PMP 5th – Chapter 9 – Project Resource Management

Project Human Resource Management
Includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
Project Team
• The project team is comprised of the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project.
• The type and number of project team members can change frequently as the project progresses.
• Project team members may also be referred to as the project’s staff.
• While the specific roles and responsibilities for the project team members are assigned, the involvement of all team members in project planning and decision making can be beneficial.
• Early involvement and participation of team members adds their expertise during the planning process and strengthens their commitment to the project.
Project Human Resource Management Processes (4)
1 Plan Human Resource Management
2 Acquire Project Team
3 Develop Project Team
4 Manage Project Team
Project Management Team
• The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing the various project phases.
• This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team.
• For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities can be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager.
Project Sponsor
The project sponsor works with the project management team, typically assisting with matters such as project funding, clarifying scope, monitoring progress, and influencing others in order to benefit the project.
Managing and Leading the Project Team Includes
• Influencing the project team
• Professional and ethical behavior
Influencing the project team
Being aware of, and influencing when possible, those human resource factors that may impact the project. This includes team environment, geographical locations of team members, communications among stakeholders, internal and external politics, cultural issues, organizational uniqueness, and other such people factors that may alter the project performance.
Professional and Ethical Behaviour
The project management team should be aware of, subscribe to, and ensure that all team members follow ethical behavior.
Examples of interactions that require additional planning
• After initial team members create a work breakdown structure, additional team members may need to be acquired.
• As additional team members are acquired, their experience levels, or lack thereof, could increase or decrease project risk, creating the need for additional risk planning updates.
• When activity durations are estimated, budgeted, scoped, or planned prior to identifying all project team members and their competency levels, the activity durations may be subject to change.
Process: Plan Human Resource Management
– The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities and required skills, reporting relationships and creating a staffing management plan.
– The key benefit of this process is that it establishes project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and the staffing management plan including the timetable for staff acquisition and release.
Characteristics of Plan Human Resource Managemen
• Is used to determine and identify human resources with the necessary skills required for project success.
• Important consideration should be given to the availability of, or competition for, scarce or limited human resources.
• Project roles can be designated for persons or groups. Those persons or groups can be from inside or outside the organization performing the project.
• Other projects may be competing for resources with the same competencies or skill sets.
• Given these factors, project costs, schedules, risks, quality, and other areas may be significantly affected.
• Effective human resource planning should consider and plan for these factors and develop human resource options.
Input (4) Plan Human Resource Management
1 Project management plan
2 Activity resource requirements
3 Enterprise environmental factors
4 Organizational process assets
Project management plan
– Is used to develop the human resource management plan.
The information used for the development of the human resource management plan includes:
• The project life cycle and the processes that will be applied to each phase,
• How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives,
• A change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled,
• A configuration management plan that documents how configuration management will be performed,
• How integrity of the project baselines will be maintained, and
• Needs and methods of communication among stakeholders.
Activity Resource Requirements
• Determines the human resource needs for the project
• The preliminary requirements regarding the required people and competencies for the project team members are progressively elaborated as part of the Plan Human Resource Management process.
Enterprise Environmental Factors
• Organizational culture and structure,
• Existing human resources,
• Geographical dispersion of team members,
• Personnel administration policies, and
• Marketplace conditions.
Organizational Process Assets
• Organizational standard processes, policies, and role descriptions;
• Templates for organizational charts and position descriptions;
• Lessons learned on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects; and
• Escalation procedures for handling issues within the team and within the performing organization.
Tools & Techniques (5) Plan Human Resource Management
1 Organization charts and position descriptions
2 Networking
3 Organizational theory
4 Expert judgment
5 Meetings
Organization charts and position descriptions
Various formats exist to document team member roles and responsibilities.
Types / Formats of Organizational Charts and Position Descriptions
• hierarchical,
• matrix, and
• text-oriented
• subsidiary project management plans such as the risk, quality, or communication plans
Objective of Organizational Charts and Position Descriptions
To ensure that each work package has an unambiguous owner and that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities.
