PMP Scope Management

“A project WBS must represent all product and project work, including the project management work”. This is a good project management practice that should be followed. This practice is referred to as which of the following in the PMBOK Guide?
A.) 100% Rule
B.) 80/20 Rule
C.) WBS Rule
D.) Create WBS Rule of Thumb
Correct answer is A
Explanation: In the PMBOK Guide, this is referred to as the ‘100% rule’, which means that a WBS must include 100% of the work to be performed on the project, including all product and project work.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 131
Value Engineering is a systematic method to improve the “value” of products and services by using an examination of function. Which of the following Define Scope process tools and techniques is this method related to?
A.) Product Analysis
B.) Alternatives Identification
C.) Expert Judgment
D.) Value Engineering doesn’t relate to any of the Define Scope process tools and techniques
Correct answer is A
Explanation: Value Engineering relates to the Product Analysis tool and technique of the Define Scope process. It is used to translate high level product descriptions into tangible, cost-effective deliverables.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 122
The breakdown of the project deliverables into smaller components is called?
A.) Work Breakdown Structure
B.) Decomposition
C.) Progressive Elaboration
D.) Work Packages
Correct answer is B
Explanation: The question is referring to the activity that breaks down project deliverables into smaller components, i.e., the work packages. This activity is called Decomposition, which is a tool and technique of the Create WBS process.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 128
Which of the following techniques is used to control a project’s scope?
A.) Product Analysis
B.) Decomposition
C.) Scope Creep
D.) Variance Analysis
Correct answer is D
Explanation: There is only one tool and technique used during the Control Scope process and that is Variance Analysis. This is performed in order to assess the magnitude of variation from the original Scope Baseline.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 139
A software development project is underway. The project manager has just received a notification from the project sponsor that the project must be completed at least a month earlier than the planned finish date. The project sponsor plans to announce the project completion during a Board Meeting. Where in the Scope Statement must the project manager record this?
A.) Acceptance Criteria
B.) Exclusions
C.) Assumptions
D.) Constraints
Correct answer is D
Explanation: This is imposing an early finish date on the project. This is considered a project constraint.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 124
In which of the following Define Scope process tools and techniques is ‘lateral thinking’ included?
A.) Alternatives Generation
B.) Expert Judgment
C.) Brainstorming
D.) Focus Groups
Correct answer is A
Explanation: Brainstorming and Focus Groups are not tools and techniques used in the Define Scope process. Lateral thinking relates to the Alternatives Generation tool and technique and is used to identify different approaches that can be used to carry out the project work.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 123
Mary is assigned to carry out a manufacturing process improvement project. The process to be improved involves a number of departments, and soliciting everyone’s input is essential for the success of the project. Mary wants to define the project requirements and thinks that carrying out individual one-on-one interviews with the key cross-functional stakeholders will be too time-consuming. She decides to invite the key stakeholders to a meeting where they can all share their ideas and expectations. This would not only save time for Mary, but also result in better requirements definitions for her project. Which requirements gathering technique is Mary planning to use?
A.) Focus Group
B.) Facilitated Workshop
C.) Nominal Group Technique
D.) Delphi Technique
Correct answer is B
Explanation: Mary is planning to invite key stakeholders and not the subject matter experts. Therefore it isn’t a Focus Group because that requires the presence of pre-qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to help ‘understand’ the project requirements. What Mary is doing is an example of a Facilitated Workshop where the key stakeholders, who indirectly own the project, ‘define’ the project requirements. There is a very subtle difference between the two techniques. During Focus Group meetings, the idea is to obtain subject matter experts’ opinions on a product’s requirements and other details. A Facilitated Workshop is used to collect the project’s requirements, based on the expectations of the key stakeholders.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 114
If changes to the project scope are requested by the customer during the project execution, the changes and their impact must be analyzed during which process?
A.) Define Scope
B.) Integrated Change Control
C.) Validate Scope
D.) Control Scope
Correct answer is D
Explanation: The answer should be a monitoring and controlling process. If a change request regarding changes in project scope is requested after the approval of the Scope Baseline, the change request must be analyzed during the Control Scope process before forwarding it to the Integrated Change Control process for approval.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 136
Which of the following is incorrect regarding the Validate Scope process?
A.) It involves inspection of the completed deliverables with the project customer or sponsor.
B.) It involves formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
C.) It involves quality control checks by the project team.
D.) In can be performed parallel to the Control Quality process.
Correct answer is C
Explanation: Although the Validate Scope process differs from the Control Quality process, both of these processes can be performed in parallel. The quality control checks by the project team occur during the Control Quality process, not the Validate Scope process.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 134
Julie is managing a software development project. The project is divided into multiple phases and the completion of each phase requires a customer inspection and final approval. The first project phase has just been completed and the project team was given the green light after conducting intensive quality control checks, as outlined in the Quality Management Plan. However, during the inspection, the customer rejected the deliverable. What should Julie do next?
