PMP Practice Test: FINAL 200

1. You recently took over a relatively new project expected to last another seven years. The previous project manager completed most of the WBS. When you begin to define the project activities, you realize that the WBS work packages expected to occur in the next year are planned in detail, but the work packages for later in the future (three years or more) are not planned with much detail, if any detail at all. You determine—
a. It is a major problem. The WBS is incomplete and you need to redefine the project scope to complete the project schedule.
b. It is a problem that must be resolved quickly. The previous project manager was not done with the WBS, and you must stop the project to complete the WBS in sufficient detail.
c. It is not a problem at this time. The previous project manager was using the rolling wave planning technique, so you are able to continue defining the activities.
d. It is not a problem at this time. You can only plan what you know. You plan to communicate to the project sponsor that the WBS is not sufficient to plan the whole project and that the sponsor can worry about the details.
c. It is not a problem at this time. The previous project manager was using the rolling wave planning technique, so you are able to continue defining the activities.
Rolling wave planning provides progressive detailing of the work to be accomplished throughout the life of the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131, 152
2. In the initial stage of the project life cycle, the project’s technical objectives are apt to be understood only in a general sense. A major component of project conflict during this stage of the project is—
a. Concerns over priorities and procedures
b. Concerns about technical issues
c. Schedules
d. Confusion of establishing a project in the matrix management environment
d. Confusion of establishing a project in the matrix management environment

During project formation, there is always an element of confusion or lack of clarity regarding the balance of power between the project manager and functional managers. If not resolved, such confusion manifests itself in conflicts regarding technical decisions, resource allocation, and scheduling later in the project. [Executing]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 151-152

3. On your project to construct a new runway for your City’s airport, you are in the process of selecting vendors for various parts of this project. You have conducted your make-or-buy analysis and have issued Requests for Proposals. You believe it is important to examine past performance of potential vendors. This means you are using—
a. Proposal evaluation techniques
b. Multi-disciplinary review teams
c. Analytical techniques
d. Independent estimates
c. Analytical techniques
Analytical techniques are a tool and technique n conduct procurements. They are used to help organizations identify the readiness of a vendor to provide the desired end state, determine costs to support budgeting, and avoid cost overruns In evaluating past performance they identify areas that have more risk and that may need to be monitored closely for project success. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 376
4. Requirements typically are classified into product requirements and project requirements. Capturing and managing both types of requirements is important for project success, so you and your team decided to follow this classification system on your project to modernize all the telecommunications equipment in your company. During such an approach, all the following are examples of productrequirements EXCEPT—
a. Action requirements
b. Level of service requirements
c. Security requirements
d. Performance requirements
a. Action requirements
Such classification systems are helpful in both defining and documenting stakeholder needs to meet project objectives. Project requirements are ones that involve actions, processes, or other conditions the project needs to meet. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 112
5. Change control procedures, configuration management knowledge base, versions, and baselines in the develop project management plan process are:
a. Enterprise environmental factors
b. Organizational process assets
c. Part of the project’s configuration management plan, which as a subsidiary plan will be part of the project management plan
d. Part of the organization’s management practices
b. Organizational process assets
Organizational process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. As an input to the develop project management plan process, they include the items listed as well as standardized guidelines, instructions, proposal evaluation criteria, and performance measurement criteria; project management plan template; change control procedures; project files from previous projects; and historical information and lessons learned [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 75
6. You are managing a project that has five subcontractors. You must monitor contract performance, make payments, and manage provider interface. One subcontractor submitted a change request to expand the scope of its work. You decided to award a contract modification based on a review of this request. All these activities are part of—
a. Control procurements
b. Conduct procurements
c. Form contract
d. Configuration management
a. Control procurements
The purpose of control procurements is to ensure that the contractual requirements are met by the seller. This objective is accomplished by managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance and making changes and corrections to contracts if appropriate. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 379
7. Although the project charter serves to state the project manager’s authority and responsibility on the project, the project manager further requires which type of power in order to be an effective leader?
a. Expert
b. Legitimate
c. Position
d. Referent
a. Expert
Expert power is a function of knowledge, skills, and reputation possessed by the project manager. In such situations, project personnel will do what the project manager wants because they believe he or she knows best, and they trust and respect the project manager. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 174-180
Verma 2005, 54
Levin 2010, 163
8. The performance measurement baseline consists of all the following EXCEPT—
a. Scope baseline
b. Requirements baseline
c. Schedule baseline
d. Cost baseline
b. Requirements baseline
The scope, schedule, and cost baselines may be combined into a performance measurement baseline. It also may include technical and quality parameters. It then is used as an overall project baseline against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. It also is used for earned value measurements. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 302, 549
9. While working as the project manager on a new project to improve overall ease of use in the development of a railroad switching station, you have decided to add a subject matter expert who specializes in ergonomics to your team. She has decided to observe the existing approach as you and your team work to define requirements for the new system. This method is also called—
a. Mentoring
b. Coaching
c. Job shadowing
d. User experimentation
c. Job shadowing
Observations are a tool and technique in the collect requirements process. They provide a way to view individuals in their environment and to see how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes. Another term for this approach is job shadowing and usually is done by an observer viewing the user performing his or her job. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 116
10. In addition to providing support to the project, quality assurance also provides an umbrella for—
a. Plan-do-check-act
b. Continuous process improvement
c. Project management maturity
d. Work performance information
b. Continuous process improvement
Continuous process improvement provides an iterative means for improving the quality of all processes and is part of the definition of quality assurance. Its objective is to reduce waste and eliminate non-value-added activities. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 242-243
11. As you manage the railroad switching station project, you are concerned that the business analyst who was responsible for preparing the WBS may have overlooked some parts of the project. In order to see if the WBS requires enhancements you decide to—
a. Perform a cause-and-effect diagram
b. Meet with your sponsor
c. Use an affinity diagram
d. Review the accompanying WBS Dictionary with a member of the PMO
c. Use an affinity diagram
In quality assurance an affinity diagram is used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem. Using them in project management, one can enhance the creation of the WBS by using it to give structure to the decomposition of scope. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 245
12. Assume that your company is working under a fixed-price-incentive contract. It has a target cost of $100,000, a target profit of 10%, a price ceiling of $120,000, and a share formula of 80/20. Assume that your company completes all of the work but has actual costs of $110,000. What is the final value of this procurement?
a. $120,000
b. $132,000
c. $118,000
d. $110,000
c. $118,000
In this situation, there is a $10,000 overrun from the target costs. Applying the 80/20 share ratio, the seller’s share of the overrun is 20% of $10,000 or a minus $2,000 in earned fee. The final value of this procurement is $110,000 in costs, plus a seller fee of $10,000 less $2,000, or $8,000 for a final price of $118,000. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Fleming 2003, 92
13. If you apply the configuration management system along with change control processes project wide, you will achieve all but one of the which following objectives?
a. Provide the basis for which the product configuration is defining
b. List the approved configuration identification
c. Document the specific responsibilities of each stakeholder in the perform integrated change control process
d. Ensure the composition of a project’s configuration items is correct
c. Document the specific responsibilities of each stakeholder in the perform integrated change control process
Configuration management is an integral part of the perform integrated change control process. It is necessary because projects by their nature involve changes. The integrity of baselines must be maintained by releasing only approved changes for incorporation into the project’s products or services and by maintaining their related configuration and planning documentation. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 96-97
14. You need to outsource the testing function of your project. Your subcontracts department informed you that the following document must be prepared before conducting the procurement:
a. Make-or-buy analysis
b. Procurement management plan
c. Evaluation methodology
d. Contract terms and conditions
b. Procurement management plan
The procurement management plan describes how the project management team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It describes how the procurement processes will be used from developing procurement documents through closing contracts. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 366-367
15. Constraints common to projects include—
a. Scope, quality, schedule, budget, and risk
b. Scope, teaming, planning, and resources
c. Scope
d. Resources and communication
a. Scope, quality, schedule, budget, and risk
The constraints include, but are not limited to scope, schedule, budget (cost), quality, resources, and risk. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 6
16. You are developing a project charter and want to ensure that any changes that may occur after the project begins will be controlled rigorously. You have consulted your company’s configuration management knowledge base, and it contains versions and baselines of all the following official company documents EXCEPT—
a. Standards
b. Strategic plans
c. Policies
d. Procedures
b. Strategic plans
The configuration management knowledge base is an organizational process asset. It contains the versions and baselines of all company policies, practices, procedures, and standards, as well as pertinent project documents. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 98
17. To identify inefficient and ineffective policies, processes, and procedures in use on a project, you should conduct—
a. An inspection
b. A process analysis
c. Benchmarking
d. A quality audit
d. A quality audit
A quality audit is a tool and technique for the perform quality assurance process. It is primarily used to determine whether the project team is complying with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 247
18. Your project management office implemented a project management methodology that emphasizes the importance of integrated change control. It states that change requests can occur in all the following forms EXCEPT—
a. Indirect
b. Legally mandated
c. Informal
d. Internally initiated
c. Informal
Change requests are an input to the perform integrated change control process. Although occurring in many forms, they must be formal requests developed within the context of a change control system consisting of documented procedures. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 96, 531
19. Configuration management describes procedures for applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance. Which one of the following tasks is NOT performed in configuration management?
a. Identifying functional and physical characteristics of an item or system
b. Controlling changes to characteristics
c. Performing an audit to verify conformance to requirements
d. Allowing automatic approval of changes
d. Allowing automatic approval of changes
Allowing for automatic approval of defined changes is a function of the change control system, not configuration management. Configuration management ensures that the description of the project product is correct and complete. The change control system consists of a set of procedures to describe how modifications to project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 94, 96, and 531
20. A number of tools and techniques are helpful in the perform integrated change control process. If you want to implement an integrated change control process, you should use—
a. Configuration management software
b. A project management information system
c. Project status review meetings
d. Change control meetings
d. Change control meetings
Often, a project will set up a change control board, which has the responsibility for meeting and reviewing the change requests, and approving, rejecting, or other disposition of the changes. Decisions of the board are documented and communicated to stakeholders for information and follow-up actions. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 99
21. Having worked previously as a software project manager, you were pleased to be appointed as the project manager for a new systems integration project designed to replace the existing air traffic control system in your country. You found a requirements traceability matrix to be helpful on software projects, so you decided to use it on this systems integration project. Using such a matrix helps to ensure that each requirement—
a. Adds quality and supports the organization’s quality policy
b. Adds business value as it links to business and project objectives
c. Sets forth the level of service, performance, safety, security, and compliance
d. Shows the impact to other organizational areas and to entities outside of the performing organization
b. Adds business value as it links to business and project objectives
The requirements traceability matrix is a table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the life cycle. This approach helps to ensure that each requirement adds value as it links to the business and project objectives. It also tracks requirements during the life cycle to help ensure that the requirements listed in the requirements document are delivered at the end of the project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 118
22. During the closing phase of the project, the top-ranked source of conflict is—
a. Schedule
b. Administrative procedures
c. Cost
d. Human resources
a. Schedule
In many projects, there is a rush to finish because of schedule slippages that develop in the execution/implementation phase. Delays in schedules become cumulative and impact the project most severely in the final stages of the project. While there are other sources of conflict, such as personalities and cost, attempting to finish on time is always on everyone’s mind. [Closing]
Verma 1996, 103 and 105
23. Which of the following ensures that requested changes to deliverables are thoroughly considered as part of the performintegrated change control process?
