. Establish a similar coding structure to the prime contractor’s to facilitate use of a common project management information system
d. Develop a WBS dictionary to show specific staff assignments
Work packages are items at the lowest level of the WBS. A subproject is a smaller portion of the original project when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces. A subproject WBS then breaks down work packages into greater detail. A subproject WBS generally is used when the project manager assigns a scope of work to another organization, and the project manager at that organization must plan and manage the scope of work in greater detail. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 129, 564
a. Is a critical component of the scope baseline
b. Provides information on project performance
c. Alerts the project team to issues that may cause problems in the future
d. Is expected to change throughout the project
The project scope statement, along with the WBS and WBS dictionary, is a key input to scope control. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 138
a. Facilitates the project acceptance process
b. Describes specific constraints associated with the project
c. Progressively elaborates characteristics
d. Shows various alternatives considered
The project scope statement describes the deliverables and the work required to create them. It also provides a common understanding of the scope among stakeholders. The product scope statement is a key component as it progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product, service, or result in the project charter and requirements documentation. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
a. To depict product scope
b. To trace requirements as part of the traceability matrix
c. To develop the scope management plan
d. To develop the requirements management plan
It is a tool and technique in collect requirements and is an example of a scope model. The context diagram visually depicts the product scope as it shows a business system (process, equipment, or computer, etc.) and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. The diagram shows inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, outputs from the business system, and actor(s) receiving the output. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 117
a. Chart of accounts
b. WBS dictionary
c. WBS structure template
d. Earned value management reports
The WBS dictionary typically includes a code of accounts identifier, a statement of work, responsible organization, a list of schedule milestones, associated schedule activities, required resources, cost estimates, quality requirements, acceptance criteria, technical references, and agreement information. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 132
A. Systematically estimate costs of work breakdown structure elements.
B. Provide project justification.
C. Identify the level at which individual elements are found.
D. Use it in project management software.
Explanation The numbering system allows team members to quickly identify the level in the
work breakdown structure where the specific element is found. It also helps to locate the element
in the WBS dictionary
B. Project manager
Explanation The term “stakeholder” encompasses all the other choices. In this case, it is the best answer since the WBS can be used (but does not need to be used) as a communications tool for all stakeholders to “see” what is included in the project.
A. A more complete scope management plan
B. Customer acceptance of project deliverables
C. Improved schedule estimates
D. An improved project management information system
Explanation The output of the Validate Scope process is customer acceptance of project deliverables. The other choices all happen during project planning, well before the time the
Validate Scope process takes place.
what work he needs to accomplish on the project. Which of the following documents contains
detailed descriptions of work packages?
A. WBS dictionary
B. Activity list
C. Project scope statement
D. Scope management plan
Explanation Activity lists may identify the work package they relate to, but they do not contain detailed descriptions of the work packages. The project scope statement defines the project
scope, but it does not describe the work a team member is assigned. The scope management plan describes how scope will be planned, managed, and controlled. It does not include a description of each work package. The WBS dictionary defines each element in the WBS. Therefore, descriptions
of the work packages are in the WBS dictionary.
D. Monitoring and controlling
Explanation The project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process, which occurs during project planning.
A. Remains the same
C. Decreases then increases
Explanation Not all questions will be difficult. The level of uncertainty in scope increases based on the scale of effort required to identify all the scope. For larger projects, it is more difficult to “catch” everything.
A. Let the sponsor know of the stakeholders’ request.
B. Evaluate the impact of adding the scope.
C. Tell the stakeholders the scope cannot be added.
D. Add the work if there is time available in the project schedule.
Explanation Although one could let the sponsor know about the stakeholders’ request, the best choice listed would be to say no, as this was already considered. An even better choice would be to find the root cause of the problem, but that choice is not listed here
that the basic tools for project management, such as a work breakdown structure, can be used during project executing to assist the project manager. For which of the following can a work breakdown structure be used?
A. Communicating with the customer
B. Showing calendar dates for each work package
C. Showing the functional managers for each team member
D. Showing the business need for the project
Explanation A WBS does not show dates or responsibility assignments. The business need is described in the project charter.
