PMP 6: Project Time Management

Project Time Management
Includes the processes required to manage timely completion of the project
Project Time Management Processes
6.1 Define Activities
6.2 Sequence Activities
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources
6.4 Estimate Activity Durations
6.5 Develop Schedule
6.6 Control Schedule
Schedule Model
The printed project schedule information (schedule) from the schedule data and calculations that produce the schedule
Schedule Management Plan
The schedule management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan, and may be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based upon the needs of the project, and includes appropriate control thresholds. It selects a scheduling methodology, a scheduling tool, and sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule
Scheduling Methodology
Defines the rules and approaches for the scheduling process. Some of the better known methodologies include critical path method (CPM) and critical chain
The majority of effort in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area will occur in…
The Control Schedule process to ensure completion of project work in a timely manner
Define Activities
The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
Activity
Project work packages are typically decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work necessary to complete the work package. Activities provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, and monitoring and controlling the project work
Inputs to Define Activities
1. Scope Basline
2. Enterprise Environmental Factors
3. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Define Activities
1. Decomposition
2. Rolling Wave Planning
3. Templates
4. Expert Judgement
Outputs of Define Activities
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Milestone List
Scope Baseline Use in Define Activities
The project deliverables, constraints, and assumptions documented in the project scope baseline are considered explicitly while defining activities
Define Activities: Enterprise Environmental Factors
• The project management information system (PMIS)
Define Activities: Organizational Process Assets
• Existing formal and informal activity planning-related policies, procedures, and guidelines, such as the scheduling methodology, that are considered in developing the activity definitions, and
• Lessons-learned knowledge base containing historical information regarding activities lists used by previous similar projects
Decomposition Use in Define Activities
• Involves subdividing the project work packages into smaller, more manageable components called activities.
• Activities represent the effort needed to complete a work package.
• The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables, as done in the Create WBS process
• The activity list, WBS, and WBS dictionary can be developed either sequentially or concurrently, with the WBS and WBS dictionary as the basis for development of the final activity list.
• Each work package within the WBS is decomposed into the activities required to produce the work package deliverables.
• Involving team members in the decomposition can lead to better and more accurate results
Rolling Wave Planning
A form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS
Templates
A standard activity list or a portion of an activity list from a previous project is often usable as a template for a new project. The related activity attributes information in the templates can also contain other descriptive information useful in defining activities. Templates can also be used to identify typical schedule milestones
Define Activities: Expert Judgement Sources
Project team members or other experts, who are experienced and skilled in developing detailed project scope statements, the WBS, and project schedules, can provide expertise in defining activities
Activity List
A comprehensive list including all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed.
Activity Attributes
• Activity attributes extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity.
Components of Activity Attributes
• The components for each activity evolve over time.
• During the initial stages of the project they include the Activity ID, WBS ID, and Activity Name, and when completed may include activity codes, activity description, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
• Activity attributes can be used to identify the person responsible for executing the work, geographic area, or place where the work has to be performed, and activity type such as level of effort (LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort (AE).
• Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports.
• The number of attributes varies by application area
Milestone List
A milestone list identifies all milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information
Milestone
A significant point or event in the project
Sequence Activities
The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities
Characteristics of Sequence Activities
• Every activity and milestone except the first and last are connected to at least one predecessor and one successor.
• It may be necessary to use lead or lag time between activities to support a realistic and achievable project schedule.
• Sequencing can be performed by using project management software or by using manual or automated techniques
Inputs to Sequence Activities
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Milestone List
4. Project Scope Statement
5. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Sequence Activities
1. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
2. Dependency Determination
3. Applying Leads and Lags
4. Schedule Network Templates
Outputs of Sequence Activities
1. Project Schedule Network Diagrams
2. Project Document Updates
Activity Attributes Use in Sequence Activities
May describe a necessary sequence of events or defined predecessor or successor relationships
Milestone List Use in Sequence Activities
May have scheduled dates for specific milestones
Project Scope Statement Use in Sequence Activities
Contains the product scope description, which includes product characteristics that may affect activity sequencing, such as the physical layout of a plant to be constructed or subsystem interfaces on a software project. While these effects are often apparent in the activity list, the product scope description is generally reviewed to ensure accuracy
Sequence Activities: Organizational Process Assets
• Project files from the corporate knowledge base used for scheduling methodology
PDM
Precedence Diagramming Method. Also referred to as AON.
