A. Quality is achieved
B. The cost of quality is high
C. The cost of quality is low
D. The customer pays the minimum price
As a general rule, one cannot say that quality (as defined in the question) is either of high or low cost (choices Band C) or that it provides the minimum price (choice D). lt does give the customer what the customer wanted, which may not be the lowest or highest cost. Therefore, the best answer is A.
A. Quality control analysis
B. Marginal analysis
C. Standard quality analysis
D. Conformance analysis
Know the term so you will be able to answer questions that deal with this concept.
Choices A, C, and D may sound good, but they are made-up terms.
A. The project engineer
B. The project manager
C. The quality manager
D. The team member
Although each person working on the project should check their own work as part of any project, the project manager ultimately has the responsibility for quality on the project as a whole.
A. Fix the problem as soon as possible
B. Allow the schedule to slip by cutting cost
C. Allow cost to increase by fixing the root cause of the problem
D. Allow risk to increase by cutting cost
Many people would pick choice A. lt is proactive, but choice C mentions root cause and the probable effect of dealing with the problem. If a problem with quality occurs again, some other project constraint(s) must change to accommodate fixing the problem. Choice B is partially correct (allow schedule to slip) but may not need to occur, because the project manager might be able to compress the schedule in other areas. Besides, cutting cost does not necessarily cause the schedule to slip. Choice D is not best, because a quality problem is most likely to create additional cost, rather than cut cost.
A. Improved quality leads to increased productivity, increased cost effectiveness, and decreased cost risk
B. Improved quality leads to increased productivity, decreased cost effectiveness, and increased cost risk
C. Improved quality leads to increased productivity, increased cost effectiveness, and increased cost risk
D. Improved quality leads to increased productivity, decreased cost effectiveness, and decreased cost risk
Notice in this question that there is a lot of data not relevant to answering the question ? Expect these distracters to occur in almost every question on the exam. Quality should produce a decrease rather than an increase in cost risk as a result of less rework, so choices B and C can be eliminated. Quality should also provide increased cost effectiveness due to less rework. This eliminates Choice D, leaving the best answer, choice A.
A. Determine how effectively the performing organization supports the project
B. Provide the basis for judging the project’s success or failure
C. Are specific characteristics for which a product is designed and tested
D. Are objective criteria that must be met
Quality attributes are the measurements that determine if the product is acceptable. They are based on the characteristics of the product for which they were designed.
A. Meeting and exceeding the customer’s expectations
B. Adding extras to make the customer happy
C. The degree to which the project meets requirements
D. Conformance to management’s objectives
Choices A and B cannot be the best, because there can be a cost impact (or time, risk, etc.) of exceeding expectations or adding extras. Since a project should meet requirements, choice C is best.
B. Cost of quality
C. Pareto chart
D. Fishbone diagram
Choices A, C, and D are done as part of Perform Quality Assurance or Perform Quality Control (depending on how they are used). This leaves only choice B, which must be the best answer, as cost of quality is part of Plan Quality.
A. Focus on the most critical issues to improve quality
B. Focus on stimulating thinking
C. Explore a desired future outcome
D. Determine if a process is out of control
Choices B and C relate to fishbone diagrams. Choice D relates to control charts. Only choice A relates to Pareto charts.
A. Focus on the most critical issues to improve quality
B. Focus on stimulating thinking
C. Explore a desired future outcome
D. Determine if a process is functioning within set limits
Choice A relates to Pareto charts. Choices B and C relate to fishbone diagrams. Only choice D relates to control charts.
A. Take too long
B. Provide more information than wanted
C. Be mutually exclusive
D. Show many defects
The length of time it takes to test a whole population is one of the reasons to take a sample.
B. Quality training
D. Warranty costs
Only quality training (choice B) is a cost of conformance to quality. All the other choices are costs of nonconformance to quality.
A. Far the estimate is from the highest estimate
B. Far the measurement is from the mean
C. Correct the sample is
D. Much time remains in the project
Standard deviation is the measurement of a range around the mean. Therefore, choice B must be the best answer.