A. Change management process.
B. Scope management.
C. Quality analysis.
D. Scope decomposition
A. At the end of the project
B. At the beginning of the project
C. At the end of each phase of the project
D. During the planning processes
Explanation The Validate Scope process occurs during project monitoring and controlling. It is done at the end of each project phase to get approval for phase deliverables, as well as at other points to get approval for interim deliverables
A. Meat with the project team to determine if this change can be made
B. Ask the customer for a description of the change
C. Explain that the change cannot be made at this point in the process
D. Inform management
Explanation Do not jump into the problem without thinking. The customer only notified the project manager that they want to make a change. They did not describe the change. The project manager should not say no until he or she knows more about the potential change, nor should the project manager go to management without more information. The project manager must understand the nature of the change and have time to evaluate the impact of that change before doing
anything else. Of these choices, the first thing to do is to determine what the change is. The project manager might then analyze the potential change with the team, but only if their input is required.
A. Work breakdown structures will prevent work from slipping through the cracks.
B. Work breakdown structures are only needed on large projects.
C. Work breakdown structures are required only if the project involves contracts.
D. Work breakdown structures are the only way to identify risks.
Explanation Work breakdown structures are required on projects of every size, regardless of whether contracts are involved. Work breakdown structures can be used to help identify risks, but risks can be identified using other methods as well. Preventing work from being forgotten (slipping through the cracks) is one of the main reasons the tool is used, and is the best choice
A. A bar chart.
B. Team buy-in.
D. A list of risks
Explanation The WBS is an input to all of these choices. However, team buy-in is a direct result of the WBS creation process, while the other choices use the WBS to assist in their completion. Involving the team in creating the WBS provides project team members with an understanding of where their pieces fit into the overall project management plan and gives them an indication of the impact of their work on the project as a whole.
A. Until it has a meaningful conclusion
B. Until it cannot be logically subdivided further
C. Until it can be done by one person
D. Until it can be realistically estimated
Explanation The lowest level of the WBS is a work package, which can be completed by more than one person. The other choices are aspects of a work package
A. The project scope statement
B. The product scope
C. The WBS dictionary
D. The schedule
Explanation The project scope statement describes work on a high-level basis. Work packages need to be specific to enable team members to complete their work without gold plating. The product scope does not tell team members what work is assigned to them. The team should have a copy of the schedule, but a schedule does not show them what work is included in each of their work packages. Work packages are described in the WBS dictionary. NOTE: Do not think of the
WBS dictionary as a dictionary of terms.
A. To document features or functions required by stakeholders.
B. To create a record of issues encountered on the project.
C. To perform what-if analysis.
D. To communicate progress.
Explanation A user story is a way of stating a requirement, often using the following format: As a, I want Functionality/Goal>, so that
A. Validated Scope
B. Control Quality
C. Manage Communication
D. Control Cost
by one month. The MOST important process that could have prevented this situation is:
A. Monitor and Control Risks.
B. Control Schedule.
C. Define Scope.
D. Control Scope.
tx1:na1tiatmn Monitor and Control Risks, Control Schedule, Control Scope are and controlling processes. This situation asks how to prevent the problem, which would have been
done during planning. The project deliverables are defined in the Define Scope process, which is a part of project planning. Good planning reduces the likelihood of a situation like the one
described, by including the right people and spending adequate time clarifying the project scope
A. Scope management plan.
B. Project scope statement.
C. Work breakdown structure.
D. WBS dictionary.
Explanation The scope baseline includes the WBS, WBS dictionary, and the project scope statement. The scope management plan is not part of the scope baseline
A. Ask the stakeholder if there are any more changes expected.
B. Complete integrated change control.
C. Make sure the impact of the change is understood by the stakeholder.
D. Find out the root cause of why the scope was not discovered during project planning.
Explanation Notice that there are many things the project manager could do listed in the choices. The question asks what is the BEST thing to do NEXT. Management of the change is not complete when the Control Scope process is completed. It is important to look at the impact of the change on other parts of the project, such as time and cost. Therefore, performing integrated change control is the best thing to do next. This would probably be followed by making sure the impact of
the change is understood by the stakeholder, then determining why this scope was not identified in planning, and asking the stakeholder if there are more changes expected.
to the team member’s boss that the team member is not cooperating. Which of the following is MOST likely the real problem?