Precedence Diagramming Method
A method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them. Also called Activity-On-Node (AON), and is the method used by most project management software packages.
CPM
Critical Path Methodology
AON
Activity-On-Node.
Activity-On-Node
A method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities, and connects them with arrows that show the logical relationships that exist between them. Also called Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM), and is the method used by most project management software packages
PDM Dependencies / Logical Relationships
• Finish-to-start (FS).
• Finish-to-finish (FF).
• Start-to-start (SS).
• Start-to-finish (SF).
FS
Finish-to-start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity. The most commonly used type of precedence relationship
FF
Finish-to-finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor activity
SS
Start-to-start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity
SF
Start-to-finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity
Dependency Types
• Mandatory dependencies
• Discretionary dependencies
• External dependencies
Mandatory Dependencies
Mandatory dependencies are those that are contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Also sometimes referred to as hard logic.
Hard Logic
Mandatory Dependency
Examples of Mandatory Dependencies
Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project where it is impossible to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or on an electronics project, where a prototype must be built before it can be tested
Discretionary Dependencies
Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences. Also sometimes referred to as preferred or soft logic.
Fast Tracking and Discretionary Dependencies
• Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented since they can create arbitrary total float values and can limit later scheduling options.
• When fast tracking techniques are employed, these discretionary dependencies should be reviewed and considered for modification or removal
External Dependencies
External dependencies involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control
Applying Leads and Lags
• The project management team determines the dependencies that may require a lead or a lag to accurately define the logical relationship.
• The use of leads and lags should not replace schedule logic.
• Activities and their related assumptions should be documented
Lead
Allows an acceleration of the successor activity
Lag
Directs a delay in the successor activity
Schedule Network Templates
Standardized schedule network diagram templates can be used to expedite the preparation of networks of project activities. They can include an entire project or only a portion of it
Subnetwork / Fragment Network
Portions of a project schedule network diagram. Useful when a project includes several identical or nearly identical deliverables
Project Schedule Network Diagram
Schematic displays of the project’s schedule activities and the logical relationships among them, also referred to as dependencies. Can be produced manually or by using project management software
Components of a Project Schedule Network Diagram
• It can include full project details, or have one or more summary activities.
• A summary narrative can accompany the diagram and describe the basic approach used to sequence the activities.
• Any unusual activity sequences within the network should be fully described within the narrative
Sequence Activities: Project Document Updates
• Activity Lists
• Activity Attributes
• Risk Register
Estimate Activity Resources
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
Inputs to Estimate Activity Resources
1. Activity List
2. Acitivity Attributes
3. Resource Calendars
4. Enterprise Environmental Factors
5. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Estimate Activity Resources
1. Expert Judgement
2. Alternative Analysis
3. Published Estimating Data
4. Bottom Up Estimating
5. Project Management Software
Outputs of Estimate Activity Resources
1. Activity Resource Requirements
2. Resource Breakdown Structure
3. Project Document Updates
Activity List Use in Estimate Activity Resources
Identifies the activities which will need resources
Activity Attributes Use in Estimate Activity Resources
Provides the primary data input for use in estimating those resources required for each activity
Resource Calendars
Information on which resources (such as people, equipment, and material) are potentially available during planned activity period.
Estimate Activity Resources: Enterprise Environmental Factors
• Resource availability and skills
Estimate Activity Resources: Organizational Process Assets
• Policies and procedures regarding staffing
• Policies and procedures relating to rental and purchase of supplies and equipment
• Historical information regarding types of resources used for similar work on previous project
Characteristics of Resource Calendars
• Used for estimating resource utilization.
• Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be available during the project.
• This information may be at the activity or project level.