A.) Issue a change request
B.) Negotiate with the customer to approve the deliverable
C.) Escalate the issue to the project sponsor
D.) Ask the project team to make the required changes immediately
Correct answer is A
Explanation: The rejection may be based on found defects or changes in customer requirements. No matter what the reason is, changes have to be made because the project customer has asked for them. Therefore, a proper change control process needs to be followed and the next logical action for Julie is to issue a change request.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 136
Peter is assigned to manage a causeway construction project. He is conducting a Facilitated Workshop with all the key stakeholders to gather the project’s requirements. During the meeting a lot of ideas are generated, one leading to another. It is very easy to lose track of all these ideas when there is a large group of participants. Which graphical analysis technique should Peter use to help document the ideas being generated, as well as connecting them together so that the trail is not lost?
A.) Brainstorming
B.) Nominal Group Technique
C.) Affinity Diagram
D.) Mind Map
Correct answer is D
Explanation: Brainstorming and Nominal Group Techniques are not graphical analysis techniques. Although the Affinity Diagram is a type of graphical analysis technique, this technique sorts different ideas into groups but does not record their trail. A Mind Map is a diagram that spawns from a point and records each idea as a branch of its parent idea, and therefore records the trail.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 115
Which of the following techniques relates to “job shadowing”?
A.) Interviews
B.) Questionnaires and Surveys
C.) Observation
D.) Prototypes
Correct answer is C
Explanation: “Job shadowing” involves witnessing a process during its execution by the team member. It is a very helpful technique to use in order to understand the details involved in a process. “Job shadowing” is also called Observation.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 116
Which of the following is not usually a component of the WBS Dictionary?
A.) Code of Account Identifier
B.) Responsible Organization
C.) Resource List
D.) Resources Required
Correct answer is C

Explanation: The WBS Dictionary is created during the planning phase of the project. The Resource List is usually created when the resources are actually acquired, which occurs during the executing phase of the project.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 132

If an approved change request impacts project scope, which of the following documents must be updated?
A.) Project Budget
B.) WBS Dictionary
C.) Communications Management Plan
D.) Human Resource Plan
Correct answer is B
Explanation: The question is asking for a document that must be updated every time there is a change in project scope. Whenever there is a change in project scope, the project Scope Statement must be updated. As a result, the project WBS will be updated and in turn so will the WBS dictionary.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 140
A project manager is managing a process improvement project based on the Six Sigma process improvement methodology. The Six Sigma methodology is being tested for the first time in the company. In addition, this is the first time the project manager is managing such a project. The project manager wants to create the project’s WBS but there are no Six Sigma Organizational Process Assets available. Which of the following would help the project manager create the project WBS?
A.) Lessons Learned
B.) WBS Templates
C.) Scope statement
D.) Decomposition
Correct answer is B
Explanation: The required knowledge does not currently exist in the company. The project manager must look for external sources for this information. WBS templates can be very helpful to the project manager when drafting his project’s WBS.
Reference: PMBOK Guide 5th Edition, page 127
Progressive elaboration of product characteristics on your project must be coordinated carefully with the—
a. Proper project scope definition
b. Project stakeholders
c. Scope change control system
d. Customer’s strategic plan
a. Proper project scope definition
Progressive elaboration of a project’s specification must be coordinated carefully with proper scope definition, particularly when the project is performed under contract. When properly defined, the project scope—the work to be done—should remain constant even when the product characteristics are elaborated progressively. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 6, 107-108
You are examining multiple scope change requests on a project you were asked to take over because the previous project manager decided to resign. To assess the degree to which the project scope will change, you need to compare the requests to which project document?
a. Preliminary scope statement
b. WBS
c. Change management plan
d. Scope management plan
b. WBS
The WBS, along with the detailed scope statement and the WBS dictionary, defines the project’s scope baseline, which provides the basis for any changes that may occur on the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131-132
You and your project team recognize the importance of project scope management to a project’s overall success; therefore, you include only the work required for successful completion of the project. The first step in the Project Scope Management process is to—
a. Clearly distinguish between project scope and product scope
b. Prepare a scope management plan
c. Define and document your stakeholders’ needs to meet the project’s objectives
d. Capture and manage both project and product requirements
b. Prepare a scope management plan
The work involved in the six Project Scope Management processes begins by preparing a scope management plan, which is a subsidiary plan for the project management plan. It describes the Project Scope Management processes from definition to control. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 109-110
An example of an organizational process asset that could affect how project scope is to be managed is—
a. Personnel administration
b. Marketplace conditions
c. Historical information
d. Organizational culture
c. Historical information
Organizational process assets that can influence plan scope management include formal and informal policies, procedures, and guidelines impacting project scope management. Historical information and the lessons learned knowledge base are other examples. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 109
You are managing a complex project for a new method of heating and air conditioning in vehicles. You will use both solar and wind technologies in this project to reduce energy costs. Therefore, you must ensure that the work of your project will result in delivering the project’s specified scope, which means that you should measure completion of the product scope against the—
a. Scope management plan
b. Project management plan
c. Product requirements
d. Requirements management plan
c. Product requirements