Memorize the numbers for 1, 2, 3, and 6 sigma.
A. Determination of whether project activities comply with organizational policies
B. Improved processes to increase productivity
C. Creation of quality metrics
D. Confirmation of the implementation of approved change requests
Quality metrics are an output of the Plan Quality process. They are an input to the Perform Quality Assurance process, which is the process in which quality audits take place.
A. Perform a design of experiments
B. Adjust the chart to reflect the new mean
C. Find an assignable cause
D. Nothing. This is the rule of seven and can be ignored
The rule of seven applies here. If you have seven data points in a row on the same side of the mean, statistically the mean has shifted, calling for action to correct the problem.
A. 45 percent
B. 10 percent
C. 12 percent
D. 0 percent
With a just-in-time environment, supplies are delivered when you need them and not before. Therefore, you have little or no inventory.
A. Cost is most important, quality next, and then schedule
B. Quality is more important than cost or schedule
C. Schedule is most important, quality next, and then cost
D. It should be decided for each project
This can be a tricky question, in that most project managers dismiss the need to focus on quality. Quality, cost, and schedule should be considered of equal importance unless specific project objectives make any one of them most important. Quality, cost, schedule, scope, risk, and other factors may be prioritized differently on each project.
A. Quality audits
B. Risk quantification reports
C. Regression analysis
D. Monte Carlo analysis
Quality audits are a necessary part of the Perform Quality Assurance process to improve project performance quality.
A. Quality management plan
B. Quality policy
C. Control charts
D. Project management plan
Choices Band C are components of a quality management plan. The quality management plan is part of the project management plan. The best answer is the quality management plan.
A. The team is gold plating
B. These efforts shouldn’t be done in meetings
C. Nothing. This is how to meet or exceed customer expectations
D. Nothing. The project manager is in control of the situation
This is an example of gold plating. You should provide ONLY what the customer asked for. The team does not know if their change will provide benefit to the customer. Focus efforts on fulfilling the requirements.
A. Quality assurance
B. Quality management
C. Project management
D. Quality control
The plan described is the quality management plan. Since the quality management plan is included in the project management plan, changing the quality management plan will also change the project management plan.
A. Part of an ISO 9000 investigation
B. To check if the customer is following its quality process
C. To identify inefficient and ineffective policies
D. To check the accuracy of costs submitted by the team
Perform Quality Assurance, of which an audit is part, focuses on processes, procedures, and standards. Though ISO may be thought of as a standard, that is not the only reason an audit would be conducted, and so choice A cannot be best. The seller cannot generally control or review the customer’s process, so choice B cannot be best. Choice D is more representative of a cost audit than a quality audit, so cannot be the best choice.
A. Assure senior management that during the Plan Quality process it was determined that the project would meet the quality standards
B. Analogously estimate future results
C. Form a quality assurance team
D. Check the results from the last quality management plan
Choice A is not productive since it does not solve the problem. An analogous estimate (choice B) looks at past history of other projects. This would not be appropriate to determine how the current project is going. The quality management plan (choice D) does not provide results. Perform Quality Assurance (choice C) helps to determine if the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
A. Quality audits
B. Statistical sampling
C. Pareto charts
D. Focus groups
Quality audits (choice A), statistical sampling (choice B), and Pareto charts (choice C) are tools and techniques used in the Perform Quality Assurance and Perform Quality Control processes. Focus groups are a tool of the Collect Requirements process, and would not be useful in the Perform Quality Assurance process.
A. Quality problems
B. Quality improvement
C. Quality control measurements
This question is similar to others in this book, but not exactly the same. You may also see this occur on your exam. Carefully read the questions! Though quality problems (choice A) MAY lead to quality assurance efforts, they are not a MUST. Quality improvement (choice B) is a result of Perform Quality Assurance, not an input. Rework (choice D) can be an output of Perform Quality Control. That leaves only quality control measurements (choice C), which are inputs to Perform Quality Assurance.