• This knowledge includes consideration of attributes such as resource experience and/or skill level, as well as various geographical locations from which the resources originate and when they may be available
Composite Resource Calendar
Includes the availability, capabilities, and skills of human resources
Estimate Activity Resources: Expert Judgement Sources
Any group with specialized knowledge in resource planning and estimating can provide such exper
Estimate Activity Resources: Expert Judgement Use
Required to assess the resource-related inputs to this process
Alternative Analysis
Many schedule activities have alternative methods of accomplishment
Published Estimating Data
Several companies routinely publish updated production rates and unit costs of resources for an extensive array of labor trades, material, and equipment for different countries and geographical locations within countries
Bottom Up Estimating
When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasonable degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decomposed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activity’s resources
Bottom Up Estimating Activity Dependencies
• Activities may or may not have dependencies between them that can affect the application and use of resources.
• If there are dependencies, this pattern of resource usage is reflected and documented in the estimated requirements of the activity
Project Management Software
Has the capability to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools and develop resource estimates. Depending on the sophistication of the software, resource breakdown structures, resource availability, resource rates and various resource calendars can be defined to assist in optimizing resource utilization
Activity Resource Requirements
Identifies the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package. These requirements can then be aggregated to determine the estimated resources for each work package
Resource Requirements Documentation
For each activity, can include the basis of estimate for each resource, as well as the assumptions that were made in determining which types of resources are applied, their availability, and what quantities are used
Resource Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.
Examples of Resource Categories
labor, material, equipment, and supplies
Examples of Resource Types
skill level, grade level or other information as appropriate to the project
Purpose of Resource Breakdown Structure
Useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.
Estimate Activity Resources: Project Document Updates
• Activity list
• Activity attributes
• Resource calendars
Estimate Activity Durations
The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
Characteristics of Estimate Activity Durations
• Uses information on activity scope of work, required resource types, estimated resource quantities, and resource calendars.
• The inputs for the estimates of activity duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the specific activity.
• The duration estimate is progressively elaborated, and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data.
• Requires that the amount of work effort required to complete the activity is estimated and the amount of resources to be applied to complete the activity is estimated; these are used to approximate the number of work periods (activity duration) needed to complete the activity.
• All data and assumptions that support duration estimating are documented for each estimate of activity duration.
Project Management Software Use in Estimate Activity Durations
Most project management software for scheduling will handle this situation by using a project calendar and alternative work-period resource calendars that are usually identified by the resources that require specific work periods. In addition to the sequencing logic, the activities will be performed according to the project calendar and the appropriate resource calendars
Inputs to Estimate Activity Durations
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Activity Resource Requirements
4. Resource Calendars
5. Project Scope Statement
6. Enterprise Environmental Factors
7. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Estimate Activity Durations
1. Expert Judgement
2. Analogous Estimating
3. Parametric Estimating
4. Three-Point Estimates
5. Reserve Analysis
Outpus of Estimate Activity Durations
1. Activity Duration Estimates
2. Project Document Updates
Activity Resource Requirements Use in Estimate Activity Durations
Will have an effect on the duration of the activity, since the resources assigned to the activity and the availability of those resources will significantly influence the duration of most activities
Resource Calendars Use in Estimate Activity Durations
Can include the type, availability, and capabilities of human resources; The type, quantity, availability, and capability, when applicable, of both equipment and material resources, which could significantly influence the duration of schedule activities, are also considered
Project Scope Statement Use in Estimate Activity Durations
The constraints and assumptions from the project scope statement are considered when estimating the activity durations
Examples of Project Scope Statement Assumptions
• Existing conditions,
• Availability of information, and
• Length of the reporting periods
Examples of Project Scope Statment Constraints
• Available skilled resources, and
• Contract terms and requirements
Estimate Activity Durations: Enterprise Environmental Factors
• Duration estimating databases and other reference data,
• Productivity metrics, and
• Published commercial information
Estimate Activity Durations: Organizational Process Assets
• Historical duration information,
• Project calendars,
• Scheduling methodology, and
• Lessons learned
Estimate Activity Durations: Expert Judgement Sources
• Guided by historical information, can provide duration estimate information or recommended maximum activity durations from prior similar projects.