Completion of the project scope is measured against the project management plan, and completion of the product scope is measured against the requirements. In the project context, product scope consists of features and functions that characterize the product, service, or result. Project scope is the work that must be done to deliver the product, service, or result with specified features and functions. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 106
A key tool and technique used in define scope is—
a. Templates, forms, and standards
b. Decomposition
c. Expert judgment
d. Project management methodology
c. Expert judgment
Expert judgment is used to analyze the information needed to develop a project scope statement. It is applied to any technical details. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 122
Alternatives generation often is useful in defining project scope. An example of a technique that can be used is—
a. Sensitivity analysis
b. Decision trees
c. Mathematical model
d. Lateral thinking
d. Lateral thinking
Lateral thinking, brainstorming, and analysis of alternatives are examples of alternatives generation that can be used to develop as many potential options as possible to execute and perform the project’s work. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123
Product analysis techniques include all the following EXCEPT—
a. Value engineering
b. Value analysis
c. Systems analysis
d. Bill of materials
d. Bill of materials
Product analysis techniques vary by application area, and each application area generally has accepted methods to translate project objectives into tangible deliverables and requirements. Other product analysis techniques include product breakdown, requirements analysis, and systems engineering. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 122
The baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project’s exclusion is provided by the—
a. Project management plan
b. Project scope statement
c. Project scope management plan
d. WBS dictionary
b. Project scope statement
Project exclusion identifies generally what is included within the project, and state explicitly what is excluded from the project, if a stakeholder might assume that a particular product, service, or result could be a project component. Project boundaries are described as part of the detailed project scope statement. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
Rather than use a WBS, your team developed a bill of materials to define the project’s work components. A customer review of this document uncovered that a scope change was needed, because a deliverable had not been defined, and a change request was written subsequently. This is an example of a change request that was the result of—
a. An external event
b. An error or omission in defining the scope of the product
c. A value-adding change
d. An error or omission in defining the scope of the project
b. An error or omission in defining the scope of the product
The bill of materials provides a hierarchical view of the physical assemblies, subassemblies, and components needed to build a manufactured product, whereas the WBS is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project components used to define the total scope of the project, providing a structured vision of what has to be delivered. Using a bill of materials where a WBS would be more appropriate may result in an ill-defined scope and subsequent change requests. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 125, 140; Ward 2008, 40
Collecting requirements is critical in project scope management as it becomes the foundation for the project’s—
a. Scope management plan
b. WBS
c. Schedule
d. Scope change control system
b. WBS
Collecting requirements provides the basis for defining project scope and product scope. It also involves determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs to meet project objectives. The requirements become the foundation for the WBS; moreover, cost, schedule, and quality planning are built upon the requirements. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 110, 127
The project scope statement addresses and documents all the following items EXCEPT—
a. Project exclusions
b. The relationship between the deliverables and the business need
c. Product scope description
d. Project management methodology (PMM)
d. Project management methodology (PMM)
The PMM is an organization-approved approach for project management that is used on every project. It is not part of the project scope statement, which describes the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. It describes the project’s deliverables and the work required to complete them. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
The first step in collecting requirements on any project, large or small, is to—
a. Talk with the project stakeholders through interviews
b. Review the scope management plan
c. Conduct facilitated workshops with stakeholders
d. Prepare a requirements document template that you and your team can use throughout the collect requirements process
b. Review the scope management plan
The scope management plan is reviewed first as it provides clarity as to how the project team will determine which requirements need to be collected on the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 113
You want to structure your project so that each project team member has a discrete work package to perform. The work package is a—
a. Deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS
b. Task with a unique identifier
c. Required level of reporting
d. Task that can be assigned to more than one organizational unit
a. Deliverable at the lowest level of the WBS
A work package is the lowest or smallest unit of work division in a project or WBS. The work package can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored, and controlled. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 126
Quality function deployment is one approach for collecting requirements. Assume that you have studied the work of numerous quality experts, such as Deming, Juran, and Crosby, and your organization has a policy that states the importance of quality as the key constraint of all project constraints. You and your team have decided to use quality function deployment on your new project to manufacture turbines that use alternative fuels. The first step you should use is to—
a. Determine the voice of the customer
b. Build the house of quality
c. Address the functional requirements and how best to meet them
d. Hold a focus group of prequalified stakeholders
a. Determine the voice of the customer
Quality function deployment is an example of a facilitated workshop used in the manufacturing industry as a tool and technique to collect requirements. It helps to determine the critical characteristics for new product development and starts by collecting customer needs, known as the voice of the customer. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 114
On the WBS, the first level of decomposition may be displayed by using all the following EXCEPT—
a. Phases of the project life cycle
b. Subcomponents
c. Major deliverables
d. Project organizational units
d. Project organizational units
The WBS includes all work needed to be done to complete the project. The organizational breakdown structure (OBS) includes the organizational units responsible for completing the work. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 126, 548