a. Scope change control system
b. Configuration management system
c. Change control board
d. Configuration status audits
b. Configuration management system
The formal configuration management system is an important tool and technique for scope control and focuses on deliverables and documents. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 96-97
24. Which of the following tools is used in process analysis to determine the underlying causes of defects?
a. Root cause analysis
b. Assumptions analysis
c. Cost-benefit analysis
d. Quality metrics
a. Root cause analysis
Determining the root cause of the problem means to determine the origin of the problem. What may appear to be the problem on the surface is often revealed, after further analysis, not to be the real cause of the problem. Process analysis includes root cause analysis used to identify as problem, discover the underlying causes that lead to it and develop preventive actions. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 247
25. All of the following statements concerning validate scope and control quality are true EXCEPT—
a. The processes can be performed in parallel
b. Both processes use inspection as a tool and technique
c. Validate scope is concerned with the acceptance of deliverables, and control quality is concerned with meeting quality requirements for the deliverables
d. Validate scope verification typically precedes control quality
d. Validate scope typically precedes control quality
Validate scope focuses on accepting project deliverables, and to be accepted, they must meet the requirements. Control quality is one way to ensure that the requirements have been met, which is why control quality typically is done before validate scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 134
26. Consider a company that sells products to consumers: as one product begins the deterioration and death phases of its life cycle (or the divestment phase of a system), new products or projects must be established. This means that—
a. The company requires a continuous stream of projects to survive
b. The company is not at a high level of maturity
c. The company is in a period of overall decline
d. The company definitely lacks a balanced portfolio
a. The company requires a continuous stream of projects to survive
Organizations that rely on products for their revenue must constantly be introducing new products into the marketplace as old products are removed. Ideally, this should be an overlapping process to maintain balanced or increasing revenue over time. The closure phase evaluates the efforts of the total system and serves as input to the conceptual phase for new projects and systems. It also has an impact on other ongoing projects with regard to identifying priorities. [Closing]
Kerzner 2009, 69-70
27. You are in the process of performing quality assurance on your product and find that some requirements are not as complete as they should be, which causes rework and adds costs to your overall project. The term for all costs incurred over the life of the product by investing in appraising and inspecting the product for conformance and nonconformance to requirements is called—
a. Life-cycle costs
b. Expected value
c. Cost of conformance
d. Cost of quality
d. Cost of quality
Cost of quality involves both the cost of conformance and the cost of non-conformance. Examples of the cost of conformance are divided into two categories prevention costs and appraisal cots (includes inspections). Costs of non-conformance include internal failure costs and external failure costs. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 235
28. The project scope baseline should be used in the identify risks process because it—
a. Identifies project assumptions
b. Identifies all work that must be done; therefore, it includes all risks on the project
c. Helps organize all work that must be done on the project
d. Contains information on risks from prior projects
a. Identifies project assumptions
Project assumptions, which should be enumerated in the project scope baseline in the scope statement, are areas of uncertainty, and therefore, potential causes of project risk. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 322
29. Although there are various tools and techniques to consider as you collect requirements on your project, one approach that supports the concept of progressive elaboration is—
a. Idea/mind mapping
b. Affinity diagrams
c. Prototypes
d. Joint Application Design® sessions
c. Prototypes
Prototypes are used to obtain early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before it is built. Stakeholders then can experiment with this model rather than discussing abstract representations of requirements. This approach supports progressive elaboration, because it is used in iterative cycles of mock-up creation, user experimentation, feedback generation, and prototype revision. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 116
30. Tools and techniques used to perform quality assurance include—
a. Tools from control quality and plan quality management
b. Tools from performance reporting
c. Variance analysis
d. Direct and manage project execution
a. Tools from control quality and plan quality management
The tools used from plan quality management and control quality are used in perform quality assurance. The perform quality assurance process also uses affinity diagrams, process decision program charts, interrelationship digraphs, tree diagrams, prioritization matrices, activity network diagrams, matrix diagrams, quality audits, and process analysis. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 245-247
31. An approach to provide insight into the health of the project and to identify any areas that require special attention is to—
a. Conduct periodic status reviews
b. Prepare regular status and progress reports
c. Prepare forecasts of the project’s future
d. Continuously monitor the project
d. Continuously monitor the project
The monitor and control project work process is performed throughout the project and includes collecting, measuring, and disseminating performance information and assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvement. Continuous monitoring is important because it provides insight into the project’s health, highlighting areas requiring special attention. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 88
32. Although your company’s project life cycle does not mandate when a project review should be conducted, you believe it is important to review performance at the conclusion of each phase. The objective of such a review is to—
a. Determine how many resources are required to complete the project according to the project baseline
b. Adjust the schedule and cost baselines based on past performance
c. Obtain customer acceptance of project deliverables
d. Determine whether the project should continue to the next phase
d. Determine whether the project should continue to the next phase
The review at the end of a project phase is called a phase-end review. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the project should continue to the next phase for detecting and correcting errors while they are still manageable and for ensuring that the project remains focused on the business need it was undertaken to address. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 41, 549
33. The key management skills required during the adjourning stage of team development include all but which one of the following?
a. Evaluating
b. Reviewing
c. Celebrating
d. Improving
c. Celebrating
During the adjourning stage of team development, the emphasis is on tasks and relationships that promote closure and celebration. There is recognition and satisfaction as the theme is moving on and separation. Management skills involve evaluating, reviewing, and improving, while leadership qualities are celebrating and bringing closure. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 40; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 276
34. Assume that your actual costs are $1,000; your planned value is $1,200; and your earned value is $1,500. Based on these data, what can be determined regarding your schedule variance?
a. At -$300, the physical progress is being accomplished at a slower rate than is planned, indicating an unfavorable situation.
b. At +$300, the situation is favorable, as physical progress is being accomplished ahead of your plan.
c. At +$500, the situation is favorable, as physical progress is being accomplished at a lower cost than was forecasted.
d. At -$300, you have a behind-schedule condition, and your critical path has slipped.
b. At +$300, the situation is favorable, as physical progress is being accomplished ahead of your plan.
Schedule variance is calculated as EV – PV, or $1,500 – $1,200 = +$300. Because the SV is positive, physical progress is being accomplished at a faster rate than planned. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 648-649; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 224
35. The key to effective cost control is—
a. Using earned value to forecast project status
b. Focusing on projected expenditures and actively networking with key stakeholders to ensure funds will be available as requested
c. Informing stakeholders of the project’s cost status
d. Managing the approved cost baseline and any changes to it
d. Managing the approved cost baseline and any changes to it
The control costs process involves monitoring the project’s status to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline. Its benefit is that is provides the means to recognize variance in order to take corrective action and minimize risks. Therefore, effective management of the approved cost baseline and any changes is imperative. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 215-216
36. The CPI on your project is 0.44, which means that you should—
a. Place emphasis on improving the timeliness of the physical progress
b. Reassess the life-cycle costs of your product, including the length of the life-cycle phase
c. Place emphasis on improving the productivity by which work was being performed
d. Recognize that your original estimates were fundamentally flawed, and your project is in an atypical situation
d. Recognize that your original estimates were fundamentally flawed, and your project is in an atypical situation
CPI = EV/AC. It measures the efficiency of the physical progress accomplished compared to the baseline. A CPI of 0.44 means that for every dollar spent, you are only receiving 44 cents of progress. Therefore, something is not correct with how you planned your project, or your original estimates were fundamentally flawed, and your project is in an atypical situation. You might want to reconsider a formal “replan” and/or take a new baseline of your project. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 650-652; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 224
37. Project deliverables are the outputs that include the product, service, or result of the project as well as ancillaryresults. These ancillary results should be in the—
a. Requirements management plan
b. Scope management plan
c. Project scope statement
d. Project acceptance criteria
c. Project scope statement
The project scope statement describes in detail the deliverables and what work must be done to prepare them. Ancillary results are also considered deliverables and are included in the project scope statement. They include items such as project management reports and documentation. Deliverables in the project scope statement may be described at a summary level or in a detailed way. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 123
38. Which of the following tools and techniques is used in the close project or phase process?
a. Project management methodology
b. Work performance information
c. Expert judgment
d. Project management information system
c. Expert judgment
According to the PMBOK® Guide, expert judgment is use in close project or phase to ensure closure is performed to appropriate standards. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 102
39. After the project scope statement is complete, it may be necessary to update other project documents. All the following are examples of a document that may require updates EXCEPT—
a. Project charter
b. Stakeholder register
c. Requirements documentation
d. Requirements traceability matrix
a. Project charter
Outputs of the define scope project are the project scope statement and project document updates that include updates to the stakeholder register, requirements documentation, and the requirements traceability matrix. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 125
40. A challenge of earned value management is predicting percent complete. The simplest formula to use to calculate EV is—
a. 0/100 rule
b. 50/50 rule
c. (Percent complete) × (budget at completion)
d. Milestone method
c. (Percent complete) × (budget at completion)
Multiplying the percent complete by the budget at completion, or the total budget for the project, is the simplest formula to use. The 50/50 rule, or the more conservative 0/100 rule, can eliminate the necessity for the continuous determination of percent complete. After the percent complete is determined, it can be plotted against time expended. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 656-657
41. While managing a large project in your organization, you realize that your project team requires training in contract administration because you will be awarding several major subcontracts. After you analyze your project requirements and assess the expertise of your team members, you decide that your team will need a one-week class in contract administration. This training should—
a. Commence as scheduled and stated in the staffing management plan
b. Commence as scheduled and stated as part of the procurement management plan
c. Be scheduled if necessary after performance assessments are prepared and after each team member has had an opportunity to serve in the contract administrator role
d. Commence as scheduled and stated in the team development plan
a. Commence as scheduled and stated in the staffing management plan
Training is a tool and technique for the develop project team process. The requirements and schedule for the develop project team process should be stated in the staffing management plan. Project team members’ skills can be developed as part of the project activities. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 266, 275
42. Assume that on your project, you are using earned value management. Your project is one that has extremely long work packages. Therefore, the method you should use to calculate EV is—
a. 0/100 rule
b. Milestone method
c. Equivalent effort
d. Apportioned effort
b. Milestone method
The milestone method is especially helpful for work packages of long duration that have interim milestones or a functional group of activities with a milestone established at specific control points. In the EV system, value is earned when the milestone is completed. In such cases, a budget is assigned to the milestone rather than to the work packages. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 656
43. Your project sponsor has asked you, “What do we now expect the total job to cost?” Given that you are using earned value, you should calculate the—
a. To-complete performance index
b. Estimate to complete
c. Estimate at completion
d. Budget at completion
c. Estimate at completion
EAC is the total amount of money estimated to be spent on the project. It can be calculated several different ways. However, the basic approach is to add the actual costs to date plus the estimate to complete. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 660
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 224
44. One key reason that the develop project charter process is so important is that it—
a. Documents the boundaries of the project
b. States the methods for acceptance of the project’s deliverables
c. Describes the project’s characteristics
d. Links the project to the ongoing work of the organization
d. Links the project to the ongoing work of the organization
The project charter not only authorizes a project, it shows how the project is linked to the strategic plan of the organization. Among other things, the project charter documents the business need for the projectand describes the current understanding of the requirements. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 68
45. Your company has been awarded a contract for project management consulting services for a major government agency. You were a member of the proposal writing team, are PMP® certified, and you are the project manager. You are now working to prepare your project management plan, which is to be submitted in one week. You decided to use some facilitation techniques to help develop your plan. While a number are possible, you selected—
a. Conflict resolution
b. Checklist analysis
c. SWOT analysis
d. Assumptions analysis
a. Conflict resolution
Facilitation techniques are a tool and technique in develop project management plan process. Other examples are brainstorming, problem solving, and meeting management. They are used to help teams and individuals achieve agreement to accomplish the project’s objectives. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 77
46. Assume you had a phase gate meeting with your Governance Board for your project to develop the next generation radar system as part of the nation’s airspace modernization program. At this meeting, the Board approved your project management plan. However, as you begin to execute your plan, an organizational process asset to consider is—
a. Stakeholder risk tolerances
b. The organization’s culture
c. Hiring and firing guidelines
d. Process measurement data base
d. Process measurement data base
The process measurement data base is an organizational process asset that is used to collect and make available measurement data on processes and products. The other answers are examples of enterprise environmental factors used as inputs to direct and manage the project work. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 83
47. Consider the data in the table below. Assume that your project consists only of these three activities. Your estimate at completion is $4,400.00. This means you are calculating your EAC by using which of the following formulas?
[SEE CHART]
a. EAC = AC/EV × BAC
b. EAC = AC/EV × [work completed and in progress] + [actual (or revised) cost of work packages that have not started]
c. EAC = [Actual to date] + [all remaining work to be done at the planned cost including remaining work in progress]
d. EAC =% complete × BAC
c. EAC = [Actual to date] + [all remaining work to be done at the planned cost including remaining work in progress]
This formula assumes that all of the remaining work is independent of the burn rate incurred thus far. AC is $2,900 + [$500 + $1,000]. The $500 is from Activity B, and the $1,000 is from Activity C. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Kerzner 2009, 660
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 224
48. Rolling wave planning in the create WBS process refers to situations in which—
a. Certain deliverables or subprojects will be accomplished far into the future
b. Additional work is added to the project after the scope baseline has been established; therefore, additional decomposition is required
c. Identification codes for the WBS elements cannot be determined until the schedule activity list is complete in case revisions are required
d. Subprojects are developed by external organizations and then become
a. Certain deliverables or subprojects will be accomplished far into the future
Many projects involve deliverables or subprojects that will be accomplished far into the future and cannot be specified in detail at the current time. In these situations, the project management team typically waits until the deliverable or subproject is clarified so that details for that portion of the WBS can be developed. Then a rolling wave planning approach can be used. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131
49. The lessons learned documentation is an output from the—
a. Identify stakeholders process
b. Develop project management plan process
c. Manage communications process
d. Plan communications management process
c. Manage communications process
Lessons learned documentation is an output of the manage communications process. It is an element of the organizational process assets updates. It includes the causes of issues, reasons for corrective actions selected, and other types of lessons learned about communications management. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 303
50. Your experience has taught you that inappropriate responses to cost variances can produce quality or schedule problems or unacceptable project risk. When leading a team meeting to discuss the importance of cost control, you note that cost control is concerned with—
a. Influencing the factors that create change to the authorized cost baseline
b. Developing an approximation of the costs of the resources needed to complete the project
c. Allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items
d. Establishing a cost performance baseline
a. Influencing the factors that create change to the authorized cost baseline
The control costs process is also concerned with ensuring that requested changes have been acted upon, managing actual changes if and when they occur, ensuring cost expenditures do not exceed authorized funding, monitoring cost performance, preventing unapproved changes from being included in the reported cost or resource use, informing stakeholders of all approved changes and their costs and bringing expected cost overruns within acceptable limits. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 216
51. You are pleased to be the project manager for a new video conferencing system for your global organization. You want it to be one that is easy to use and is state of the art. As the project manager, you also are the project leader. You realize leadership is critical throughout the phases of the project and its key elements are—
a. Respect and trust
b. Political and cultural awareness
c. Negotiation and influencing
d. Decision making and conflict management
a. Respect and trust
Leadership is critical to project management as it focuses on ensuring a group of people are working toward a common goal and enables them to work as a team. It involves getting things done through others. Respect and trust, not fear and submission, are its key elements. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 513
52. The WBS represents all product and project work, including project management. It is sometimes called the—
a. Control account level
b. 100% rule
c. Integration of scope, cost, and schedule for comparison to the earned value
d. The code of accounts
b. 100% rule
The WBS is a deliverable-oriented, hierarchical decomposition of work to be done by the project team. Sometimes called the 100% rule, it shows the total of the work at the lowest levels must roll up to the higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is done. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131
53. Your company is in the project management training business. In addition, the company publishes several exam study aids for the PMP® and CAPM® exam. You have your PMP®, and you have been appointed as the project manager to make sure your company’s training materials are updated to be aligned with the new PMBOK® Guide. You must complete your project in six months. You are now in month four. Many of your team members have been working on other projects as the company uses matrix management. In a performance review meeting today, you informed your Governance Board that you did not think you could complete this project in the remaining two months. You were informed that additional resources were not available, but you had to complete your project on time. Your best course of action is to—
a. Revise your schedule baseline
b. Use fast tracking
c. Adjust leads and lags now in your schedule
d. Use modeling techniques
b. Use fast tracking
Fast tracking or crashing the schedule for the remaining work to be done are examples of schedule compression techniques to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the project management plan. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 190
54. You are trying to determine whether or not to conduct 100% final system tests of 500 ground-based radar units at the factory. The historical radar field failure rate is 4%; the cost to test each unit in the factory is $10,000; the cost to reassemble each passed unit after the factory test is $2,000; the cost to repair and reassemble each failed unit after factory test is $23,000; and the cost to repair and reinstall each failed unit in the field is $350,000. Using decision tree analysis, what is the expected value if you decide to conduct these tests?