• Can also be used to determine whether to combine methods of estimating and how to reconcile differences between them
Analogous Estimating
Uses parameters such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, from a previous, similar project, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project
Characteristics of Analogous Estimating
• When estimating durations, this technique relies on the actual duration of previous, similar projects as the basis for estimating the duration of the current project.
• It is a gross value estimating approach, sometimes adjusted for known differences in project complexity.
• Frequently used to estimate project duration when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project
• Uses historical information and expert judgment.
• Generally less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate.
• Can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project and may be used in conjunction with other estimating methods.
• Is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the project team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise
Parametric Estimating
Uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work
Characteristics of Parametric Estimating
• Can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model.
• Can be applied to a total project or to segments of a project, in conjunction with other estimating methods
Three-Point Estimates
The accuracy of activity duration estimates can be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk
PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration. PERT analysis calculates an Expected (tE) activity duration using a weighted average of these three estimates
PERT Estimate Types
• Most Likely
• Optimistic
• Pessimistic
PERT: Most Likely Estimate
The duration of the activity, given the resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic expectations of availability for the activity, dependencies on other participants, and interruptions
PERT: Optimistic Estimate
The activity duration is based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity
PERT: Pessimistic Estimate
The activity duration is based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity
Benefit of PERT
Duration estimates based on the PERT equation, or even on a simple average of the three points, may provide more accuracy, and the three points clarify the range of uncertainty of the duration estimates
Reserve Analysis
Duration estimates may include contingency reserves, (sometimes referred to as time reserves or buffers) into the overall project schedule to account for schedule uncertainty
Contingency Reserves
Time reserves or buffers. May be a percentage of the estimated activity duration, a fixed number of work periods, or may be developed by using quantitative analysis methods
Characteristics of Contingency Reserves
• As more precise information about the project becomes available, the contingency reserve may be used, reduced, or eliminated.
• Contingency should be clearly identified in schedule documentation
Activity Duration Estimates
Are quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity. Duration estimates do not include any lags.

May include some indication of the range of possible results. For example:
• 2 weeks ± 2 days to indicate that the activity will take at least eight days and no more than twelve (assuming a five-day workweek).
• 15% probability of exceeding three weeks to indicate a high probability—85% percent—that the activity will take three weeks or less.

Estimate Activity Durations: Project Document Updates
• Activity attributes, and
• Assumptions made in developing the activity duration estimate such as skill levels and availability
Develop Schedule
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
Characteristics of Develop Schedule
• Entering the activities, durations, and resources into the scheduling tool generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities.
• It determines the planned start and finish dates for project activities and milestones
• Developing an acceptable project schedule is often an iterative process
• Schedule development can require the review and revision of duration estimates and resource estimates to create an approved project schedule that can serve as a baseline to track progress.
• Revising and maintaining a realistic schedule continues throughout the project as work progresses, the project management plan changes, and the nature of risk events evolves
Inputs to Develop Schedule
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Project Schedule Network Diagram
4. Acitivty Resource Requirements
5. Resource Calendars
6. Activity Duration Estimates
7. Project Scope Statement
8. Enterprise Environmental Factors
9. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Develop Schedule
1. Scheduling Network Analysis
2. Critical Path Method
3. Critical Chain Method
4. Resource Leveling
5. What-If Scenario Analysis
6. Applying Leads and Lags
7. Schedule Compression
8. Scheduling Tool
Outputs of Develop Schedule
1. Project Schedule
2. Schedule Baseline
3. Schedule Data
4. Project Document Updates
Project Scope Statement Use in Develop Schedule
Contains assumptions and constraints that can impact the development of the project schedule
Develop Schedule: Entperise Environmental Factors
A scheduling tool that can be used in developing the schedule
Develop Schedule: Organizational Process Assets
• Scheduling methodology
• Project calendar
Scheduling Network Analysis
A technique that generates the project schedule. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource leveling to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities. Some network paths may have points of path convergence or path divergence that can be identified and used in schedule compression analysis or other analyses
Critical Path Method
Calculates the theoretical early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, for all activities without regard for any resource limitations, by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. The resulting early and late start and finish dates are not necessarily the project schedule; rather, they indicate the time periods within which the activity could be scheduled, given activity durations, logical relationships, leads, lags, and other known constraints
Activity Total Float
Calculated early start and finish dates, and late start and finish dates, may be affected by activity total float, which provides schedule flexibility and, may be positive, negative, or zero
Critical Path
Have either a zero or negative Total Float
Total Float
On any network path, the schedule flexibility is measured by the positive difference between early and late dates
Critical Activities
Schedule activities on a critical path
Zero Total Float
Critical Path
Networks are going to have multiple…
near critical paths
produce network paths with a zero or positive total float
Adjustments to activity durations, logical relationships, leads and lags, or other schedule constraints
Free Float
The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediate successor activity within the network path. Can be determined after the total float of network path has been calculated
Critical Chain Method
Is a schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. Adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty.