Change is inevitable on projects. Uncontrolled changes are often referred to as—
a. Rework
b. Scope creep
c. Configuration items
d. Emergency changes
b. Scope creep
Project scope creep is typically the result of uncontrolled changes. Scope control works to control the impact of any project scope changes. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 137
Each WBS component should be assigned a unique identifier from a code of accounts to—
a. Link the WBS to the bill of materials
b. Enable the WBS to follow a similar numbering system to that of the organization’s units as part of the organizational breakdown structure
c. Sum costs, schedule, and resource information
d. Link the WBS to the project management plan
c. Sum costs, schedule, and resource information
The key document generated from the create WBS process is the actual WBS. Each WBS component is assigned a unique identifier to provide a structure for hierarchical summation of costs, schedule, and resource information. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 132
In scope control it is important to determine the cause of any unacceptable variance relative to the scope baseline. This can be done through—
a. Root cause analysis
b. Control charts
c. Inspections
d. Project performance measurements
d. Project performance measurements
Variance analysis is a tool and technique for control scope. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variance, to determine the cause of the variance, and to decide whether corrective or preventive action is required. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 139
To assist your software development team in collecting requirements from potential users and to ensure that agreement about the stakeholders’ needs exists early in the project, you decide to use a group creativity technique. Numerous techniques are available, but you and your team choose a voting process to rank the most useful ideas for further prioritization. This approach is known as—
a. Brainstorming
b. Nominal group technique
c. Delphi technique
d. Affinity diagram
b. Nominal group technique
The nominal group technique enhances brainstorming with a voting process, which is used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 115
You have been appointed project manager for a new project in your organization and must prepare a project management plan. You decide to prepare a WBS to show the magnitude and complexity of the work involved. No WBS templates are available to help you. To prepare the WBS, your first step should be to—
a. Determine the cost and duration estimates for each project deliverable
b. Identify and analyze the deliverables and related work
c. Identify the components of each project deliverable
d. Determine the key tasks to be performed
b. Identify and analyze the deliverables and related work
Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work is the first step in the decomposition of a project. The deliverables should be defined in terms of how the project will be organized. For example, the major project deliverables may be used as the second level. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 128-129
Assume that you are a major subcontractor doing work for a prime contractor on a major project. Your change control system should—
a. Be identical to that of the prime contractor
b. Follow the rigor of international configuration management standards
c. Comply with relevant contractual provisions
d. Only consider approved change requests
c. Comply with relevant contractual provisions
In addition to complying with any relevant contractual provisions, scope change control must be integrated with the project’s overall change control system and with any systems in place to control project and product scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 96, 137
You are leading a project team to identify potential new products for your organization. One idea was rejected by management because it would not fit with the organization’s core competencies. You need to recommend other products using management’s guideline as—
a. An assumption
b. A risk
c. A specification
d. A technical requirement
a. An assumption
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. They are listed in the project scope statement. [Planning]
Ward 2008, 24; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 124 and 529
Validate scope—
a. Improves cost and schedule accuracy, particularly on projects using innovative techniques or technology
b. Is the last activity performed on a project before handoff to the customer
c. Documents the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken to create
d. Differs from perform quality control in that validate scope is concerned with the acceptance—not the correctness—of the work results
d. Differs from perform quality control in that validate scope is concerned with the acceptance—not the correctness—of the work results
Documentation that the customer has accepted completed deliverables is an output of validate scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 134
Any step recommended to bring expected future performance in line with the project management plan is called—
a. Performance evaluation
b. Corrective action
c. Preventive action
d. Defect repair
b. Corrective action
Recommended corrective action is an output from control scope. In addition to bringing expected future performance in line with the project management plan, it also serves to bring expected future performance in line with the project scope statement. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140, 534
Written change requests should be required on—
a. All projects, large and small
b. Only large projects
c. Projects with a formal configuration management system in place
d. Projects for which the cost of a change control system can be justified
a. All projects, large and small
A system is needed for careful monitoring of changes made to the requirements. Use of written change requests encourages the individuals asking for changes to take responsibility for their requests and reduces frivolous requests that may adversely affect the project. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 94-97 140
Updates of organizational process assets that are an output of control scope include all the following EXCEPT—
a. Causes of variations
b. Lessons learned
c. Work authorization system
d. Reasons certain corrective actions were chosen
c. Work authorization system
The work authorization system is not used in control scope. The others are examples of organizational process assets that may require update as a result of scope control. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140
Work performance information includes all the following EXCEPT—
a. Started deliverables
b. Costs authorized and incurred
c. Progress of deliverables
d. Completed deliverables
b. Costs authorized and incurred
Work performance information is an output of validate scope. It emphasizes deliverables—whether or not they have started, their progress, and ones that have finished or have been accepted. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 136
Your project is now under way, and you are working with your team to prepare your requirements management plan. Which of the following strongly influences how requirements are managed?