a. $5.5 million
b. $5.96 million
c. $6.42 million
d. $7 million
c. $6.42 million
Test: $5M + $960K + $460K = $6.42M; Don’t Test: $7M. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 339
55. Motivation is dynamic and complex. The statement, “Motivation is an intrinsic phenomenon. Extrinsic satisfaction only leads to movements, not motivation” is attributed to which of the leading theories of motivation?
a. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
b. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
c. Morse and Lorsch’s Contingency Theory
d. McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y
b. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
Frederick Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory asserts that some job factors lead to satisfaction, whereas others can only prevent dissatisfaction. There are two types of factors associated to the motivation process: hygiene factors, which relate to the work environment, and motivators, which relate to the work itself. Hygiene factors, if provided appropriately, can prevent dissatisfaction, while motivating factors can increase job satisfaction and are more permanent. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 56, 64-65
Meredith and Mantel, 2012, 200
56. Each time you meet with your project sponsor, she emphasizes the need for cost control. To address her concerns, you should provide—
a. Work performance information
b. Cost baseline updates
c. Resource productivity analyses
d. Trend analysis statistics
a. Work performance information
The project’s work performance information should document and communicate the CV, SV, CPI, SPI, TCPI, and VAC for the WBS components in particular for specific work packages and control accounts. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 225
57. One output of the control costs process is cost forecasts, which is when—
a. Modifications are made to the cost information used to manage the project and are communicated to stakeholders
b. Trend analyses are performed and communicated to stakeholders
c. A budget update is required and communicated to all stakeholders
d. A calculated EAC value or a bottom-up EAC value is documented and communicated to stakeholders
57. d. A calculated EAC value or a bottom-up EAC value is documented and communicated to stakeholders
Cost forecasts are another output of control costs, and the EAC is used to show the expected total costs of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 224-225
58. You work for an electrical utility company and will be managing a project to build a new substation that will serve a new industrial park. This project was authorized because of a—
a. Business need
b. Market demand
c. Technological advance
d. Customer request
d. Customer request
Projects can be authorized as a result of a market demand, organizational need, customer request, technological advance, legal requirement, ecological impact, or a social need. The new industrial park is an example of a project authorized because of a customer request. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 69
59. A final project report is a recommended best practice. Although this report can be organized in a variety of ways, how should each item that is covered in the report be addressed?
a. A recommendation for changing current practice should be made and defended.
b. The focus should be solely on items that did not work well on the project.
c. Individuals who did not contribute successfully as team members should be noted.
d. An earned value discussion is warranted.
a. A recommendation for changing current practice should be made and defended.
It is important to capture lessons learned, which then can be used on subsequent projects. The more detailed the lessons the better. However, when it comes to personnel lessons learned, the information should be handled in a confidential manner. [Closing]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 570
60. At the time the risk register is first prepared, it should contain all the following entries EXCEPT—
a. Root causes of risk
b. Structure for describing risks
c. List of risks requiring near-term responses
d. List of potential responses
c. List of risks requiring near-term responses
The primary outputs from identify risks are initial entries into the risk register. It ultimately contains outcomes of other risk management processes as they are conducted. As an output of identify risks, the risk register should contain a list of identified risks, a list of potential responses, root causes that gave rise to the identified risks, and a structure for describing risks. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 327
61. Which of the following theorists stated that people generally are motivated according to the strength of their desire either to achieve high levels of performance or to exceed in competitive situations?
a. David McGregor
b. David McClelland
c. Victor Vroom
d. B. F. Skinner
b. David McClelland
According to David McClelland, there are three relevant motives or needs in work situations: the need for achievement, power, and affiliation or association. This theory supports the view that there is a high correlation between achievement, affiliation, and power motives and the overall motivation and performance achieved in a project. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 68
Levin, 2010, 88-91
62. Your project is considered very risky. You plan to perform numerous what-if scenarios on your schedule using simulation software that will define each schedule activity and calculate a range of possible durations for each activity. The simulation then will use the collected data from each activity to calculate a distribution curve (or range) for the possible outcomes of the total project. Your planned approach is an example of which following technique?
a. PERT
b. Monte Carlo analysis
c. Linear programming
d. Concurrent engineering
b. Monte Carlo analysis
Simulation is a tool and technique for the develop schedule process by which multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions are calculated. Monte Carlo analysis is the most commonly used simulation technique. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 180, 340, 562
63. Project execution must be compared, and deviations must be measured for management control according to the—
a. Scope baseline
b. Performance measurement baseline
c. Schedule baseline
d. Control system
b. Performance measurement baseline
The PMB is an approved, integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared in order to measure and manage performance. It includes contingency reserve but not management reserve. It typicallyintegrates scope, schedule, and cost parameters of the project, but it may also include technical and quality parameters. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 302, 549
64. A number of items may be part of the schedule data for the project. The amount of additional detail will vary, but the data should include all the following items EXCEPT—
a. Schedule activities
b. Activity attributes
c. Identified assumptions
d. Resource breakdown structure
d. Resource breakdown structure
Schedule data for the project schedule includes a number of items as it collects the information used to describe and control the schedule. It includes schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and assumptions and constraints. It may include resource histograms, alternate schedules, contingencyreserves cash-flow projections, and order and deliveryschedules [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 184, 191, and 561
65. If a team member, when facing schedule delays and cost overruns, develops several alternatives for completing the project successfully on schedule and within budget and asks questions such as, “Can we do it?,” “If we do it what are the consequences?,” and “Is it really worth the effort involved?,” he or she is primarily motivated by the—
a. Contingency Theory
b. Expectancy Theory
c. Reinforcement Theory
d. Equity Theory
b. Expectancy Theory
Developed by Victor Vroom, Expectancy Theory asserts that people think seriously about how much effort they should put into a task before doing it. Motivation is linked to an expectation of a favorable outcome. It is based on the concept that people choose behaviors that they believe will lead to desired rewards and outcomes. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 73
66. Which tool or technique is NOT used for schedule control?
a. Performance reviews
b. Project management software
c. Work performance information
d. Leads and lags
c. Work performance data
Work performance data is an input to control schedule. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 185
67. All the following are examples of project document updates from the manage project team process EXCEPT—
a. Issue log
b. Roles description
c. Project staff assignments
d. Personnel skills
d. Personnel skills
Personnel skill updates are an example of an enterprise environmental factor that may require updates as a result of the manage project team process along with inputs to the organizational performance appraisals. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 285
68. Recording and reporting information regarding when appropriate configuration information should be provided and regarding the status of proposed and approved changes effectively is done through—
a. Configuration status accounting
b. Configuration verification and audit
c. Project management methodology
d. A project management information system (PMIS)
a. Configuration status accounting
Configuration status accounting captures, stores, and accesses the needed configuration information to manage products and product information effectively. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 97
69. Decomposition is a technique used to break larger, complex items into smaller and more manageable items. Which following statement best describes the role decomposition plays in creating the WBS?
a. Final output of creating the WBS is described in terms of phases of a project life cycle.
b. Final output of creating the WBS is described in terms of schedule activities.
c. Final output of creating the WBS is described in terms of verifiable products, services, or results.
d. Final output of creating the WBS is described in terms of the scope of the project.
c. Final output of creating the WBS is described in terms of verifiable products, services, or results.
By using decomposition, the upper-level WBS components are subdivided for the work for each of the deliverables or subcomponents into its most fundamental elements, where the WBS components then represent verifiable products, service, or results. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 131
70. The schedule management plan is a key document. It is—
a. An output of the develop schedule process
b. A tool and technique used in the develop schedule process
c. The first time management process
d. A separate planning effort completed in conjunction with the time management processes
c. The first time management process
The schedule management plan is the output of plan schedule management, the first of the seven time management processes. It is a subsidiary plan to the project management plan. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 143
71. Activity attributes are used to extend the description of the activity and to identify its multiple components. In the early stages of the project, an example of an activity attribute is—
a. Activity codes
b. Activity description
c. Predecessor and successor activities
d. Activity name
d. Activity name
The components for each activity evolve over time. In the initial stages of the project, they include the activity ID, WBS ID, and the activity name. Later, additional information is added as other time management processes are performed. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 153
72. You are working on a new project in your city to construct an environmentally friendly landfill. The existing site is so undesirable that many residents have moved to other neighboring cities because of their proximity to it. However, even though the project has the support of the public, you need to have a number of hearings of the city’s government before you are authorized to begin work. As you are in the planning phase of the project, you are waiting for these hearings to be scheduled and held before you can begin site preparation. These hearings are an example of—
a. A milestone
b. An external dependency
c. An item to be scheduled as a fragnet
d. A mandatory dependency
b. An external dependency
Some dependencies are external ones, and they involve a relationship between project activities and nonproject activities. In sequencing activities, the project management team must determine which dependencies are external as they are usually outside of the team’s control. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 158
73. You are working on a project and want to know how many activities in the previous month were completed with significant variances. You should use a(n)—
a. Control chart
b. Inspection
c. Scatter diagram
d. Trend analysis
d. Trend analysis
Trend analysis is used in many control processes in project management. The trend analysis examines the performance of the project over time to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating. Graphical analysis techniques are valuable in trend analysis to understand performance to date and to compare it to future performance goals in the form of completion dates. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 188
74. Your project has a budget of $1.5 million for the first year, $3 million for the second year, $2.2 million for the third year, and $800,000 for the fourth year. Most of the project budget will be spent during—
a. Starting the project
b. Organizing and preparing
c. Carrying out the work
d. Closing the project
c. Carrying out the work
The implementation phase (carrying out the work) is when all interfaces affecting the project must be coordinated and when the product or service of the project is created. In most projects, this phase is also where a large portion of the project budget is spent. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 56
75. If you decide to follow an open subordination approach to resolving conflict, you are using which style of conflict resolution?