Determining the Critical Chain
• Initially, the project schedule network diagram is built using duration estimates with required dependencies and defined constraints as inputs.
• The critical path is then calculated.
• After the critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined.
• The resulting schedule often has an altered critical path
Critical Chain
The resource-constrained critical path
Project Buffer
One buffer, placed at the end of the critical chain, protects the target finish date from slippage along the critical chain
Feeding Buffer
Additional buffers are placed at each point that a chain of dependent tasks not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Feeding buffers thus protect the critical chain from slippage along the feeding chains
Duration Buffers
• non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty
• The size of each buffer should account for the uncertainty in the duration of the chain of dependent tasks leading up to that buffer.
• Once the buffer schedule activities are determined, the planned activities are scheduled to their latest possible planned start and finish dates
The Critical Chain Method focuses on
Consequently, in lieu of managing the total float of network paths, the critical chain method focuses on managing remaining buffer durations against the remaining durations of task chains
Resource Leveling
Is a schedule network analysis technique applied to a schedule that has already been analyzed by the critical path method
Characteristics of Resource Leveling
• Can be used when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times, are only available in limited quantities, or to keep resource usage at a constant level.
• Is necessary when resources have been over-allocated, when shared or critical required resources are only available at certain times or are only available in limited quantities.
• Can often cause the original critical path to change
What-If Scenario Analysis
An analysis of the question “What if the situation represented by scenario ‘X’ happens?”. A schedule network analysis is performed using the schedule to compute the different scenarios
Characteristics of What-If Analysis
• The outcome of the whatif scenario analysis can be used to assess the feasibility of the project schedule under adverse conditions, and in preparing contingency and response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact of unexpected situations.
• Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions
Monte Carlo Analysis
The most common What-If Analysis technique. A distribution of possible activity durations is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project
Applying Leads and Lags
Refinements applied during network analysis to develop a valid schedule
Schedule Compression
Shortens the project schedule without changing the project scope, to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives
Schedule Compression Techniques
• Crashing
• Fast-tracking
Crashing
A schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost
Examples of Crashing
• approving overtime,
• bringing in additional resources, or
• paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path
Characteristics of Crashing
• Only works for activities where additional resources will shorten the duration.
• Doesn’t not always produce a viable alternative and may result in increased risk and/or cost
Fast Tracking
A schedule compression technique in which phases or activities normally performed in sequence are performed in parallel
Characteristics of Fast Tracking
• May result in rework and increased risk.
• Only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the duration
Scheduling Tool
Automated scheduling tools expedite the scheduling process by generating start and finish dates based on the inputs of activities, network diagrams, resources and activity durations. A scheduling tool can be used in conjunction with other project management software applications as well as manual methods
Project Schedule
Includes a planned start date and planned finish date for each activity
Characteristics of Project Schedule
• If resource planning is done at an early stage, then the project schedule would remain preliminary until resource assignments have been confirmed and scheduled start and finish dates are established.
• This process usually happens no later than completion of the project management plan
• A project target schedule may also be developed with a defined target start and target finish for each activity.