A. The project manager did not get buy-in from the manager for the resources on the project.
B. The project manager did not create an adequate reward system for team members to improve
C. The project manager should have had a meeting with the team member’s boss the first time the
team member caused trouble.
D. The project manager did not assign work packages.
Explanation The project manager is not losing resources (which is implied by not getting the manager’s buy-in). Although a reward system would help with cooperation, the real problem here is not cooperation. Meeting with the team member and his boss cannot be the answer because
it also does not solve the problem at hand (the team member not knowing what he is to do). If you selected this choice, be very careful! You can get 10 to 20 questions wrong on the exam
simply because you do not see the real problem! The whole discussion of the team member and his actions is a distracter. The real problem in this scenario is not that the team member is being uncooperative. He is asking a question that many team members want to ask in the real world. “How can I tell you how things are going if I do not know what work I am being asked to do?” The real problem is the lack of a WBS and work packages. If there were a WBS and work packages for
the project, the team member would not have to ask such a question.
A. The functional managers.
B. The project team.
C All the stakeholders.
D. Project expediter
Explanation After obtaining input from the customer and other stakeholders, the project team is responsible for developing the scope baseline. Remember that the scope baseline includes the WES, WBS dictionary, and project scope statement.
A. Requirements traceability matrix
B. Project scope statement
C. Work breakdown structure
D. Change requests
Explanation The project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process. The work breakdown structure is an output of the Create WBS process. Scope change requests are outputs of the Validate Scope and Control Scope processes. The requirements traceability matrix is an output of the
Collect requirements process
What should the project manager do?
A. Support the stakeholder by asking the board for the reason for the rejection.
B. Suggest to the stakeholder that the next change they request will be approved.
C. Document the outcome of the change request.
D. Advise the change control board to make sure they create approval processes before the next
change is proposed.
A. Having to cut costs on the project and increase benefits
B. Making sure the customer has approved the project scope
C. Not being able to measure completion of the product of the project
D. Having to add resources to the project
A. Control Quality.
B. Sequence Activities.
C. Perform Quality Assurance.
D. Time Management.
Explanation Control Quality checks for correctness, and Validate Scope checks for acceptance.
A. Imprecise language
B. Poor pattern, structure, and chronological order
C. Small variations in size of work packages or detail of work
D. Too much detail
Explanation Much of the work on the project is dictated by the project scope statement. Any imprecision in such a key document will lead to differing interpretations.
A. Effective scope definition can lead to a more complete project scope statement
B. The Control Scope process must be done before scope planning
C. The Control scope process must be integrated with other control processes
D. Controlling the schedule in the most effective way of controlling scope
Explanation Though it is correct that effective scope definition can lead to a more complete project scope statement, this cannot be the answer, because it does not deal with control. Scope planning occurs before the Control Scope process, not after it. Controlling the schedule is not the best way to control scope, so that is not the best answer. The control processes do not act in isolation. A change to one will most likely affect the others. Therefore the need to integrate the Control Scope process with other control processes is the best answer.
A. It provides assurances that the deliverable meets the specifications, is an input to the project
management plan, and is an output of Control Quality.
B. It ensures the deliverable is completed on time, ensures customer acceptance, and shows the deliverable meets specifications.
C. It ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light.
D. It is an output of Control Quality, occurs before Define Scope, and ensures customer acceptance.
Explanation The project management plan is completed before the Validate Scope process. The Validate Scope process does not deal with time, but rather acceptance. The Validate Scope process does not occur before the Define Scope process. The choice stating that the Validate Scope ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light is entirely correct, making that the best answer.
A. Working with the customer to determine the product description
B. Mathematically analyzing the quality desired for the project
C. Gaining a better understanding of the product of the project in order to create the project scope statement
D. Determining whether the quality standards on the project can be met
Explanation You need to have a product description before you can do product analysis. Analyzing the level of quality desired is related to the Plan Quality Management process.
Determining whether the quality standards on the project can be met is done in the Perform Quality Assurance process. Product analysis includes gaining a better understanding of the
product of the project, in order to create the project scope statement.