a. Avoiding
b. Accommodating
c. Compromising
d. Collaborating
b. Accommodating
Open subordination is much like an accommodating or smoothing style of conflict management in which negotiators are more concerned about positive relationships than about substantive outcomes. It can dampen hostility, increase support and cooperation, and foster more interdependent relationships. This is an effective style for project managers to use with support staff. It concedes one’s position to the needs of others to maintain harmony and relationships. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 157
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 283
76. Typically, the seller receives formal written notice that the contract has been completed by the—
a. Project manager
b. Authorized procurement administrator
c. Member of the project management team responsible for daily contract administration
d. Purchasing department head
b. Authorized procurement administrator
The buyer, through its authorized procurement administrator, is responsible for providing the seller with formal written notice of contract completion. The procurement administrator does so when the seller has met all contractual requirements as articulated in the contract. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 389
77. Working in the control procurements process since your project is using five contractors, you need to update a number of organizational process assets. An example is—
a. Procurement management plan
b. Procurement documentation
c. Correspondence
d. Warranties
c. Correspondence
Contract terms and conditions often require written documentation of certain aspects of buyer/seller communications. Examples include any warnings of unsatisfactory performance and requests for changes in the contract or clarification. Other organizational process assets to update include payment schedules and requests and seller performance evaluation documentation. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 386
78. You are beginning a new project staffed with a virtual team located across five different countries. To help limit conflict and misunderstandings concerning the justification, objectives, and high-level requirements of the project among your team members and their functional managers, you ask the project sponsor to prepare a—
a. Memo to team members informing them that they work for you now
b. Project charter
c. Memo to functional managers informing them that you have authority to direct their employees
d. Human resource management plan
b. Project charter
Although the project charter cannot stop conflicts from arising, it can provide a framework to help resolve them, because it describes the project manager’s authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. The project charter also documents the business needs, justification, objectives, and high-level requirements of the project. [Initiating]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 228-229
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 71-72
79. To anticipate and help develop approaches to deal with potential quality problems on your project, you want to use a variety of root-cause analysis techniques including all the following approaches EXCEPT—
a. Fishbone diagrams
b. Ishikawa diagrams
c. System or process flowcharts
d. Checklists
d. Checklists
Checklists are used to verify that the work of the project and its deliverables fulfill a set of requirements. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 242 and 250
80. All of the following are examples of ways to generate options for mutual gain during negotiations EXCEPT—
a. Separating inventing from deciding
b. Options broadening
c. Zero-sum game analysis
d. Multiplying options by shuttling between the specific and the general
c. Zero-sum game analysis
Achieving mutual gain during negotiations means that each party benefits by the decisions made. A zero-sum game is where one side wins at the expense of the other. [Executing]
Ward 2008, 474
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 517
81. Recently, your company introduced a new processing system for its products. You were the project manager for this system and now have been asked to lead a team to implement needed changes to increase efficiency and productivity. To help you analyze the process outputs, you and your team have decided to use which following technique?
a. System flowcharts
b. Design of experiments
c. Pareto analysis
d. Control charts
d. Control charts
Control charts help to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. This function of control charts is achieved through the graphical display of results over time to determine whether differences in the results are created by random variations or are unusual events. In a manufacturing environment, such charts are used to track repetitive actions such as manufactured lots. In a project management environment, they can be used to monitor processes such as cost and schedule variances, number requirements, and errors in project documents. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 238
82. Effective leadership is one key to successful project management. There are several theories of leadership. One model is Hershey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model that describes directive behavior and supportive behavior. Of the following, which one is NOT a key word for supportive behavior?
a. Listen
b. Structure
c. Praise
d. Facilitate
b. Structure
Supportive behavior is relationship oriented and is the extent to which the leader engages in two-way communication, listens, provides support and encouragement, facilitates interaction, and involves the followers in decision making. Structure connotes a certain level of rigidity and inflexibility and is not a term associated with supportive behavior. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 216-217
Kerzner, 2009, 222-223
83. Based on quality control measurements on your manufacturing project, management realizes that immediate corrective action is required to the material requirements planning (MRP) system to minimize rework. To implement the necessary changes you should follow—
a. The organization’s quality policy
b. The quality management plan
c. Established operational definitions and procedures
d. A defined integrated change control process
d. A defined integrated change control process
If the recommended corrective or preventive actions or a defect repair require a change to any of the project management plans, a change request should be prepared in conformance with the perform integrated change control process. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 253
84. You are the project manager on a project to improve traffic flow in the company’s parking garage. You decide to use flowcharting to—
a. Help anticipate how problems occur
b. Show dependencies between tasks
c. Show the results of a process
d. Forecast future outcomes
a. Help anticipate how problems occur
Flowcharts depict the interrelationship of a system’s components and show the relationships among process steps. They are often referred to as process maps as they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Flowcharts show activities, decision points, branching loops, parallel paths, and the order of processing. As such, they aid the team in anticipating where quality problems might occur, which helps in developing approaches for dealing with these potential problems. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 236
85. Successful project management involves both project leadership as well as project management skills. Several different leadership styles are appropriate in different phases of the project life cycle. Assume that you are working on a project, and it is in the execution phase. The leadership style that is most appropriate should consist of a blend of all but which one of the following?
a. Change master
b. Decision maker
c. Team and synergy
d. Trustworthiness
a. Change master
During the execution stage, the major attributes and emphasis is on realignment. The leadership style/blend that is most appropriate is one who is a decision maker, balances work and fun, is trustworthy, and promotes the team concept and synergy. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 225
86. Schedule control is one important way to avoid delays. While planning and executing schedule recovery, one tool available to you for control schedules is—
a. Changing the schedule management plan
b. Immediately rebaselining
c. Adjusting leads and lags
d. Changing all project and resource calendars
c. Adjusting leads and lags
Corrective action is anything that brings expected future schedule performance in line with the project plan. Adjusting leads and lags is one of many tools available to identify the cause of variation. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 190
87. You have been the project manager for your nuclear submarine project for four years. While you did not assume this position until the project management plan had been prepared and approved, you find you spend a significant amount of time collecting data and communicating. You also spend time reviewing the impact of project changes and implementing ones that have been approved. Often you have had to modify a non-conforming product, which means you are spending time on—
a. Corrective actions
b. Updating the project’s requirements
c. Updating the traceability matrix
d. Defect repair
d. Defect repair
Defect repair is an intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or project component. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 81
88. You were assigned recently as the project manager of a program management office project to implement a new enterprise-wide scheduling system for use throughout your company. You identify the need for a project charter to provide you with appropriate authority for applying resources, completing the project work, and formally initiating the project. Who should issue the project charter?
a. The project manager—you
b. The customer
c. The person who formally authorizes the project
d. A member of the training and development department as they will own the training on the new system
c. The person who formally authorizes the project
The charter is issued by the project initiator or sponsor who formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 71
89. In which of the following methods of resolving conflict will the conflict typically reappear again in another form?
a. Smoothing
b. Compromising
c. Collaborating
d. Confronting
a. Smoothing
Smoothing emphasizes areas of agreement while avoiding points of disagreement. It tends to keep peace only in the short term. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 181-189
Verma 1996, 118
PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 283
90. Statistical sampling is a method in perform quality control to determine the conformance to requirements for some component or product of a project. Its greatest advantage is that it—
a. Does not require a large expenditure of resources
b. Is accurate enough with a sampling of less than 1%
c. Does not require 100% inspection of the components to achieve a satisfactory inference of the population
d. Needs to be conducted only when a problem is discovered with the end product or when the customer has some rejects
c. Does not require 100% inspection of the components to achieve a satisfactory inference of the population
The application of the statistical concept of probability has proven, over many years in many applications, that an entire population of products need not be inspected, if the sample selected conforms to a normal distribution of possible outcomes (the “bell” curve). Sample frequency and sizes should be determined as the quality management plan is prepared in order that the cost of quality includes the number of tests and expected scrap. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 240 and 252
91. Your project sponsor wants to know whether process variables are within acceptable limits. To answer this question, you should—
a. Conduct a process analysis
b. Conduct a root cause analysis
c. Use a control chart
d. Use a run chart
c. Use a control chart
A control chart is one of the seven basic tools of quality control that determines whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. It also illustrates how a process behaves over time. When a process is within acceptable limits, it need not be adjusted; when it is outside acceptable limits, an analysis should be conducted to determine the reasons why. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 238
92. All the following statements are true about the grassroots estimate, EXCEPT—
a. Its accuracy rate is from -5% to +10%
b. It is also called an engineering estimate
c. It is used primarily for Level 1 of the WBS
d. It may take months to prepare
c. It is used primarily for Level 1 of the WBS
Estimates are categorized according to accuracy and the time to prepare them. Grassroots or engineering-type estimates are definite estimates and are prepared when detailed information about the project is available. These estimates would use the work-package level of the WBS. [Planning]
Kerzner 2009, 574
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 201
93. You are planning a project and want to account for how the project will be managed in the future. While building your cost performance data, you want to provide guidance for when the project is later executed, because you know that different responses are required depending upon the degree of variance from the baseline. For example, a variance of 10 percent might not require immediate action, whereas a variance of 20 percent will require more immediate action and investigation. You decide to include the details of how to manage the cost variances as part of which following plan?
a. Cost management plan
b. Change management plan
c. Performance measurement plan
d. Variance management plan
a. Cost management plan
The management and control of costs focuses on variances. Certain variances are acceptable, and others, usually those falling outside a particular range, are unacceptable. The actions taken by the project manager for all variances are described in the cost management plan. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 198-199
94. Assume that you are managing a project team. Your team is one in which its members confront issues rather than people, establish procedures collectively, and is team oriented. As the project manager, which of the following represents your team’s stage of development and the approach you should use during this time?
a. Storming; high directive and supportive approach
b. Norming; high directive and low supportive approach
c. Norming; high supportive and low directive approach
d. Performing; low directive and supportive approach
c. Norming; high supportive and low directive approach
There are four stages of team development: forming, storming, norming, and performing. Different leadership styles in terms of the amount of required supportive and directive behavior are appropriate when a team is in a certain development stage. At the norming stage, the third stage in team development, leaders provide high support and low direction. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 227
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 276
95. You are finalizing all the contracts and ensuring that they are closed. The close procurements process involves all the following administrative actions EXCEPT—
a. The procurement administrator is reassigned
b. Finalizing open claims
c. Updating the project records to show the final contractresults
d. Archiving the contracts and contract records for future use
a. The procurement administrator is reassigned
The close procurements process looks at the administration of the contract and not the people responsible or involved with the contract. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 387
96. You are working on a project and want to identify the cause of problems in a process by the shape and width of the distribution of the process variables. You should use a—
a. Histogram
b. Pareto chart
c. Scatter diagram
d. Trend analysis
a. Histogram
In a histogram, or a special form of bar chart, each column represents an attribute or characteristic of a problem or situation. The height of each column represents the relative frequency of the characteristic. It describes the central tendency, dispersion, or shape of a statistical distribution. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 238
97. You are working on a construction project in a city different from your headquarters’ location. You and your team have not worked in this city, City B, previously, and you lack knowledge of the local building codes. You had a team member review the codes, and he said they were in far greater detail than those in your city, City A. When you asked him how much time he would need to spend to gain a complete understanding of these codes, he estimated that at least five weeks would be needed. You then decided it would be more cost effective to hire a local person from City B who specializes in this area. As a result, as you prepare your schedule and estimate your resource requirements for this project, you should coordinate this work closely with which of the following processes:
a. Estimate costs
b. Define activities
c. Determine budgets
d. Develop schedule
a. Estimate costs
The estimate activity resources process involves estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies needed to perform each activity. This means close coordination with the estimate costs process is needed. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 141, 162
98. Assume that you were the first person in your company to be PMP® certified and also that you earned a doctorate in project management. People throughout the organization admired your achievements. Based on your success in managing projects, your company now has adopted a management-by-projects philosophy. You have been appointed head of your company’s project management office to lead the organization as it transitions to this new way of working. So far, people seem to willingly comply with your demands and requests. In this situation, you are using which type of power?
a. Legitimate
b. Expert
c. Contacts
d. Referent
a. Legitimate
Legitimate power is formal authority based on a person’s position within the organization. It comes with the right to give orders or make requests. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 174-180
Verma 1996, 233
Levin 2010, 161-162
99. The nature of project work is such that it inevitably causes stress. Project managers thus need to learn how to cope with and manage stress and understand what stress is and why it is created. Project managers need to note that it can be a positive experience depending on how people perceive stress and should work to mentorteam members accordingly. As you strive to become more aware of stress, which one of the following is NOT considered a stress-creating factor that is related to the project environment?