Hierarchical-type charts
The traditional organization chart structure can be used to show positions and relationships in a graphic, top-down format.
Types of Organizational Charts
• WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
• OBS (Organizational Breakdown Structure)
• RBS (Resource Breakdown Structure)
WBS Use in Plan Human Resource Management
Designed to show how project deliverables are broken down into work packages provide a way of showing high-level areas of responsibility.
OBS
Organizationa Breakdown Structure
Organizational Breakdown Structure
Is arranged according to an organization’s existing departments, units, or teams with the project activities or work packages listed under each department. An operational department such as information technology or purchasing can see all of its project responsibilities by looking at its portion of the OBS.
RBS Use in Plan Human Resource Management
It is a hierarchical list of resources related by category and resource type that is used to facilitate planning and controlling of project work. Each descending (lower) level represents an increasingly detailed description of the resource until small enough to be used in conjunction with the work breakdown structure (WBS) to allow the work to be planned, monitored and controlled.
• The resource breakdown structure is helpful in tracking project costs and can be aligned with the organization’s accounting system.
• It can contain resource categories other than human resources.
Matrix-based charts
A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
RAM
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is used to illustrate the connections between work packages or activities and project team members.
• On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level RAM can define what a project team group or unit is responsible for within each component of the WBS, while lower level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities.
RACI
responsible, accountable, consult, and inform chart. The assigned resources can be shown as individuals or groups. It is a type of RAM. The RACI is particularly important when the team consists of internal and external resources to ensure clear divisions of roles and expectation.
Types of RAM
• responsible, accountable, consult, and inform
• “lead” and “resource” designations
Text-oriented formats
• Team member responsibilities that require detailed descriptions can be specified in text-oriented formats.
• Usually in outline form, the documents provide information such as responsibilities, authority, competencies, and qualifications.
• The documents are known by various names including position descriptions and role-responsibility-authority forms.
• These documents can be used as templates for future projects, especially when the information is updated throughout the current project by applying lessons learned.
Networking
Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment.
Chracteristics of Networking
• It is a constructive way to understand political and interpersonal factors that will impact the effectiveness of various staffing management options.
• Networking can be a useful technique at the beginning of a project.
• It can also be an effective way to enhance project management professional development during the project and after the project ends
Networking Activities include
• proactive correspondence,
• luncheon meetings,
• informal conversations including meetings and events,
• trade conferences, and
• symposia
Organizational Theory
Organizational theory provides information regarding the way in which people, teams, and organizational units behave.
Characteristics of Organizational Theory
• Effective use of this information can shorten the amount of time, cost, and effort needed to create the human resource planning outputs and improve the likelihood that the planning will be effective.
• It is important to recognize that different organizational structures have different individual response, individual performance, and personal relationship characteristics.
Expert Judgment
When developing the human resource management plan, expert judgment is used to:
• List the preliminary requirements for the required skills;
• Assess the roles required for the project based on standardized role descriptions within the organization;
• Determine the preliminary effort level and number of resources needed to meet project objectives;
• Determine reporting relationships needed based on the organizational culture;
• Provide guidelines on lead time required for staffing, based on lessons learned and market conditions;
• Identify risks associated with staff acquisition, retention, and release plans; and
• Identify and recommend programs for complying with applicable government and union contracts.
Meetings
– When planning human resource management of the project, the project management team will hold planning meetings.
– These meetings leverage a combination of other tools and techniques to allow for all project management team members to reach consensus on the human resource management plan.
Output (1) Plan Human Resource Management
1 Human resource management plan
Human resource management plan
The human resource management plan, a part of the project management plan, provides guidance on how project human resources should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released.
Other Sections of the Project Management Plan
• Some responsibilities related to managing the project are listed and explained in other sections of the project management plan.
• For example, the risk register lists risk owners, the communication plan lists team members responsible for communication activities, and the quality plan designates those responsible for carrying out quality assurance and quality control activities.