a. The phase-to-phase relationship
b. A set of procedures by which project scope and product scope may be changed
c. Requirements traceability matrix
d. Requirements documentation
a. Phase-to-phase relationship
The requirements management plan defines how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed. It is strongly influenced by the phase-to-phase relationship. The project manager selects the most effective relationship for the project and documents it in the plan. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 42-44, 110
You are project manager on a systems engineering project designed to last six years and to develop the next-generation corvette for use in military operations. You and your team recognize that requirements may change as new technologies, especially in sonar systems, are developed. You are concerned that these new technologies may lead to changes in the scope of your product, which then will affect the scope of your project. Therefore your requirements traceability matrix should include tracing requirements to all the following project elements EXCEPT—
a. Business needs
b. Product design
c. Product development
d. Project verification
d. Project verification
The requirements traceability matrix is an output of the collect requirements process. It includes tracing requirements to business needs, opportunities, and objectives; project objectives; project scope: WBS deliverables; product design; product development; test strategy and scenarios; as well as high-level requirements to more detailed requirements. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 118-119
Your customer signed off on the requirements document and scope statement of your video game project last month. Today she stated she would like to make it an interactive game that can be played on a television and on a computer. This represents a requested scope change that, at a minimum—
a. Should be reviewed according to the perform integrated change control process
b. Results in a change to all project baselines
c. Requires adjustments to cost, time, quality, and other objectives
d. Results in a lesson learned
a. Should be reviewed according to the perform integrated change control process
A requested change is an output from the control scope process. Such a change should be handled according to the integrated change control process and may result in an update to the scope baseline or other components of the project management plan. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 140
The key inputs to the validate scope process include all the below items EXCEPT—
a. The project management plan (scope management plan and scope baseline)
b. Change requests
c. Validated deliverables
d. Requirements traceability matrix
b. Change request
The change requests are not an input of the validate scope process but are an output. The other items are all inputs to help the project manager validate the scope of the project. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2008, 124-125
Modifications may be needed to the WBS and WBS dictionary because of approved change requests, which shows that—
a. Replanning is an output of control scope
b. Scope creep is common on projects
c. Rebaselining will be necessary
d. Variance is relative to the scope baseline
d. Variance is relative to the scope baseline
Approved change requests will most likely impact and cause updates to the WBS, WBS dictionary, and project scope statement. In other words, they will cause variance to the scope baseline. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 139-140
You and your team are documenting requirements on you project to control fatigue as people need to work more hours to keep up with the competition. You decided to set up components for the requirements on your project. Acceptance criteria are an example of—
a. Stakeholder requirements
b. Transition requirements
c. Project requirements
d. Business requirements
c. Project requirements
Various components of requirements documentation can be used. Examples are: business requirements, stakeholder requirements, solution requirements, project requirements, and requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints. Project requirements consist of acceptance criteria and levels of service performance, safety, and compliance. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 117-118
Which following item is NOT an input to control scope?
a. Requirements traceability matrix
b. Work performance data
c. Deliverables
d. Scope management plan
c. Deliverables
Verified deliverables that are completed and checked for correctness are inputs to validate scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 135, 138-139
You are the project manager for a subcontractor on a major contract. The prime contractor has asked that you manage your work in a detailed manner. Your first step is to—
a. Follow the WBS that the prime contractor developed for the project and use the work packages you identified during the proposal
b. Develop a subproject WBS for the work package that is your company’s responsibility
c. Establish a similar coding structure to the prime contractor’s to facilitate use of a common project management information system
d. Develop a WBS dictionary to show specific staff assignments
b. Develop a subproject WBS for the work package that is your company’s responsibility
Work packages are items at the lowest level of the WBS. A subproject is a smaller portion of the original project when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces. A subproject WBS then breaks down work packages into greater detail. A subproject WBS generally is used when the project manager assigns a scope of work to another organization, and the project manager at that organization must plan and manage the scope of work in greater detail. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 129, 564
The project scope statement is important in scope control because it—
a. Is a critical component of the scope baseline
b. Provides information on project performance
c. Alerts the project team to issues that may cause problems in the future
d. Is expected to change throughout the project
a. Is a critical component of the scope baseline
The project scope statement, along with the WBS and WBS dictionary, is a key input to scope control. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 138
The product scope description is documented as part of the project’s scope statement. It is important to include it because it—
a. Facilitates the project acceptance process
b. Describes specific constraints associated with the project
c. Progressively elaborates characteristics
d. Shows various alternatives considered
c. Progressively elaborates characteristics
The project scope statement describes the deliverables and the work required to create them. It also provides a common understanding of the scope among stakeholders. The product scope statement is a key component as it progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product, service, or result in the project charter and requirements documentation. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123-124
How is a context diagram used?
a. To depict product scope
b. To trace requirements as part of the traceability matrix
c. To develop the scope management plan
d. To develop the requirements management plan
a. To depict product scope
It is a tool and technique in collect requirements and is an example of a scope model. The context diagram visually depicts the product scope as it shows a business system (process, equipment, or computer, etc.) and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. The diagram shows inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, outputs from the business system, and actor(s) receiving the output. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 117
You are establishing a PMO that will have a project management information system that will be an online repository of all program data. You will collect descriptions of all work components for each project under the PMO’s jurisdiction. This information will form an integral part of the—
a. Chart of accounts
b. WBS dictionary
c. WBS structure template
d. Earned value management reports
b. WBS dictionary
The WBS dictionary typically includes a code of accounts identifier, a statement of work, responsible organization, a list of schedule milestones, associated schedule activities, required resources, cost estimates, quality requirements, acceptance criteria, technical references, and agreement information. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 132
A work breakdown structure numbering system allows the project team to:
A. Systematically estimate costs of work breakdown structure elements.
B. Provide project justification.
C. Identify the level at which individual elements are found.
D. Use it in project management software.
Answer C
Explanation The numbering system allows team members to quickly identify the level in the
work breakdown structure where the specific element is found. It also helps to locate the element
in the WBS dictionary
The work breakdown structure can BEST be thought of as an effective aid for __
communications.