a. Role ambiguity
b. Corporate politics
c. Career development
d. Selection of team members
a. Role ambiguity
The main sources of stress are grouped into four categories of stress-creating factors: those related to roles and relationships, those related to the job environment, personal factors, and factors related to the project environment or climate. Role ambiguity is an example of factors related to roles and responsibilities. It occurs when an individual is not clear about his or her job responsibilities. [Monitoring and Controlling]
Verma 1996, 180, 183-184; Levin, 2010, 176-183
100. Assume you are working as the project manager on the first project in your company to use the critical chain approach to scheduling. You are a PMP® and also are certified in critical chain. You are getting ready for a performance review with your Governance Board, and you can expect they will ask questions about—
a. The magnitude of variance against the schedule baseline
b. Schedule risk
c. Performance to date since the past review meeting
d. The buffer needed and buffer remaining
d. The buffer needed and the buffer remaining
Critical chain is an approach in scheduling in which the project team can place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties. During a performance review, comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help to determine schedule status. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 180, 189
101. You are in the early stages of a project to manufacture disposable medical devices. You need a number of engineers including ones with specialties in mechanical, environmental, and systems engineering. In the early stages of this project, your resource pool includes a large number of both junior and senior engineers in the various specialty areas. However, as the project progresses—
a. Fewer systems engineers will be needed
b. The resource pool can be limited to those people who are knowledgeable about the project
c. To complete the project on time, you will continue to require access to a large number of engineers in their specialty areas
d. You will only need junior level engineers as the senior level people can be used early in the project to mentor and train them
b. The resource pool can be limited to those people who are knowledgeable about the project
Resource calendars are an input to the estimate activity resource process and to the estimate activitydurations process. They are used to estimate resource use. Early in a project, the resource pool might include people at different levels of expertise in large numbers, but as the project progresses, the resource pool then can be limited to those people who are knowledgeable about the project because of their work on it. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 163, 167-168
102. A number of approaches can be helpful when estimating resource requirements for activities on a project. Assume you are managing a project and you have already prepared your WBS. When you decomposed your WBS, it has 45 work packages. You then prepared an activity list. Now, you are preparing your schedule and determining your resource requirements. You found there were about 30 activities that you could not estimate with a reasonable degree of confidence, so you and your team decided to use which one of the following approaches to help with these activity resource estimates:
a. Resource breakdown structure
b. Published estimating data
c. Alternatives analysis
d. Bottom-up estimating
d. Bottom-up estimating
When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work then needs to be decomposed into more detail. The estimates then are aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources through a bottom-up approach. These activities may or may not have dependencies between them. However, when dependencies exist, this pattern of use of resources then is documented in the estimated requirements for each activity. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 164
103. To practice effective schedule control, your project team must be alert to any issues that may cause problems in the future. To best accomplish effective schedule control, the team should—
a. Review work performance information
b. Allow no changes to the schedule
c. Update the schedule management plan on a continuous basis
d. Hold status reviews
a. Review work performance information
The calculated SV and SPI time performance indicators for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders as an outputof the control schedule process. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 190
104. Functional managers play a vital role in ensuring project success. Since most projects operate in a matrix environment, there is shared authority between project managers and functional managers. Functional managers tend to focus on—
a. Who will do the task
b. Why the project manager needs resources
c. How much time and money is available for the task
d. Why will the task be done
a. Who will do the task
In a matrix environment, project resources (that is, people) come from the functional departments. Therefore, it is the functional manager’s job to identify who will work on specific project tasks. [Executing]
Verma 1995, 56-57
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 37
105. You are a member of a project selection committee that uses the net present value technique. Using this approach, the project is acceptable if the—
a. Sum of the net present value of all estimated cash flow during the life of the project equals the profit
b. Net present value of the inflow is greater than the specified amount or percentage threshold
c. Gross present value of all future expected cash flow divided by the initial cash investment is greater than one
d. Net present value of the inflow is less than the specified amount or percentage threshold
b. Net present value of the inflow is greater than the specified amount or percentage threshold
The discounted cash-flow approach—or the present value method—determines the net present value of all cash flow by discounting it by the required rate of return. The impact of inflation can be considered. Early in the life of a project, net cash flow is likely to be negative because the major outflow is the initial investment in the project. If the project is successful, cash flow will become positive. [Initiating]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 51
106. A watch list of low priority risks is documented in the—
a. Work performance information
b. Risk register
c. Fallback plans
d. Risk response plan
b. Risk register
The monitor and control risks process includes keeping track of those risks on the watch list. Low-priority risks are inputs to the monitor and control risks process and are documented in the risk register. Other inputs that are part of the risk register include identified risks and risk owners, agreed-upon risk responses, control actions to assess the effectiveness of response plans, specific implementation actions, symptoms and warning signs of risk, residual and secondary risks, and the time and cost contingency reserves. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 350
107. You are the project manager for a major logistics installation project and must obtain specific services from local sources external to your project. Your subcontracts administrator has told you to prepare a product or service description, which is referenced in a—
a. Project statement of work
b. Contract scope statement
c. Request for proposal
d. Contract
a. Project statement of work
The project statement of work describes in a narrative form the products, services, or results that the project will deliver. It references the product scope description as well as the business need and strategic plan. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 68
108. It often is advantageous to appoint a termination manager in the closing phase of the project and release the project manager so that he or she is available to work on another project. If this is the case, the termination manager should focus attention on all but which one of the following?
a. Ensuring that documentation is complete
b. Ascertaining any product support requirements
c. Receiving formal acceptance of the project from the client
d. Preparing personnel performance evaluations
d. Preparing personnel performance evaluations
The project manager, or whoever supervised the work of each individual team member, should prepare the personnel evaluations because they have an intimate understanding of the work performed by the team members. The termination manager focuses instead on the administrative requirements of termination and the environment within which the project will be operating if it is continued in any way. [Closing]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 564-566
109. You are working on a project to upgrade the existing fiber-optic cables in your province. You have determined that a resource can install 25 meters of cable per hour, so the duration required to install 1,000 meters would be 40 hours. This means you are using—
a. Productivity efficiency factors
b. Parametric estimating
c. Analogous estimating
d. PERT
b. Parametric estimating
Parametric estimating uses statistical relationships between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate for activity parameters such as cost, budget, and duration. The activity durations then are determined quantitatively by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by the labor hours per unit of work. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending on the reliability of the data in the model. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 170
110. During the stages of team development, your team is in which stage when there is problem solving and interdependence along with achievement and synergy?
a. Storming
b. Forming
c. Norming
d. Performing
d. Performing
The performing stage of team development is noted by a theme of productivity. Management skills involve consensus building, problem solving, decision making, and rewarding, with leadership shown through management by walking around, stewardship delegation, mentoring, being a futurist, and being a cheerleader/champion. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 40
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 276
111. When you are about to terminate a contract, the one place to look for specific procedures for contract closure is in the—
a. Statement of work in the contract
b. Terms and conditions in the contract
c. Product description
d. Organizational process assets
b. Terms and conditions in the contract
The terms and conditions can prescribe specific procedures for the various ways that a contract could be terminated. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 378, 387
112. Today, the primary cause of why projects are not completed on time and within cost and are terminated early is due to—
a. Contractual issues
b. Complexity of the project
c. An increase in the allocated time
d. Behavioral-oriented reasons
d. Behavioral-oriented reasons
Behavioral reasons, rather than quantitative reasons, account for more project terminations because it is much more difficult to manage people than things. Issues such as poor morale, poor human relations, poor labor productivity, and no commitment from those involved in the project combine to thwart project success in many industries. [Closing]
Kerzner 2009, 452-453
113. Life-cycle phase definitions are different in different industries. For example, all of the following are terms that could be used in the closing phase of a project EXCEPT—
a. Testing and commissioning
b. Conversion
c. Implementation
d. Final audit
c. Implementation
Regardless of the many terms used across many industries, implementation would be considered a term used in the executing phase in which the work is carried out and done. [Closing]
Kerzner 2009, 69
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 39
114. Your company is embarking on a project to launch a new product delivery service. You are the project manager for this project and have just finished the concept phase. The various outputs/deliverable(s) for this phase include—
a. Project management plan
b. Scope of work and requirements
c. Project charter and stakeholder register
d. Roles and responsibilities of the project manager
c. Project charter and stakeholder register
The project charter signifies official sanction by top management and starts the planning, or development, phase. This document formally recognizes the existence of the project and provides the projectmanager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. The stakeholder registeris an output of identify stakeholders and also an output during the initiating processes. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 71-72, 398
115. Behavior roles of team members influence the team’s process, behavior, and effectiveness. An example of a task-oriented role to perform is that of a(n)—
a. Harmonizer
b. Initiator
c. Devil’s advocate
d. Group observer
b. Initiator
To initiate something means to get it started. In the project environment, that typically means a task. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 78-79
116. You are managing a project in which your team members all work in the same geographic location and have worked together previously on many projects. Everyone is aware of the various strengths and weaknesses of the individual team members and their key areas of expertise. As a result—
a. A kickoff meeting is recommended
b. Team-building activities will not be needed on your project
c. You should expect minimal conflicts and changes to occur
d. Rewards and recognition will be handled smoothly throughout the project
a. A kickoff meeting is recommended
Even if team members already know one another, a kickoff meeting should still be held because the meeting always includes more than meeting team members. Specific expectations for the project can be discussed as well as other important administrative details. It also gives people an opportunity to express their commitment to the project’s objectives. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 135
Meredith and Mantel, 2012, 224-225
117. Team building should be ongoing throughout the project life cycle. However, it is hard to maintain momentum and morale, especially on large, complex projects that span several years. One guideline to follow to promote team building is to—
a. Consider every meeting a team meeting, not the projectmanager’s meeting
b. Conduct team building at specific times during the project through off-site meetings
c. Engage the services of a full-time facilitator before any team-building initiatives are conducted
d. Develop the project schedule using the services of a project control officer and then issue it immediately to the team
a. Consider every meeting a team meeting, not the project manager’s meeting
Team building should be made as important a part of every project activity as possible. Given that there are many meetings on projects, each team member should be made to feel that it is his or her meeting and not just the project manager’s meeting. This will foster greater contribution by each team member. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 137
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 278
118. You have been assigned as the project manager for a major project in your company where the customer and key supplier are located in another country. You have been working on your project for six months. Recently, you traveled to this country, and at the conclusion of a critical design review meeting, which was highly successful, you realized you were successful in building a high-performing team. You had your own team members, who work in a weak matrix structure, on a conference call during this meeting. Although it was difficult to reach agreement on some key issues, you therefore relied on your interpersonal skills in—
a. Facilitation
b. Negotiating
c. Influencing
d. Decision making
c. Influencing
All are useful skills for project managers. In this situation influencing was necessary as the project manager has little or no direct control over tem members as they work in a weak matrix. The ability of the project manager to influence stakeholders in a timely basis is critical to project success. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 284
119. You are leading a team to review and improve the project selection and prioritization method. You know that the two most important questions to answer are “can we do the project?” (feasibility study) and “should we do the project?” (cost-benefit analysis). The team is considering many different management concerns, including financialreturn, market share, and public perception. The most important criterion for building a project selection model is—
a. Risks
b. Realism
c. Ease of use
d. Benefits realization
b. Realism
A project selection model should reflect the objectives of the company and its managers; consider the realities of the organization’s limitations on facilities, capital, and personnel; and include factors for risk—the technical risks of performance, cost, and time as well as the market risk of customer rejection. [Initiating]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 64-65
120. Because risk management is relatively new on projects in your company, you decide to examine and document the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes. You therefore—
a. Conduct a risk audit
b. Hold a risk status meeting
c. Ensure that risk is an agenda item at regularly scheduled staff meetings
d. Reassess identified risks on a periodic basis
a. Conduct a risk audit
The risk audit is a tool and technique in the control risks process with two purposes: to assess the effectiveness of risk responses and to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk management process. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 351
121. Thinking back to lessons that your company learned from experiences with its legacy information systems during the Y2K dilemma, you finally convinced management to consider systems maintenance from the beginning of the project. However, maintenance should—
a. Always be included as an activity to be performed during the closeout phase
b. Have a separate phase in the life cycle for information systems project because 60% to 70% of computer systems’ life-cycle costs generally are devoted to maintenance
c. Not be viewed as part of the project life cycle
d. Be viewed as a separate project
c. Not be viewed as part of the project life cycle
Projects are efforts that occur within a finite period of time with clearly defined beginnings and ends. Maintenance is ongoing and of an indefinite duration. A maintenance activity, such as revision of an organization’s purchasing guidelines, may be viewed as a project but is a separate and distinct undertaking from the initial project that generated it. At this point, the project has been completed, and its deliverables are transferred to operations for implementation. [Initiating]
Frame 2003, 16-17
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 13
122. On your systems development project, you noted during a review that the system had less functionality than planned at the critical design review. This note suggests that duringthe control risks process you used which following tools and techniques?
a. Risk reassessment
b. Variance analysis
c. Technical performance measurement
d. Reserve analysis
c. Technical performance measurement
Technical performance measurement compares technical accomplishments to date to the project plan’s schedule of technical achievement. Deviation, such as less functionality than planned at a key milestone, can help to forecast the degree of success in achieving the project scope. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 352
123. The workaround that you used to deal with a risk that occurred should be documented and included in which following processes?
a. Report performance and monitor and control risks
b. Validate scope and perform quality assurance
c. Direct and manage project work and perform integrated change control
d. Monitor and control project work and control risks
d. Monitor and control project work and control risks
A workaround is a form of corrective action, as it is a response to a threat that has occurred for which a prior response had not been planned or was not effective. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 93, 353, and 567
124. Contested changes are requested changes when the buyer and seller cannot agree on compensation for the change. They are also known as all but which one of the following?