• The project schedule may be presented in summary form, sometimes referred to as the master schedule or milestone schedule, or presented in detail.
• Although a project schedule can be presented in tabular form, it is more often presented graphically
Graphical Formats of the Project Schedule
• Milestone charts
• Bar charts
• Project schedule network diagrams
Milestone Charts
These charts are similar to bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces
Bar Charts
These charts, with bars representing activities, show activity start and end dates, as well as expected durations. Bar charts are relatively easy to read, and are frequently used in management presentations
Hammock Activity
For control and management communication, the broader, more comprehensive summary activity, is used between milestones or across multiple interdependent work packages, and is displayed in barchart reports
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
These diagrams, with activity date information, usually show both the project network logic and the project’s critical path schedule activities. These diagrams can be presented in the activity-on-node diagram format, or presented in a time-scaled schedule network diagram format that is sometimes called a logic bar chart
Schedule Baseline
Is a specific version of the project schedule developed from the schedule network analysis. It is accepted and approved by the project management team as the schedule baseline with baseline start dates and baseline finish dates. It is a component of the project management plan
Schedule Data
Includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints
Schedule Data Supporting Detail
• Resource requirements by time period, often in the form of a resource histogram,
• Alternative schedules, such as best-case or worst-case, not resource-leveled, or resource leveled, with or without imposed dates, and
• Scheduling of contingency reserves
• could include such items as resource histograms, cash-flow projections, and order and delivery schedules
Develop Schedule: Project Document Updates
• Activity resource requirements
• Activity attributes
• Calendar
• Risk register
Develop Schedule: Activity Resource Requirements Updates
Resource leveling can have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of the types and quantities of resources required. If the resource-leveling analysis changes the project resource requirements, then the project resource requirements are updated
Develop Schedule: Activity Attributes Updates
Updated to include any revised resource requirements and any other revisions generated by the Develop Schedule process
Develop Schedule: Calendar Updates
For each project may use different calendar units as the basis for scheduling the project
Develop Schedule: Risk Register Updates
May need to be updated to reflect opportunities or threats perceived through scheduling assumptions
Control Schedule
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline
Purpose of Control Schedule
• Determining the current status of the project schedule,
• Influencing the factors that create schedule changes,
• Determining that the project schedule has changed, and
• Managing the actual changes as they occur
Inputs to Control Schedule
• Project Management Plan
• Project Schedule
• Work Performance Information
• Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques for Control Schedule
• Performance Reviews
• Variance Analysis
• Project Management Software
• Resource Leveling
• What-If Scenario Analysis
• Adjusting Leads and Lags
• Schedule Compression
• Scheduling Tool
Outpus of Control Schedule
• Work Performance Measurements
• Organizational Process Asset Updates
• Change Requests
• Project Management Plan Updates
• Project Document Updates
Project Management Plan Use in Control Schedule
• Contains the schedule management plan and the schedule baseline
• The schedule management plan describes how the schedule will be managed and controlled
• The schedule baseline is used to compare with actual results to determine if a chance, corrective action, or preventative action is necessary
Project Schedule Use in Control Schedule
• The most recent version of the project schedule with notations to indicate updates, completed activities, and started activities as of the indicated data date
Work Performance Information Use in Control Schedule
• Information about project progress, such as which activities have started, their progress, and which activities have finished
Control Schedule: Organizational Process Assets
• Existing formal and informal schedule control-related policies, procedures and guidelines
• Schedule control tools
• Monitoring and reporting methods to be used
Performance Reviews
Measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress
EVM Use in Control Schedule
If earned value management (EVM) is utilized the schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of schedule variations. An important part of schedule control is to decide if the schedule variation requires corrective action
EVM
Earned Value Management
SV
Schedule Variance
SPI
Schedule Performance Index
Critical Chain Scheduling Method Use in Control Schedule
If using the critical chain scheduling method, comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help determine schedule status. The difference between the buffer needed and the buffer remaining can determine whether corrective action is appropriate
Variance Analysis Use in Control Schedule
• Schedule performance measurements (SV, SPI) are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.