The Human resource management plan should include
• Roles and responsibilities
• Project organization charts
• Staff management plan
Items addressed for Roles and Responsibilities in the Human Resource Plan
• Role
• Authority
• Responsibility
• Competency
Role
– The label describing the function of a project for which a person is accountable.
– Examples of project roles are civil engineer, court liaison, business analyst, and testing coordinator.
– Role clarity concerning authority, responsibilities, and boundaries should be documented.
Authority
– The right to apply project resources, make decisions, and sign approvals.
– Examples of decisions that need clear authority include the selection of a method for completing an activity, quality acceptance, and how to respond to project variances.
– Team members operate best when their individual levels of authority match their individual responsibilities.
Responsibility
The work that a project team member is expected to perform in order to complete the project’s activities.
Competency
The skill and capacity required to complete project activities. If project team members do not possess required competencies, performance can be jeopardized. When such mismatches are identified, proactive responses such as training, hiring, schedule changes, or scope changes are initiated
Project Organization Charts
– A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships.
Characteristics of Project Organization Charts
• It can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the project.
Staffing Management Plan
The staffing management plan, a part of the human resources management plan within the project management plan, describes when and how human resource requirements will be met
Charactersitics of the Staffing Management Plan
• can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, depending upon the needs of the project.
• The plan is updated continually during the project to direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions
Information in the staffing management plan varies by application area and project
size
• Staff acquisition
• Resource calendars
• Staff release plan
• Training needs
• Recognition and rewards
• Compliance
• Safety
Staff Acquisition in Staffing Management Plan
• A number of questions arise when planning the acquisition of project team members. For example:
• will the human resources come from within the organization or from external, contracted sources?
• Will team members need to work in a central location or can they work from distant locations?
• What are the costs associated with each level of expertise needed for the project?
• How much assistance can the organization’s human resource department and functional managers provide to the project management team?
Resource Calendars in Staffing Management Plan
The staffing management plan describes necessary time frames for project team members, either individually or collectively, as well as when acquisition activities such as recruiting should start.
Resource Histogram
• A tool for charting human resources.
• This bar chart illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire project team will be needed each week or month over the course of the project.
• The chart can include a horizontal line that represents the maximum number of hours available from a particular resource.
• Bars that extend beyond the maximum available hours identify the need for a resource leveling strategy, such as adding more resources or modifying the schedule
Staff Release Plan in Staffing Management Plan
Determining the method and timing of releasing team members benefits both the project and team members.
• When team members are released from a project, the costs associated with those resources are no longer charged to the project, thus reducing project costs.
• Morale is improved when smooth transitions to upcoming projects are already planned.
• A staff release plan also helps mitigate human resource risks that may occur during or at the end of a project.
Training Needs in Staffing Management Plan
• If the team members to be assigned are not expected to have the required competencies, a training plan can be developed as part of the project.
• The plan can also include ways to help team members obtain certifications that would support their ability to benefit the project.
Recognition and Rewards in Staffing Management Plan
• Clear criteria for rewards and a planned system for their use helps promote and reinforce desired behaviors.
• To be effective, recognition and rewards should be based on activities and performance under a person’s control.
• For example, a team member who is to be rewarded for meeting cost objectives should have an appropriate level of control over decisions that affect expenses.
• Creating a plan with established times for distribution of rewards ensures that recognition takes place and is not forgotten.
• Recognition and rewards are part of the Develop Project Team process
Compliance in Staffing Management Plan
The staffing management plan can include strategies for complying with applicable government regulations, union contracts, and other established human resource policies.
Safety in Staffing Management Plan
Policies and procedures that protect team members from safety hazards can be included in the staffing management plan as well as the risk register.
Acquire Project Team
The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments.
Characteristics of Acquire Project Team
• he project management team may or may not have direct control over team member selection because of collective bargaining agreements, use of subcontractor personnel, matrix project environment, internal or external reporting relationships, or other various reasons.
• It is important that the following factors are considered during the process of acquiring the project team:
• The project manager or project management team will be required to reflect the impact of any availability of required human resources in the project schedule, project budget, project risks, project quality, training plans, and the other project management plans as required.