a. Disputes
b. Demands
c. Appeals
d. Claims
b. Demands
Claims administration is a tool and technique in the control procurements process. When the buyer and seller cannot agree, this is also called claims, disputes, or appeals and should be documented, processed, monitored, and managed throughout the contract life cycle. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 384
125. A structured review of the seller’s progress to deliver projectscope and quality within cost and schedule is known as a(n)—
a. Procurement performance review
b. Procurement audit
c. Inspection
d. Status review meeting
a. Procurement performance review
These reviews are a tool and technique of the control procurements process, which can include a review of seller-prepared documentation and buyer inspections. They seek to identify performance successes or failures, progress with respect to the contract statement of work and contract noncompliance. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 383
126. Within your company’s portfolio, your project is ranked in the top five in terms of importance of the 60 projects under way; however, the number of resources available to you is still limited. You have decided to pilot test the use of critical chain on your project. You have calculated your critical path. You want to ensure that your target finish date does not slip in the critical chain method. To do so you should—
a. Add a project buffer
b. Put in three feeding buffers
c. Determine the drum resource
d. Manage the total float of the network paths
a. Add a project buffer
After the critical path is identified using the critical chain method, resource availability is entered and a resource-constrained schedule results. This schedule may have an altered critical path that is known as the critical chain. The critical chain method adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty. To protect the target finish date from slippage on the critical chain, a project buffer is placed at the end of the critical chain. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 178
127. The greatest degree of uncertainty is encountered during which phase of the project life cycle?
a. Concept
b. Planning
c. Implementation
d. Closeout
a. Concept
The greatest degree of uncertainty about the future is encountered during the concept phase or at the start of the project. The direction of the project is determined in this phase, and the decisions made have the greatest influence on scope, quality, time, and cost of the project. [Initiating]
Wideman 1992, II-1
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 40
128. A team-building approach that facilitates concurrent engineering is—
a. Matrix management
b. Fast-tracking
c. Tight matrix
d. Task force
c. Tight matrix
A “tight” matrix refers to team members working in close proximity to one another. Studies have demonstrated that such a team approach facilitates concurrent engineering by having designers working next to manufacturing engineers, for example, to help ensure that the project is designed in such a manner that it is also cost-effective to manufacture. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 169
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 277
129. A number of different decision-making styles can be used in a team environment. When quality and acceptance are both important, which of the following styles should be used?
a. Command
b. Consultation
c. Consensus
d. Coin flip
b. Consultation
Project managers tend to use four basic decision styles: command, consultation, consensus, and coin flip or random. If acceptance and quality are both important, the consultation style is preferred. It allows for some involvement of team members but allows project managers to maintain control over the final decision. In this style, team members are free to express their opinions, but the project manager makes the final decision. [Executing]
Verma 1997, 178
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 516
130. Historical information is used—
a. To compare current performance with prospective lessons learned
b. To prepare the stakeholder management plan
c. To evaluate the skills and competencies of prospective team members
d. As an input to develop project charter
d. As an input to develop project charter
Historical information is an organizational process access in the develop project charter process. Other organizational process assets are organizational standard processes, policies, and process definitions; templates from other project charters; and the lessons learned data base. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 70
131. Work completed, key performance indicators, technical performance measures, start and finish dates of schedule activities, number of change requests, number of defects, actual costs, and actual decisions are examples of work performance data are an output of—
a. Project plan development
b. Risk control
c. Monitor and control project work
d. Direct and manage project work
d. Direct and manage project work
Work performance data containing these examples are an output of direct and manage project work. They are raw observations and measurements identified as activities are being performed to complete the work of the project. These data often are viewed at the lowest level of detail from which information is derived by other processes. The data then are gathered as the work is done and passed to the controlling processes of the various processes for further analyses. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 85
132. Two team members on your current construction project are engaged in a major argument concerning the selection of project management software. They refuse to listen to each other. The most appropriate conflict resolution approach for you to use in this situation is—
a. Accommodating
b. Compromising
c. Collaborating
d. Forcing
d. Forcing
Forcing, using power or dominance, implies the use of position power to resolve conflict. It involves imposing one viewpoint at the expense of another. Project managers may use it when time is of the essence, when an issue is vital to the project’s well-being, or when they think they are right based on available information. Although this approach is appropriate when quick decisions are required or when unpopular issues are an essential part of the project, it puts project managers at risk. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 181-189
Verma 1996, 157
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 283
133. As you use the critical chain method in lieu of the criticalpath method in developing your schedule, assume you have determined the buffer schedule activities. Your planned activities are scheduled to their latest possibleplaned start and end dates. Therefore, you are focusing on—
a. Managing the free float of each network path
b. Managing the total float of the network paths
c. Managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains
d. Managing the total buffer durations against the durations of the task chains
c. Managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains
The purpose of the critical chain method is to modify the project schedule to account for limited resources. The schedule is built using duration estimates with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs. Then, the critical path is calculated and resource availability is entered, which means there is a resource-limited schedule with an altered critical path. Buffers protect the critical chain from slippage, and the size of each buffer accounts for the uncertainty in the duration of the chain of dependent tasks that lead up to the buffer. This method then focuses on managing the remaining buffer durationsagainst the remaining duration of task chains. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 178
134. A key member of your project has deep technical skills and many years of experience in the company. Although she is not a manager, people respect her and do what she suggests. Of the following types of power, which one does she have?
a. Legitimate
b. Reward
c. Referent
d. Expert
d. Expert
Expert power is earned/personal power when project personnel admire an individual’s skills and want to follow him or her as a role model. In such situations, people willingly comply with the demands of such a person. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 174-180
Levin, 2010, 163
135. You have been placed in charge of a group of people that is selecting one of three possible projects. As you gather in the conference room, many team members already have decided which project selection technique to use. Some prefer IRR, and others argue for BCR. In deciding which method to use, your first step should be to—
a. Compare and contrast selection techniques and identify the advantages and disadvantage of each
b. Identify the technique used most often in the company and determine if it is appropriate for this project
c. Select the method for which most team members have knowledge
d. Determine the philosophy and wishes of management
d. Determine the philosophy and wishes of management
Any selection technique must be evaluated based on the degree to which it will meet the organization’s objective for the project. Management generally establishes the organization’s objective; therefore, management’s wishes must be identified first. Then the most appropriate model to support management’s wishes should be selected. [Initiating]
Meredith and Mantel 2012, 62
136. Before considering a project closed, what document should be reviewed to ensure that project scope has been satisfied?
a. Project scope statement
b. Project management plan
c. Project closeout checklists
d. Scope management plan
b. Project management plan
Project scope is measured against the project management plan. The project scope statement and scope baseline are subsets of the project managementplan. However, the whole plan and all the baselines (cost and schedule) need to be met in addition to part of the scope. The project management plan is the agreement between the project manager and sponsor and defines what constitutes project completion. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 102
137. A cost management plan should establish and document the various earned value rules of performance measurement. Along with defining the WBS to the level that the earned value analysis will be performed and establishing how earned value will be credited to the project (0-100, 0-50-100, and so on), which following rule is also recognized regarding performance measurement?
a. Determine the formula for calculating the estimate to complete (ETC) for the project
b. Determine the code of accounts allocation provision for the WBS
c. Determine the formula for calculating the estimate at completion (EAC) for the project
d. Determine the variance thresholds to be used in the project
c. Determine the formula for calculating the estimate at completion (EAC) for the project
Three recognized earned value rules of performance measurement are to (1) determine the EAC calculation to be used on the project as tracking methodologies are specified and to provide a validity check on the bottom-up EAC, (2) establish the earned value measurement techniques (for example, weighted milestones, fixed formula or percent complete), and (3) define the WBS level at which the measurements of control accounts will be performed. Four methods can be used to calculate the EAC. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 199, 224
138. All the following elements are organizational processasset updates, resulting from closing a project or phase EXCEPT—
a. Project files
b. Project or phase closure documents
c. Historical information
d. Final product, service, or result transition
d. Final product, service, or result transition
All the elements are outputs of the close project or phase processes, but the final product, service, or result transition is not part of the organizational process assets. It is an output on its own and involves the product that the project was created to produce. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 103-104
139. You have a conflict on your team but have enough time to resolve it, and you want to maintain future relationships. Thankfully, there is mutual trust, respect, and confidence among the parties involved. You decide to use confronting to resolve this conflict. In using this approach, your first step should be to—
a. Separate people from the problem
b. Acknowledge that conflict exists
c. Establish ground rules
d. Explore alternatives
b. Acknowledge that conflict exists
In order to address conflict, people must recognize and acknowledge that conflict exists. Next, it is important to establish common ground or shared goals and then to separate people from the problem. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 126
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 282-283; 518
140. One way to evaluate the project schedule performance is to—
a. Use the project management information system (PMIS)
b. Determine the percent complete of in-progress schedule activities
c. Establish a schedule change control system
d. Determine the total float variance
d. Determine the total float variance
Performance reviews are a tool and technique used in control schedule and includes trend analysis, critical path method, critical chain method, and earned value management. In terms of the critical path method, the emphasis is on comparing progress along the critical path to determine schedule status. Variance on the critical path will have a direct impact on the project’s end date; evaluating progress of activities or near critical paths can identify schedule risk. After the variance is known, the project team can take corrective action to bring performance in line with the plan. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 176-177, 188-189
141. Validate scope works hand-in-hand with control quality and generally follows control quality. A tool and technique used in validate scope that is not used in control quality is—
a. Group decision-making techniques
b. Inspection
c. Statistical sampling
d. Variance analysis
a. Group decision-making techniques
Both processes use inspection. Validate scope also uses group-decision making techniques to reach a conclusion when the validation is performed by the project team and other stakeholders. Methods to reach a group decision include: unanimity, majority, plurality, and dictatorship. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 115, 135
142. Research has shown that during the execution phase of the project, the majority of conflicts involve—
a. Personalities
b. Project priorities
c. Cost
d. Schedule
d. Schedule
In a study of sources of conflict by project life-cycle phase, seven different causes of conflict were identified. In the execution phase, the highest-ranking sources of conflict were schedules, technical issues, and personnel, in this order, followed by priorities, administrative procedures, cost, and personalities. [Executing]
Verma 1996, 103-104
Meredith and Mantel, 2012, 152
143. You are a goal-oriented project manager who is more interested in work accomplishment than relationship building. This indicates that you tend to resolve conflicts primarily through the use of—
a. Smoothing
b. Compromising
c. Collaborating
d. Forcing
d. Forcing
Forcing and majority rule are represented by a strong desire to satisfy oneself rather than to satisfy others. It involves imposing one viewpoint at the expense of another and is characterized by a win-lose outcome in which one party overwhelms the other. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 181-189
Verma 1996, 118 and 120
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 283
144. You are working on a long-term project that has a number of benefits to its customers and users. Therefore, as the project manager, one of your first steps was to identify the stakeholders that were critical to project success. Because this project will need long-term support by your organization once it is completed, key stakeholders are—
a. Operations managers
b. Functional managers
c. Sellers
d. Business partners
a. Operations managers
Operations managers are stakeholders on many projects. They deal with producing and managing the products and services of the organization. On many projects, they are responsible after the project is complete and has been formally handed off to them for incorporating the project into normal operations and providing long-term support for the product. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 12-14, 33
145. Effective communication occurs in groups as well as between individuals and is made up of several key components, such as the purpose of the message, the audience that you are delivering the message to, and the content of the message itself. One important area to consider when working with manage communications—
a. The choice of media
b. How often to distribute the information
c. The communications plan
d. The project performance report structure
a. The choice of media
The choice of media, or the way you deliver the information is as important as what you say. It is important to determine when to communicate in writing versus orally, when to prepare an informal memo or when to use a formal report, and when to communicate face to face or by email, as examples. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 298
146. A conflict resolution approach that is NOT considered to be very effective when more than a few players are involved and their viewpoints are mutually exclusive is—
a. Forcing
b. Avoiding
c. Compromising
d. Collaborating
d. Collaborating
Collaborating involves bringing people with opposing views together to reach a solution. When there are too many people involved, it is more difficult to reach a solution, given the multiplicity of perspectives. When the parties involved have mutually exclusive views, forcing or compromise must be used. [Executing]
Adams et al. 1997, 181-189
Verma 1996, 119
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 283
147. The key output of identify stakeholders that documents identification information, assessment information, and classification is the—
a. Stakeholder management plan
b. Communications plan
c. Stakeholder register
d. Communications log
c. Stakeholder register
The stakeholder register is the main output of identify stakeholders and contains all the details known at the time related to the stakeholders. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 398
148. Improvement to the processes and the product is a goal of project quality management. Assume that after completing a quality audit, you have discovered some gaps/shortcomings in the way that the project team is completing one deliverable. As an output to perform quality assurance, you would create which following item that feeds directly into the perform integrated change control processes?