A. Team
B. Project manager
C. Customer
D. Stakeholder
Answer D
Explanation The term “stakeholder” encompasses all the other choices. In this case, it is the best answer since the WBS can be used (but does not need to be used) as a communications tool for all stakeholders to “see” what is included in the project.
Which of the following is a KEY output of the Validate Scope process?
A. A more complete scope management plan
B. Customer acceptance of project deliverables
C. Improved schedule estimates
D. An improved project management information system
Answer B
Explanation The output of the Validate Scope process is customer acceptance of project deliverables. The other choices all happen during project planning, well before the time the
Validate Scope process takes place.
During project executing, a team member comes to the project manager because he is not sure
what work he needs to accomplish on the project. Which of the following documents contains
detailed descriptions of work packages?
A. WBS dictionary
B. Activity list
C. Project scope statement
D. Scope management plan
Answer A
Explanation Activity lists may identify the work package they relate to, but they do not contain detailed descriptions of the work packages. The project scope statement defines the project
scope, but it does not describe the work a team member is assigned. The scope management plan describes how scope will be planned, managed, and controlled. It does not include a description of each work package. The WBS dictionary defines each element in the WBS. Therefore, descriptions
of the work packages are in the WBS dictionary.
During which part of the project management process is the project scope statement created?
A. Initiating
B. Planning
C. Executing
D. Monitoring and controlling
Answer B
Explanation The project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process, which occurs during project planning.
The program was planned years ago, before there was a massive introduction of new technology. While planning the next project in this program, the project manager has expanded the scope management plan because as a project becomes more complex, the level of uncertainty in the scope
A. Remains the same
B. Decreases
C. Decreases then increases
D. Increases
Answer D
Explanation Not all questions will be difficult. The level of uncertainty in scope increases based on the scale of effort required to identify all the scope. For larger projects, it is more difficult to “catch” everything.
During a meeting with some of the project stakeholders, the project manager is asked to add work to the project scope. The project manager had access to correspondence about the project before the project charter was signed and remembers that the project sponsor specifically denied funding for the scope mentioned by these stakeholders. The BEST thing for the project manager to do is to:
A. Let the sponsor know of the stakeholders’ request.
B. Evaluate the impact of adding the scope.
C. Tell the stakeholders the scope cannot be added.
D. Add the work if there is time available in the project schedule.
Answer C
Explanation Although one could let the sponsor know about the stakeholders’ request, the best choice listed would be to say no, as this was already considered. An even better choice would be to find the root cause of the problem, but that choice is not listed here
A new project manager is being mentored by a more experienced PMP-certified project manager. The new project manager is having difficulty finding enough time to manage the project because the project scope is being progressively elaborated. The PMP-certified project manager advises
that the basic tools for project management, such as a work breakdown structure, can be used during project executing to assist the project manager. For which of the following can a work breakdown structure be used?
A. Communicating with the customer
B. Showing calendar dates for each work package
C. Showing the functional managers for each team member
D. Showing the business need for the project
Answer A
Explanation A WBS does not show dates or responsibility assignments. The business need is described in the project charter.
During a project team meeting, a team member suggests an enhancement to the scope that is beyond the scope of the project charter. The project manager points out that the team needs to concentrate on completing all the work and only the work required. This is an example of:
A. Change management process.
B. Scope management.
C. Quality analysis.
D. Scope decomposition
Answer B
When should the Validate Scope process be done?
A. At the end of the project
B. At the beginning of the project
C. At the end of each phase of the project
D. During the planning processes
Answer C
Explanation The Validate Scope process occurs during project monitoring and controlling. It is done at the end of each project phase to get approval for phase deliverables, as well as at other points to get approval for interim deliverables
The project is mostly complete. The project has a schedule variance of 300 and a cost variance of -900. All but one of the quality control inspections have been completed and all have met the quality requirements. All items in the issue log have been resolved. Many of the resources have been released. The sponsor is about to call a meeting to obtain product validation when the customer notifies the project manager that they want to make change a to the scope. The project manager should:

A. Meat with the project team to determine if this change can be made
B. Ask the customer for a description of the change
C. Explain that the change cannot be made at this point in the process
D. Inform management

Answer B
Explanation Do not jump into the problem without thinking. The customer only notified the project manager that they want to make a change. They did not describe the change. The project manager should not say no until he or she knows more about the potential change, nor should the project manager go to management without more information. The project manager must understand the nature of the change and have time to evaluate the impact of that change before doing
anything else. Of these choices, the first thing to do is to determine what the change is. The project manager might then analyze the potential change with the team, but only if their input is required.
You have just joined the project management office after five years of working on projects. One of the things you want to introduce to your company is the value of creating and utilizing work breakdown structures. Some of the project managers are angry that you are asking them to do “extra work:’ Which of the following would be the BEST thing you could tell the project managers to convince them to use work breakdown structures?