Factors to be considered during the process of acquiring the project team
• The project manager or project management team should effectively negotiate and influence others who are in a position to provide the required human resources for the project.
• Failure to acquire the necessary human resources for the project may affect project schedules, budgets, customer satisfaction, quality, and risks. It could decrease the probability of success and ultimately result in project cancellation.
• If the human resources are not available due to constraints, economic factors, or previous assignments to other projects, the project manager or project team may be required to assign alternative resources, perhaps with lower competencies, provided there is no violation of legal, regulatory, mandatory, or other specific criteria.
• These factors should be considered and planned for in the planning stages of the project.
Inputs (3) of Acquire Project Team
1 Human resource management plan
2 Enterprise environmental factors
3 Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques (5) of Acquire Project Team
1 Pre-assignment
2 Negotiation
3 Acquisition
4 Virtual teams
5 Multi-criteria decision analysis
Outputs (3) of Acquire Project Team
1 Project staff assignments
2 Resource calendars
3 Project management plan updates
Project Management Plan Use in Acquire Project Team
Contains the human resource plan which has the following information that is used to provide guidance on how project human resources should be identified, staffed, managed, controlled, and eventually released
Human Resource Plan Use in Acquire Project Team
• Roles and responsibilities defining the positions, skills, and competencies that the project demands,
• Project organization charts indicating the number of people needed for the project, and
• Staffing management plan delineating the time periods each project team member will be needed and other information important to acquiring the project team
Acquire Project Team: Enterprise Environmental Factors
• Existing information for human resources including who is available, their competency levels,their prior experience, their interest in working on the project and their cost rate;
• Personnel administration policies such as those that affect outsourcing;
• Organizational structure as described;
• Location or multiple locations
Acquire Project Team: Organizational Process Assets
• Organizational standard policies, processes and procedures
Pre-Assignment
• When project team members are selected in advance they are considered pre-assigned.
• This situation can occur if the project is the result of specific people being promised as part of a competitive proposal, if the project is dependent upon the expertise of particular persons, or if some staff assignments are defined within the project charter
Negotiation Use in Acquire Project Team
• Staff assignments are negotiated on many projects and may need to be negotiated with:
o Functional managers to ensure that the project receives appropriately competent staff in the required time frame, and that the project team members will be able, willing, and authorized to work on the project until their responsibilities are completed,
o Other project management teams within the performing organization to appropriately assign scarce or specialized human resources, and
o External organizations, vendors, suppliers, contractors, etc., for appropriate, scarce, specialized, qualified, certified, or other such specified human resources. Special consideration should be given to external negotiating policies, practices, processes, guidelines, legal, and other such criteria.
• The project management team’s ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating staff assignments, as do the politics of the organizations involved
Acquisition Use in Acquire Project Team
• When the performing organization lacks the in-house staff needed to complete a project, the required services may be acquired from outside sources.
• This can involve hiring individual consultants or subcontracting work to another organization
Virtual Teams
• Creates new possibilities when acquiring project team members.
• Can be defined as groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their roles with little or no time spent meeting face to face.
• The availability of electronic communication such as e-mail, audio conferencing, web-based meetings and video conferencing has made such teams feasible.
• Communication planning becomes increasingly important in a virtual team environment.
• Additional time may be needed to set clear expectations, facilitate communications, develop protocols for resolving conflict, include people in decision-making, and share credit in successes
The virtual team format makes it possible to
• Form teams of people from the same company who live in widespread geographic areas,
• Add special expertise to a project team even though the expert is not in the same geographic area,
• Incorporate employees who work from home offices,
• Form teams of people who work different shifts or hours,
• Include people with mobility limitations or disabilities, and
• Move forward with projects that would have been ignored due to travel expenses
Acquire Project Team: Project Staff Assignments
• The project is staffed when appropriate people have been assigned through the previously described methods.