a. Quality management plan updates
b. Risk register
c. Change requests
d. Project document updates
c. Change requests
Quality improvements to processes and procedures as well as the project and product will result in a change request that will be reviewed and evaluated to allow full consideration of the recommended improvements using the perform integrated change control process. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 247
149. The estimate costs process uses all the following tools and techniques EXCEPT—
a. Three-point estimating
b. Cost of quality assumptions
c. Reserve analysis (contingency reserves)
d. Basis of estimates
d. Basis of estimates
Basis of estimates is an output from the estimate costs process. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 204-210
150. A contract typically is used when a project is being performed for an external customer. An agreement is used as an input to—
a. Develop project charter
b. Develop project team
c. Plan procurement management
d. Conduct procurements
a. Develop project charter
In the develop project charter process, an agreement is an input to define initial intentions for the project. They may take the form of a type of contract such as memorandums of understanding, service level agreements, letter of agreement, letter of intent, verbal agreement, or other written agreements. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 70
151. As you prepare to close your project, which of the following is an input to the close project or phase process?
a. Work performance information
b. Expert judgment
c. Accepted deliverables
d. Change requests
c. Accepted deliverables
Accepted deliverables is an input to the close project or phase. The other selections are inputs or tools and techniques for other processes. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 102
152. Managing change to the scope baseline is the main objectiveof the process of control scope. The scope baseline consists of the following components EXCEPT—
a. Project scope statement
b. WBS
c. WBS dictionary
d. Scope management plan
d. Scope management plan
The scope management plan is not part of the scope baseline. However, both the scope baseline and the scope management plan are a part of the larger project management plan. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 76-77 and 131-132
153. Assume you have been working with your sponsor to prepare you charter, and you plan to present it to your Steering Committee on Friday. You are managing a software project, and the business need stated that you should use agile for the first time in our company rather than waterfall. In the Develop Project Charter process, this is then—
a. Tool and technique
b. Part of the enterprise environment factors as an input to this process
c. A high-level requirement
d. Stated in the strategic plan as a tool and technique in this process
c. A high-level requirement
The project charter formally authorizes the existence of the project and provides the project manager with the organizational resources for the project activities. Using agile is an example of a high-level requirement, which also is included in the charter. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 71-72
154. Procurement documents are used in the identify stakeholder process because they—
a. Are an enterprise environmental factor and an input to the process
b. Are an organizational process asset and an input to the process
c. Note key stakeholders as parties in the contract
d. Serve as a way to prioritize and classify stakeholders
c. Note key stakeholders as parties in the contract
Procurement documents are an input to the identify stakeholder process. If the project results from a procurement activity or is based on an established contract, the parties in the contract are key project stakeholders. Others, such as suppliers, are also stakeholders and should be added to the stakeholder list. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 394
155. You completed your stakeholder analysis. How do you want to manage those stakeholders that have a high interest in your project and high power over decisions affecting your project?
a. Manage them closely
b. Keep them satisfied
c. Keep them informed
d. Monitor them occasionally
a. Manage them closely
You must manage them closely. High-power/high-interest stakeholders who do not support your project could have a devastating effect on your project. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 397
156. Change requests include a group of potential changes to a project. Types of change requests include all the following EXCEPT—
a. Defect repairs
b. Maintenance requests
c. Corrective actions
d. Preventive actions
b. Maintenance requests
Defect repairs, corrective actions, and preventive actions are types of change requests that occur on a project. Maintenance requests typically would be outside the scope of the project itself. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 85
157. You are working on a project that needs approval from your City Council and the courts, because the project is one with significant environmental and social impacts. Although many consumer groups are advocates of this project, others are opposed to it. Hearings are scheduled to resolve these issues and to obtain the needed permits to proceed. In preparing your human resource plan, you decide to designate a person as the court liaison, which is an example of a—
a. Role
b. Responsibility
c. Required competency
d. Ability of the team member to make appropriate decisions
a. Role
The human resource plan documents roles and responsibilities on the project. A role is the function assumed by or assigned to a person in the project. The court liaison is an example of such a role on a project. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 264
158. Assume you are managing an international project. Your team is located in Atlanta, Georgia, US; Berlin, Germany; and Melbourne, Australia. You and your sponsor are located in Paris, France, and your customer is located in Athens, Greece. Recognizing the different locations of the stakeholders in your project in its initial stages, a best practice to follow in terms of working toward project success is to—
a. Determine who decides the project is a success
b. Aligning the personal inputs of different project participants with a vision focused on success
c. Establishing the project culture during the initiating stage of the project
d. Identifying basic cultural characteristics and selecting one to follow
a. Determine who decides the project is a success
Project approval criteria should be documented in the project charter. These criteria include determining what constitutes success, who decides the project is successful, and who signs of on the project. [Initiating]
PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 72
159. As a project manager, you recognize the importance of actively engaging key project stakeholders on a project. You have prepared an analysis of your stakeholders early in your project and classified them according to their interest, influence, and involvement in your project. You want to now—
a. Focus on relationships necessary to ensure success
b. Assess stakeholder legitimacy
c. Determine the urgency that each stakeholder requires when he or she requests information about the project
d. Focus on each stakeholder’s power relevant to the project
a. Focus on relationships necessary to ensure success
The project manager has limited time on a project, and his or her time should be used as efficiently and effectively as possible. Therefore, by performing a stakeholder analysis, the project manager can identify the stakeholder relationships that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance project success and to determine relationships that need to be influenced differently at different stages of the project or phase [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 395
160. Based on a recent quality audit of your project, your organization’s quality assurance department is supportive of your approach as it notes the following characteristics of quality that are being followed consistency. They include all of the follow EXCEPT—
a. Cost of quality
b. Customer satisfaction
c. Management responsibility
d. High-performing team
d. High-performing team
This high-performing team is covered in develop project team and obviously is important and necessary. However, regarding quality management other key concepts are prevention over inspection and continuous improvement [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 229
161. The plan quality management process includes all the following techniques EXCEPT—
a. Benchmarking
b. Design of experiments
c. Process analysis
d. Control charts
c. Process analysis
Process analysis is used as a tool and technique in perform quality assurance. The tools and techniques used during plan quality management are the seven basic quality tools (cause-and-effect diagrams, flowcharts, checksheets, Pareto diagrams, histograms, control charts, and scatter diagrams), cost-benefit analysis, cost of quality, benchmarking, design of experiments, statistical sampling, additional quality planning tools (brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group technique, and quality management and control tools, [affinity diagrams, process decision program charts interrelationship diagraphs, tree diagrams, prioritization matrices, activity network diagrams, and matrix diagrams]), and meetings. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 235-241 and 246-247
162. You are managing a major international project that involves multiple performing organizations. To establish the guiding rules for the project regarding quality, you and your project team must develop a—
a. Improvement management plan
b. Configuration management plan
c. Quality policy
d. List of quality metrics for the project
c. Quality policy
The quality policy includes the overall intentions and the direction of the organization regarding quality and as formally expressed by top management. When the performing organization lacks a formal quality policy or when the project involves multiple performing organizations, as in a joint venture, the project management team must develop a quality policy for the project as an input to its quality planning. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 234
163. You are working on a project that management has decided to terminate early, because the product was rendered obsolete by the introduction of new technology by a competitor. You have awarded a contract for part of the project that will be terminated, and fortunately have a clause that enables you to terminate it for convenience at any time. This means that—
a. Your contractual obligations are complete once you issue the termination for convenience
b. You may need to compensate the seller for seller preparations and for any completed or accepted work
c. You need to compensate the seller only for accepted work that was completed prior to the termination order
d. Specific rights and responsibilities are determined once the termination order is issued
b. You may need to compensate the seller for seller preparations and for any completed or accepted work
Early termination of a contract is a special case of procurement closure. The rights and responsibilities of the parties are contained in a termination clause of the contract. Typically such a clause allows the buyer to terminate the whole contract or a portion of it for cause or convenience at any time. In doing so, the buyer may need to compensate the seller for seller’s preparations and for any completed and accepted work related to the terminated part of the contract. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 378, 387
164. Of the following, which one is NOT true concerning a contract?
a. It is a legal relationship subject to remedy in the courts.
b. It can take the form of a complex document or a simple purchase order.
c. It is a mutually binding legal relationship that obligates the seller to provide specific products, services, or results and obligates the buyer to pay the seller.
d. It includes a specific contract management plan.
d. It includes a specific contract management plan.
A contract management plan is not part of a contract. It is used to identify how the contract will be administered. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 357, 382
165. All of the following can be used in lieu of the term “bidders conferences” EXCEPT—
a. Contractor conferences
b. Pre-bid conferences
c. Vendor conferences
d. Project review meetings
d. Project review meetings
Bidders conferences are meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to answer questions and clarify issues. They are a tool and technique in the conduct procurements process. Project review meetings are conducted to assess project performance and status. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 375
166. Assume you are preparing your procurement management plan. A useful tool and technique is to—
a. Have a meeting
b. Use your risk register
c. Review the requirements document
d. Use your stakeholder register
a. Have a meeting
Meetings are another tool and technique in plan procurement management. They are held as research alone may not provide specific information for a procurement strategy without additional information exchange with potential bidders. Through collaborating with potential bidders the organization purchasing the material or service may benefit. Suppliers may benefit to influence a mutually beneficial approach or product. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 366
167. Your role in the project includes helping to resolve problems; making recommendations regarding priorities; accelerating activities to meet the target schedule; promoting communications among project team members; and helping management monitor the project’s progress on a regular basis. Most of the people working on your project are scientists or technical experts. You are working in which of the following types of organizational structures?
a. Task force
b. Balanced matrix
c. Project expeditor
d. Project coordinator
c. Project expeditor
A variation of the weak matrix organizational structure, the project expeditor has no formal authority to make or enforce decisions. Nonetheless, the project expeditor must be able to persuade those in authority to maintain the project’s visibility so that resources will be allocated as needed to meet the project’s schedule, budget, and quality constraints. This approach is considered to be effective in high-technology and research and development environments. [Planning]
Verma 1995, 153-154
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 23
168. In order for a matrix organizational approach to be successful, the two-boss situation should be resolved. To overcome the two-boss problem, it is important to—
a. Have the project manager and the functional manager work together to complete performance evaluations
b. Prepare a responsibility chart to define responsibilities
c. Guarantee a balance of power between the functional manager and the project manager
d. Promote interface relationship management
a. Have the project manager and the functional manager work together to complete performance evaluations
In a matrix environment, project team members have two bosses: the project manager and their functional line manager. People often are unclear as to which manager is their “real” boss, as there may be a continual shifting balance of power. To avoid confusion regarding performance issues, it is a best practice to have the project manager and functional line manager complete the individual’s performance evaluations. Also, greater weight should be given to the project manager’s assessment for the time the individual actually worked on the project. [Planning]
Verma 1995, 178
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 33, 266, and 270
169. The resource calendar is an output of which following process?
a. Develop project team
b. Acquire project team
c. Estimate activity durations
d. Manage project team
b. Acquire project team
The resource calendar is an output from the acquire project team process. Other outputs are project staff assignments and updates to the project management plan, especially the human resource management plan. A resource calendar is also an output of the develop human resource plan process as part of the staffing management plan and the conduct procurements process. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 265, 271, 378
170. An intentional activity to ensure future performance of project work is aligned with the project management plan is—
a. Preventive action
b. Corrective action
c. Implemented change requests
d. Work performance information
a. Preventive action
As a specific subset of change requests, approved preventive actions are an input to the direct and manage project work process. Such actions are intentional to ensure the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 81-82
171. Close procurements is a process that involves includes activities for administrative closure such as—
a. Customer acceptance and final payment
b. Audit project success or failure and archiving records
c. Final contractor payment and lessons learned
d. Transition of the final product and acceptance of deliverables
b. Audit project success or failure and archiving records
Administrative closure includes step-by-step methodologies that address: actions and activities necessary to satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or the project; actions or activities to transfer the products, services, or results to the next phase or to production or operations; and activities to collect project or phase records, audit success or failure, gather lessons learned, and archive information for future use in the organization. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 101
172. As a project manager, not only must you be a leader, but you also must be responsible for the management, administrative, and technical aspects of the project. Which followingskill is NOT representative of the skills needed for project leadership/interpersonal relations?
a. Influencing the organization by sharing power and getting others to cooperate toward common goals
b. Creating an environment to meet project objectives while offering maximum self-satisfaction related to what people value the most
c. Helping a group of people bound by a common sense of purpose to work interdependently with each other
d. Understanding of policies, operating procedures, and regulations of external stakeholder organizations
d. Understanding of policies, operating procedures, and regulations of external stakeholder organizations
Successful project managers have expertise and skills in all three following areas: leadership/interpersonal, project management/administration, and technical. The understanding of policies, operating procedures, and regulations of external stakeholder organizations is representative of project management/administrative skills, not leadership/interpersonal skills. [Executing]
Verma 1995, 27; PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, Appendix X3
173. Assume you are managing a project, and your project management plan has been approved. Your project has a high level of change associated with it. There is active and ongoing stakeholder involvement. This means you probably are working with a(n)—
a. Adaptive life cycle
b. Iterative life cycle
c. Incremental life cycle
d. Predictive life cycle
a. Adaptive life cycle
The adaptive life cycle is one that is known as change driven or one with agile methods and is set up to respond to change and ongoing stakeholder involvement. This approach differs from iterative and incremental as durations are very rapid and are fixed in time and cost. This approach is preferred in a rapidly changing environment where requirements and scope are difficult to define in advance and when it is possible to define small incremental improvements, which deliver value to stakeholders. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 46
174. One way to help mitigate personnel risks that may occur during the end of the project is to—
a. Meet individually with each team member
b. Provide specific recognition to each team member who has worked on the project
c. Prepare a staff release plan
d. Document the time each person is to work on the project in a resource calendar
c. Prepare a staff release plan
The staff release plan determines the method and timing of releasing team members. Morale is improved if there are smooth transitions for the staff to upcoming projects. This staff release plan also helps to mitigate human resource risks that may occur. It is part of the staffing management plan, which is part of the human resource plan. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 266
175. You are conducting a stakeholder analysis on your project. After identifying potential stakeholders, the next step in the process is to—
a. Determine their desired level of participation
b. Provide detailed contact information for each identified stakeholder
c. Perform an assessment to see how each stakeholder might react in certain situations
d. Analyze each stakeholder’s impact or support and classifythem
d. Analyze each stakeholder’s impact or support and classify them
The second step in the stakeholder analysis process is to analyze the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate and then to classify the stakeholders to define an approach or strategy. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 396
176. Assume your project communication management plan has been approved by your sponsor and the members of your Steering Committee. You are managing a global project and have team members working virtually in four continents and stakeholders in numerous locations. Your next step is to—
a. Set up an information management system
b. Select communications technology
c. Determine performance reporting methods
d. Select a communications model
b. Select communications technology
Although all four listed are tools and techniques in the manage communications process (another is communications methods), since this project is a virtual one, the choice of technology is an important consideration. It can vary from project to project and throughout the life cycle, but as the project manager the focus is to ensure the choice is important for the information that is communicated.
[Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 300-301
177. Although your project team is working virtually, you are striving to make it a high-performing team. You held a virtual kickoff meeting to ensure there was a shared projectvision. You now see that team members are addressing the work to be done, but they do not seem to be collaborating. You realize the team is—
a. Concerned about their formal roles and responsibilities
b. Independent
c. Forming
d. Storming
d. Storming
During the storming stage, the team is addressing the work, technical decisions, and the project management approach. However, if team members are not collaborating and open to different ideas and perspectives, the environment becomes counterproductive. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 276
178. You are conducting a stakeholder analysis on your project. Your organization uses an approach to classify stakeholders based on their level of authority and their active involvement in the project. This approach is known as—
a. A power/interest grid
b. A power/influence grid
c. An influence/impact grid
d. A salience model
b. A power/influence grid
Although a number of classification models are available to help prioritize the key stakeholders, the power/influence grid groups stakeholders based on their level of authority or power and their active involvement or interest in the project. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 396
179. When managing projects, one important technique is capturing lessons learned from previous projects to improve the organization’s project management process. Therefore, in planning the project, it is important to plan the closing procedures, particularly to review the—
a. Risk responses that were used
b. Checklists for risk identification
c. WBS and scope documents
d. Team members’ performance feedback
b. Checklists for risk identification
Checklists are a tool and technique of the identifyrisks process and include risks encountered on similar, previous projects identified through the lessons learned process. The project team will review the checklist as part of the identify risks process as well as during closeout. To help others in the future, the team will add to the list as necessary based on its experience. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 325
180. The basic approach to quality management in projects is to be compatible with which of the following:
a. Six-Sigma, failure mode and effect analysis, and total quality management
b. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
c. Methods, such as those recommended by Deming, Juran, and Crosby
d. Inspection over prevention
b. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Project quality management is intended to be compatible with International Organization for Standardization quality standards. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 228
181. During a bidders conference, it is important that—
a. Only qualified sellers participate
b. All potential sellers are given equal standing
c. The evaluation criteria for the proposal is used to determine participation
d. Responses to questions be provided solely to the prospective seller that asked the question
b. All potential sellers are given equal standing
Bidders conferences are conducted to ensure all prospective sellers have a clear and common understanding of the requirements. They are not used to prequalify vendors. Thus, all vendors are treated equally. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 375
182. One key interpersonal skill used to manage stakeholder expectations is—
a. Negotiation skills
b. Building trust
c. Compromise
d. Conversation
b. Building trust
Building trust helps to build the foundation of the relationship and is a critical component in effective team leadership. Without trust, it is difficult to establish positive relationships with the various stakeholders engaged in the project. If trust is compromised, people will disengage, and collaboration becomes more difficult if not impossible. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 407, 517
183. You are a project manager leading the construction project of a new garbage incinerator. Local residents and environmental groups are opposed to this project because of its environmental impact. Management agrees with your request to partner with a third party that will be responsible for providing state-of-the-art “air scrubbers,” to clean the exhaust to an acceptable level. This decision will delay the project but will allow it to continue. It is an example of which following risk response?
a. Passive acceptance
b. Active acceptance
c. Mitigation
d. Transference
d. Transference
Risk transference is shifting some or all negative impact of a threat and the ownership of the response to the threat to a third party. It does not eliminate the threat posed by an adverse risk. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 344
184. All the following are processes in project procurement management EXCEPT—
a. Terminate procurements
b. Control procurements
c. Plan procurement management
d. Close procurements
a. Terminate procurements
Termination is a word used to define a contract ending through mutual agreement by both parties, the default of one party, or for the convenience of the buyer. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 355, 387
185. Working in the systems integration field, you are primarily responsible for coordinating the work of numerous subcontractors. Your current project is coming to an end. You have 15 major subcontractors as well as a variety of other sellers. Now that you are closing contracts (procurements), you should—
a. Conduct a trend analysis
b. Use earned value to assess lessons learned
c. Ask each contractor to meet with you individually at its own expense
d. Conduct a procurement audit
d. Conduct a procurement audit
The procurement audit attempts to identify successes and failures relative to the procurement process especially in terms of the preparation or administration of other procurement contracts on the project or on other projects in the organization. Uncovering and reporting both successes and failures can contribute to the project management knowledge base and improve the quality of project management services. A procurement audit should be conducted as part of the close procurements process. [Closing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 388
186. You are managing a moderately risky project. You have done well identifying risks and assessing them both on the probability of the risk event occurring and on the level of impact that the risk could have on your project if it actually occurred. But to help with a “next” level of qualitative risk analysis, you could use a—
a. Risk priority assessment
b. Risk quality assessment
c. Risk urgency assessment
d. Quantitative risk analysis
c. Risk urgency assessment
Risks that may occur in the near-term need urgent attention. The purpose of the risk urgency assessment is to identify those risks that have a high likelihood of occurring. Assessing risk urgency can be combined with the risk ranking that is determined from the probability and impact matrix for a final risk severity rating. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 333
187. You are identifying possible risks to your project concerning the development of a nutritional supplement. You want to reach out to your experts and build consensus on the risks that qualitative and quantitative risk analysis can address later. Although you can use various techniques, a key information gathering technique that helps to build consensus is—
a. Documentation review
b. Probability/impact analysis
c. Checklist analysis
d. Delphi technique
d. Delphi technique
When consensus is necessary, the Delphi technique is a frequently used information gathering technique. A facilitator first sends out a questionnaire to the experts to solicit ideas. The responses then are summarized and returned to the experts for further comment. Consensus generally is reached after a few such rounds. The Delphi technique helps to reduce bias in the data and the undue influence of one person on the outcome. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 324
188. Managing five contractors on your project for a new stadium in your City that can be used for baseball and for football and can be easily converted for either sport is a challenge along with managing your 15 person project team. You decided to conduct an audit of one of your contractors and are—
a. Using it as a baseline for improvements to the other contracts under way
b. Verifying compliance in the seller’s work processes
c. Accompanying it with a project quality audit
d. Using it for lessons learned documentation
b. Verifying compliance in the seller’s work processes
Inspections and audits are tools and techniques in the control procurements process. They are required by the buyer and supported by the seller in the procurement contracts and can be conducted as the project is executed to verify compliance in the seller’s work processes or deliverables. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 383
189. A weighting system can be used for all but which one of the following reasons?
a. To select a single seller that will be asked to sign a standard contract
b. To establish a negotiating sequence by ranking all proposals by the weighted evaluation scores that have been assigned
c. To quantify qualitative data to minimize possible bias
d. To establish minimum requirements of performance for one or more of the evaluation criteria
d. To establish minimum requirements of performance for one or more of the evaluation criteria
Weighting systems are developed and used to help select the best vendor as part of the proposal evaluation techniques. By assigning a numerical weight to each evaluation criteria, the buyer can emphasize one area as being more important than another. These proposal evaluation techniques are a tool and technique in the conduct procurements process. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 375
190. One way to make it more likely practice project risk management on projects is to—
a. Hold meetings
b. Have the team take an orientation class on risk management early in the project
c. Give one team member the responsibility for risk management working in conjunction with the PMO
d. Assign each team member a risk to own, which is documented in the risk register
a. Hold meetings
Meetings are a tool and technique in the control risks process. Risk management should be an agenda item at periodic status meetings. While the amount of time needed for risk management will vary depending on the identified risks, their priority, and the difficulty of the response, the more often risk management is practiced, the easier it becomes. Frequent discussions about risk make it more likely that risks and opportunities will be identified. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 352
191. Your firm specializes in roller-coaster construction. It recently received an RFP to build the world’s most “death-defying” roller coaster. You know that such a roller coaster has never been built before and that this would be a high-risk project. You are receiving a cost-plus-award-fee contract, which means—
a. Your fee will be paid for completed work
b. Your fee amount will not change unless there is a scope change
c. Your fee is generally not subject to appeals
d. If your final cost is greater, you will share costs with the buyer based on a pre-negotiated cost sharing formula
c. Your fee is generally not subject to appeals
This contract type reimburses the seller for all legitimate costs, but the majority of the fee is earned only based on the satisfaction of broad subjective performance criteria defined and incorporated in the contract. The fee determination is based on subjective determination of seller performance by the buyer; it generally is not subject to appeals. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 364
192. Work performance information in control risks means that—
a. Recommended preventive or corrective action is considered through change requests
b. Outcomes of risk reassessments and risk audits are documented
c. Templates to the risk management plan and the risk register are recommended
d. A mechanism to communicate and support project decision making is provided
d. A mechanism to communicate and support project decision making is provided
All of the answers are outputs in the control risks process, however, work performance information specifically provides a mechanism to communicate and support project decision making. [Monitoring and Controlling]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 353-354
193. A number of factors affect make-or-buy decisions such as—
a. Desired level of quality
b. Risk-related contract decisions
c. Value delivered by vendors meeting the needs
d. Performance data
c. Value delivered by vendors meeting the needs
Other factors to consider include the core capabilities of the organization, the risks associated with meeting the need in a cost-effective way, and capability internally compared with the vendor community. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 374
194. For complex procurement items, often contract negotiation can be an independent process. An example of an input if such a process is used is—
a. Open items list
b. Approved changes
c. Documented decisions
d. Expert judgment
a. Open items list
Issues or an open item list are examples of inputs if contract negotiation is an independent process. Outputs are documented decisions. While contract negotiations may need to be a separate process for complex procurements, for simple procurement items, the terms and conditions of the contract can be fixed and nonnegotiable. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 377
195. Marketplace conditions are an input to which one of the following processes?
a. Plan procurement management
b. Conduct procurements
c. Control procurements
d. Close procurements
a. Plan procurement management
Enterprise environmental factors, which include marketplace conditions that the team needs to be aware of as it develops its plans for purchases and acquisition, are an input to the plan procurement management process. [Planning]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 362
196. Each project can benefit from stakeholder involvement; however, it is in both the project manager’s and the teams’ best interest to ensure that all project stakeholdershave positive attitudes toward the project and its goals and objectives. Working as a project manager, you have a number of key stakeholders on your project. The stakeholder that identifies potential conflicts between organizational strategies and project goals is the—
a. Chairperson of the Governance Board
b. Program manager
c. Director of the project management office
d. Chief Operating Officer
b. Program manager
Organizational strategy provides guidance and direction to project management. Portfolio managers, sponsors, or program managers identify alignment or potential conflicts between organizational strategies and project goals and communicates them to the project manager. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 15
197. While many different techniques can be used to rate or score proposals, all will use—
a. A screening system
b. A weighting system in conjunction with a screening system
c. Expert judgment and some form of proposal evaluation techniques
d. Quality ratings and contractual compliance
c. Expert judgment and some form of proposal evaluation techniques
Expert judgment is a tool and technique used in the conduct procurements process. It, along with some form of proposal evaluation techniques as developed during the plan procurements process and noted as source selection criteria, is used to rate and score proposals. This does not preclude the use of other tools and techniques, but these tools and techniques are used in all evaluations. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 375-376
198. When determining the message that you will deliver to stakeholders, knowing both the content (what you want to say) and your audience is important. Which of the following helps you to understand how others may interpret your message?
a. Sender-receiver models
b. Facilitation techniques used in delivery
c. Negotiation skills
d. Presentation skills used in the development of the message
a. Sender-receiver models
Sender-receiver models incorporate feedback loops to provide opportunities for interaction/participation and remove barriers to communication. [Executing]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 298
199. One of the reasons why it is challenging to work on a virtual team is that e-mail is the primary form of communications. However, words alone typically comprise what percent of the total impact of any message?
a. Seven percent
b. 15 percent
c. 38 percent
d. 55 percent
a. Seven percent
Albert Meharabian, a researcher, discovered that words alone account for just seven percent of any message’s impact. Vocal tones account for 38 percentof the impact and facial expressions account for 55 percent of the message. Thus, project managers should use nonverbal ingredients to complement verbal message ingredients whenever possible and should recognize that nonverbal factors generally have more influence on the total impact of a message than verbal factors. The lack of nonverbal cues makes project communications in a
200. Assume you are working on a multi-phase project as your project is planned to last three years. A best practice is to—
a. Periodically review the business case
b. Use a single prime contractor and have this contractor award any subcontracts
c. Rely on your PMO for guidance
d. Set up a ‘tight matrix’
a. Periodically review the business case
The business case is an input to the develop project charter process. On a multi-phase project, it should be reviewed periodically to ensure the project is on track to deliver the business benefits. [Initiating]
PMI®, PMBOK® Guide, 2013, 69