A. Work breakdown structures will prevent work from slipping through the cracks.
B. Work breakdown structures are only needed on large projects.
C. Work breakdown structures are required only if the project involves contracts.
D. Work breakdown structures are the only way to identify risks.
Answer A
Explanation Work breakdown structures are required on projects of every size, regardless of whether contracts are involved. Work breakdown structures can be used to help identify risks, but risks can be identified using other methods as well. Preventing work from being forgotten (slipping through the cracks) is one of the main reasons the tool is used, and is the best choice
offered here.
A new project manager has asked you for advice on creating a work breakdown structure. After you explain the process to her, she asks you what software she should use to create the WBS and what she should do with it when it is completed. You might respond that it is not the picture that is the most valuable result of creating a WBS. The most valuable result of a WBS is:
A. A bar chart.
B. Team buy-in.
C. Activities.
D. A list of risks
Answer B
Explanation The WBS is an input to all of these choices. However, team buy-in is a direct result of the WBS creation process, while the other choices use the WBS to assist in their completion. Involving the team in creating the WBS provides project team members with an understanding of where their pieces fit into the overall project management plan and gives them an indication of the impact of their work on the project as a whole.
To manage a project effectively, work should be broken down into small pieces. Which of the following does NOT describe how far to decompose the work?
A. Until it has a meaningful conclusion
B. Until it cannot be logically subdivided further
C. Until it can be done by one person
D. Until it can be realistically estimated
Answer C
Explanation The lowest level of the WBS is a work package, which can be completed by more than one person. The other choices are aspects of a work package
A project manager may use ___ to make sure the team members clearly know what work is included in each of their work packages.
A. The project scope statement
B. The product scope
C. The WBS dictionary
D. The schedule
Answer C
Explanation The project scope statement describes work on a high-level basis. Work packages need to be specific to enable team members to complete their work without gold plating. The product scope does not tell team members what work is assigned to them. The team should have a copy of the schedule, but a schedule does not show them what work is included in each of their work packages. Work packages are described in the WBS dictionary. NOTE: Do not think of the
WBS dictionary as a dictionary of terms.
The MAIN purpose of writing a user story is:
A. To document features or functions required by stakeholders.
B. To create a record of issues encountered on the project.
C. To perform what-if analysis.
D. To communicate progress.
Answer A
Explanation A user story is a way of stating a requirement, often using the following format: As a, I want Functionality/Goal>, so that . User stories may be developed in facilitated workshops or as of other requirements gathering methods
The construction phase of a new software product is near completion. The next phase are testing and implementation. The product is two weeks ahead of schedule. Which of the following processes should the project manager be MOST concerned with before moving into the final phase?
A. Validated Scope
B. Control Quality
C. Manage Communication
D. Control Cost
Answer A
You are managing a six-month project and have held bi-weekly meetings with your project stakeholders. After five-and-a-half months of work, the project is on schedule and budget, but the stakeholders are not satisfied with the deliverables. This situation will delay the project completion
by one month. The MOST important process that could have prevented this situation is:
A. Monitor and Control Risks.
B. Control Schedule.
C. Define Scope.
D. Control Scope.
Answer C
tx1:na1tiatmn Monitor and Control Risks, Control Schedule, Control Scope are and controlling processes. This situation asks how to prevent the problem, which would have been
done during planning. The project deliverables are defined in the Define Scope process, which is a part of project planning. Good planning reduces the likelihood of a situation like the one
described, by including the right people and spending adequate time clarifying the project scope
All of the following are parts of the scope baseline EXCEPT the:
A. Scope management plan.
B. Project scope statement.
C. Work breakdown structure.
D. WBS dictionary.
Answer A
Explanation The scope baseline includes the WBS, WBS dictionary, and the project scope statement. The scope management plan is not part of the scope baseline
One of the stakeholders on the project contacts the project manager to discuss some additional scope they would like to add to the project. The project manager asks for details in writing and then works through the Control Scope process. What should the project manager do NEXT when the evaluation of the requested scope is complete?
A. Ask the stakeholder if there are any more changes expected.
B. Complete integrated change control.
C. Make sure the impact of the change is understood by the stakeholder.
D. Find out the root cause of why the scope was not discovered during project planning.
Answer B
Explanation Notice that there are many things the project manager could do listed in the choices. The question asks what is the BEST thing to do NEXT. Management of the change is not complete when the Control Scope process is completed. It is important to look at the impact of the change on other parts of the project, such as time and cost. Therefore, performing integrated change control is the best thing to do next. This would probably be followed by making sure the impact of
the change is understood by the stakeholder, then determining why this scope was not identified in planning, and asking the stakeholder if there are more changes expected.
During the completion of project work, the sponsor asks the project manager to report on how the project is going. In order to prepare the report, the project manager asks all the team members what percent complete their work is. There is one team member who has been hard to manage from the beginning. In response to being asked what percent complete he is, the team member asks, “Percent complete of what?” Being tired of such comments, the project manager reports
to the team member’s boss that the team member is not cooperating. Which of the following is MOST likely the real problem?