• The total float variance is also an essential planning component to evaluate project time performance.
• Important aspects of project schedule control include determining the cause and degree of variance relative to the schedule Baseline and deciding whether corrective or preventive action is required.
Project Management Software Use in Control Schedule
Project management software for scheduling provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates, and to forecast the effects of changes to the project schedule
Resource Leveling Use in Control Schedule
Used to optimize the distribution of work among resources
What-If Scenario Analysis Use in Control Schedule
Used to review various scenarios to bring the schedule into alignment with the plan
Adjusting Leads and Lags Use in Control Schedule
Used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan
Schedule Compression Use in Control Schedule
Used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with the plan
Scheduling Tool Use in Control Schedule
• Schedule data is updated and compiled into the schedule to reflect actual progress of the project and remaining work to be completed.
• The scheduling tool and the supporting schedule data are used in conjunction with manual methods or other project management software to perform schedule network analysis to generate an updated project schedule
Control Schedule: Work Performance Measurements
The calculated SV and SPI values for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders
Control Schedule: Organizational Process Assets Updates
• Causes of variances,
• Corrective action chosen and the reasons, and
• Other types of lessons learned from project schedule control
Control Schedule: Change Requests
• Schedule variance analysis, along with review of progress reports, results of performance measures, and modifications to the project schedule can result in change requests to the schedule baseline and/or to other components of the project management plan.
• Change requests are processed for review and disposition through the Perform Integrated Change Control process
• Preventive actions may include recommended changes to reduce the probability of negative schedule variances
Control Schedule: Project Management Plan Updates
• Schedule baseline
• Schedule management plan
• Cost baseline
Control Schedule: Schedule Baseline Updates
Changes to the schedule baseline are incorporated in response to approved change requests related to project scope changes, activity resources, or activity duration estimates
Control Schedule: Schedule Management Plan Updates
May be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed
Control Schedule: Cost Baseline Updates
May be updated to reflect changes caused by compression or crashing techniques
Control Schedule: Project Document Updates
• Schedule data
• Project schedule
Control Schedule: Schedule Data Updates
New project schedule network diagrams may be developed to display approved remaining durations and modifications to the work plan. In some cases, project schedule delays can be so severe that development of a new target schedule with forecasted start and finish dates is needed to provide realistic data for directing the work, and for measuring performance and progress
Control Schedule: Project Schedule Updates
An updated project schedule will be generated from the updated schedule data to reflect the schedule changes and manage the project
Activity attributes can be used to
• identify the person responsible for executing the work,
• geographic area, or
• place where the work has to be performed, and
• activity type such as level of effort (LOE), discrete effort, and apportioned effort (AE).
Activity attributes are used for
schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports
How to deal with a project with a negative float
the project manager will have to either fast-track or crash the project schedule
planned start and finish dates for project activities are determined by
using activity attributes, project scope statement, and activity list as inputs
Duration of a milestone
zero.
Since milestones only indicate when a particular task is going to be started or completed, they will not have any duration
Examples of assumptions in Estimate Activity Duration
• existing conditions,
• availability of information, and
• length of the reporting periods
Duration of a Project
• should be calculated after drawing a network diagram and determining the critical path.
• the length of the critical path and not the sum of the duration of all the tasks in the project
Slack for tasks on the critical path
is equal to zero
All baselines and plans are a part of
the project management plan
In the Control Schedule process, changes to project schedule can result in change requests to
Schedule baseline and/or components of project plan
Analogous estimating uses
historical information and expert judgment
Define Activities Process Group
Planning Process Group
Sequence Activities Process Group
Planning Process Group
Estimate Activity Resources Process Group
Planning Process Group
Estimate Activity Durations Process Group
Planning Process Group
Develop Schedule Process Group
Planning Process Group
Control Schedule Process Group
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
The more critical paths
the more project risk
Negative Critical Path
The project float compares the critical path with an externally imposed date and may be negative. You may be forced to fast track or perform crashing to ensure that the project is completed on time as required by the management. There will be no change to the critical path.