What might be the reason for these changes?
A. Project objectives are in line with those of the performing organization
B. Increased quality
C. Managements focus on cost containment
D. Rewards presented for individual efforts
As you increase quality, there will be associated benefits for the project. Some of these benefits are increased productivity, increased cost effectiveness, decreased cost risk, and improved morale.
A. Coordinate completion of work packages
B. Identify quality standards
C. Begin the Identify Risk process
D. Execute the project management plan
Performance of work packages (choice A) is done after project planning. Since the previous project manager did not finish planning, choice D should not be next. Identify Risks (choice C) sounds like a good choice: however, identifying quality standards (choice B) occurs before the Identify Risks process. The best answer is B.
A. Quality management
B. Perform Quality Assurance
C. Plan Quality
D. Perform Quality Control
Although quality planning usually occurs during project planning, all projects or parts of projects frequently need to be replanned.
A. The project was an unqualified success
B. The project was unsuccessful because it was gold plated
C. The project was unsuccessful because the customer being happy means they would have paid more for the work
D. The project was successful because the team had a chance to learn new areas of functionality and the customer was satisfied
Gold plating a project wastes time and probably cost.
It makes the project unsuccessful.
A. Perform Quality Assurance
B. Project Control
C. Perform Quality Control
D. Plan Quality
Measuring is part of the Perform Quality Control process. Did you select choice B? The question asked what part of the quality process are you in, not what part of the project management process are you in.
The department manager communicates that his staff is following a company policy that requires two levels of testing. During the conversation, the department manager also makes a comment that leads the project manager to believe that the policy may include excessive work. This is the fourth time the project manager has heard such a comment. What is the BEST thing to do?
A. Create a better communications management plan that requires only one language to be the universal language on the project and have translators readily available on a moment’s notice
B. Contact someone else in the department who speaks the project manager’s native language better to confirm the department manager’s opinion
C. Find out if the upcoming activities should be reestimated
D. Work on increasing the effectiveness of the performing organization by recommending
continuous improvement of the policy in question
“What?” you say. Yes, D is the best answer. Let’s take a look, as this question could be said to have more than one right ans wer. Choice A might be a good idea, but has two problems. It may not be needed on the project, and it does not deal with the problem at hand, the policy that is slowing things down. Choice B is not the best choice as the project manager already has heard the opinion on many other occasions. It is already confirmed. Choice C is just being reactive. A good project manager will find the root cause and deal with that, even if it means attempting to improve the company’s policies and processes. This is continuous improvement. Because there are several activities affected by the policy, it would serve the project better to get to the root cause of the problem and solve it.
B. Pareto chart
C. Ishikawa diagram
D. Control chart
All reports and diagrams are communications tools. This question asks you to pick the most appropriate quality tool to help communications. An Ishikawa diagram (choice C), also called a cause and effect diagram. is more appropriate than the Pareto chart (choice B) since you are trying to determine the causes. Once causes are known and you have data on occurrences, the data can be displayed in a Pareto chart.
A. It reduces quality and is less expensive
B. It improves quality and is more expensive
C. It reduces quality and is more expensive
D. It improves quality and is less expensive
Look for the proactive approach. When we plan for quality, it improves quality, which is less expensive over the long run. NOTE: You may spend more initially for increased quality, but you will save through reduced rework, etc.
A. Get the instructions translated by a more experienced party
B. Look for quality impacts of the poor translation of the instructions for the footings
C. Bring the issue to the attention of the team and ask them to look for other translation problems
D. Inform the sponsor of the problem in the next project report
Though all of these choices are correct things to do, the question asks what to do first. What is the most immediate problem? Isn’t it most urgent to find out whether the concrete footings meet your project requirements? Choice A could be done, but it does not address the immediate concern. Choice C is excellent, and something many project managers might never think of doing. However, it does not address the immediate problem. Choice D is also not taking action to solve the problem. Are the concrete footings adequate? Only choice B will help you answer that.