A. The project manager did not get buy-in from the manager for the resources on the project.
B. The project manager did not create an adequate reward system for team members to improve
their cooperation.
C. The project manager should have had a meeting with the team member’s boss the first time the
team member caused trouble.
D. The project manager did not assign work packages.
Answer D
Explanation The project manager is not losing resources (which is implied by not getting the manager’s buy-in). Although a reward system would help with cooperation, the real problem here is not cooperation. Meeting with the team member and his boss cannot be the answer because
it also does not solve the problem at hand (the team member not knowing what he is to do). If you selected this choice, be very careful! You can get 10 to 20 questions wrong on the exam
simply because you do not see the real problem! The whole discussion of the team member and his actions is a distracter. The real problem in this scenario is not that the team member is being uncooperative. He is asking a question that many team members want to ask in the real world. “How can I tell you how things are going if I do not know what work I am being asked to do?” The real problem is the lack of a WBS and work packages. If there were a WBS and work packages for
the project, the team member would not have to ask such a question.
The development of the scope baseline can BEST be described as involving:’
A. The functional managers.
B. The project team.
C All the stakeholders.
D. Project expediter
Answer B
Explanation After obtaining input from the customer and other stakeholders, the project team is responsible for developing the scope baseline. Remember that the scope baseline includes the WES, WBS dictionary, and project scope statement.
Which of the following is an output of the collect requirements process?

A. Requirements traceability matrix
B. Project scope statement
C. Work breakdown structure
D. Change requests

Answer A
Explanation The project scope statement is an output of the Define Scope process. The work breakdown structure is an output of the Create WBS process. Scope change requests are outputs of the Validate Scope and Control Scope processes. The requirements traceability matrix is an output of the
Collect requirements process
A scope change has been suggested by one of the stakeholders on the project. After careful consideration and a lot of arguing, the change control board has decided to reject the change.
What should the project manager do?
A. Support the stakeholder by asking the board for the reason for the rejection.
B. Suggest to the stakeholder that the next change they request will be approved.
C. Document the outcome of the change request.
D. Advise the change control board to make sure they create approval processes before the next
change is proposed.
Answer C
The cost performance index (CPI) on the project is 1.13, and the benefit cost ratio is 1.2. The project scope was created by the team and stakeholders. Requirements on the project have been changing throughout the project. No matter what the project manager has tried to accomplish in managing the project, which of the following is he MOST likely to face in the future?
A. Having to cut costs on the project and increase benefits
B. Making sure the customer has approved the project scope
C. Not being able to measure completion of the product of the project
D. Having to add resources to the project
Answer C
Validate Scope is closely related to:
A. Control Quality.
B. Sequence Activities.
C. Perform Quality Assurance.
D. Time Management.
Answer A
Explanation Control Quality checks for correctness, and Validate Scope checks for acceptance.
Which of the following can create the MOST misinterpretation of the project scope statement?
A. Imprecise language
B. Poor pattern, structure, and chronological order
C. Small variations in size of work packages or detail of work
D. Too much detail
Answer A
Explanation Much of the work on the project is dictated by the project scope statement. Any imprecision in such a key document will lead to differing interpretations.
Which of the following is CORRECT in regard to the Control Scope process?
A. Effective scope definition can lead to a more complete project scope statement
B. The Control Scope process must be done before scope planning
C. The Control scope process must be integrated with other control processes
D. Controlling the schedule in the most effective way of controlling scope
Answer C
Explanation Though it is correct that effective scope definition can lead to a more complete project scope statement, this cannot be the answer, because it does not deal with control. Scope planning occurs before the Control Scope process, not after it. Controlling the schedule is not the best way to control scope, so that is not the best answer. The control processes do not act in isolation. A change to one will most likely affect the others. Therefore the need to integrate the Control Scope process with other control processes is the best answer.
Which of the following BEST describes the Validate Scope process
A. It provides assurances that the deliverable meets the specifications, is an input to the project
management plan, and is an output of Control Quality.
B. It ensures the deliverable is completed on time, ensures customer acceptance, and shows the deliverable meets specifications.
C. It ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light.
D. It is an output of Control Quality, occurs before Define Scope, and ensures customer acceptance.
Answer C
Explanation The project management plan is completed before the Validate Scope process. The Validate Scope process does not deal with time, but rather acceptance. The Validate Scope process does not occur before the Define Scope process. The choice stating that the Validate Scope ensures customer acceptance, shows the deliverable meets specifications, and provides a chance for differences of opinion to come to light is entirely correct, making that the best answer.
30. Which of the following BEST describes product analysis?
A. Working with the customer to determine the product description
B. Mathematically analyzing the quality desired for the project
C. Gaining a better understanding of the product of the project in order to create the project scope statement
D. Determining whether the quality standards on the project can be met
Answer C
Explanation You need to have a product description before you can do product analysis. Analyzing the level of quality desired is related to the Plan Quality Management process.
Determining whether the quality standards on the project can be met is done in the Perform Quality Assurance process. Product analysis includes gaining a better understanding of the
product of the project, in order to create the project scope statement.