• The documentation of these assignments can include a project team directory, memos to team members, and names inserted into other parts of the project management plan, such as project organization charts and schedules
Acquire Project Team: Resource Calendars
• Document the time periods that each project team member can work on the project.
• Creating a reliable schedule depends on having a good understanding of each person’s schedule conflicts, including vacation time and commitments to other projects, to accurately document team member availability
Acquire Project Team: Project Management Plan Updates
• The human resources plan
Develop Project Team
The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance
Characteristics of Develop Project Team
• Project managers should acquire skills to identify, build, maintain, motivate, lead, and inspire project teams to achieve high team performance and to meet the project’s objectives.
• Teamwork is a critical factor for project success, and developing effective project teams is one of the primary responsibilities of the project manager.
• Project managers should create an environment that facilitates teamwork.
• Project managers should continually motivate their team by providing challenges and opportunities, by providing timely feedback and support as needed, and by recognizing and rewarding good performance.
• High team performance can be achieved by using open and effective communication, developing trust among team members, managing conflicts in a constructive manner, and encouraging collaborative problem-solving and decision-making.
• The project manager should request management support and/or influence the appropriate stakeholders to acquire the resources needed to develop effective project teams.
• Today project managers operate in a global environment and work on projects characterized by cultural diversity. Team members often have diverse industry experience, multiple languages, and sometimes operate in the ”team language” that is a different language or norm than their native one.
• The project management team should capitalize on cultural differences, focus on developing and sustaining the project team throughout the project life cycle, and promote working together interdependently in a climate of mutual trust.
• Developing the project team improves the people skills, technical competencies, and overall team environment and project performance.
• It requires clear, timely, effective, and efficient communication between team members throughout the life of the project.
Objectives of Developing a Project Team
• Improve knowledge and skills of team members in order to increase their ability to complete project deliverables, while lowering costs, reducing schedules, and improving quality;
• Improve feelings of trust and agreement among team members in order to raise morale, lower conflict, and increase team work; and
• Create a dynamic and cohesive team culture to improve both individual and team productivity, team spirit, and cooperation, and to allow cross-training and mentoring between team members to share knowledge and expertise
Inputs (3) of Develop Project Team
1 Human resource management plan
2 Project staff assignments
3 Resource calendars
Tools & Techniques (7) of Develop Project Team
1 Interpersonal skills
2 Training
3 Team-building activities
4 Ground rules
5 Colocation
6 Recognition and rewards
7 Personnel assessment tools
Outputs (2) of Develop Project Team
1 Team performance assessments
2 Enterprise environmental factors updates
Project Staff Assignments Use in Develop Project Team
• The team development starts with a list of project team members
• Project staff assignment documents identify the people who are on the team
Project Management Plan Use in Develop Project Team
• Contains the human resource plan, which identifies training strategies and plans for developing the project team.
• Items such as rewards, feedback, additional training, and disciplinary actions can be added to the plan as a result of ongoing team performance assessments and other forms of project team management
Resource Calendars Use in Develop Project Team
Identify times when the project team members can participate in team development activities
Interpersonal Skills
These are sometimes known as “soft skills,” and are particularly important to team development.
Interpersonal Skills Use in Develop Project Team
• The project management team can greatly reduce problems and increase cooperation by understanding the sentiments of project team members, anticipating their actions, acknowledging their concerns, and following up on their issues.
• Skills such as empathy, influence, creativity, and group facilitation are valuable assets when managing the project team
Training Use in Develop Project Team
• Can be formal or informal.
• If project team members lack necessary management or technical skills, such skills can be developed as part of the project work.
Schedule Training
takes place as stated in the human resource plan.
Unplanned Training
takes place as a result of observation, conversation, and project performance appraisals conducted during the controlling process of managing the project team
Examples of Training
• classroom,
• online,
• computer-based,
• on-the-job training from another project team member,
• mentoring, and
• coaching.
Team Building Activities
The objective of team-building activities is to help individual team members work together effectively. Activities can vary from a five-minute agenda item in a status review meeting to an off-site, professionally facilitated experience designed to improve interpersonal relationships.
Team Building Activities Use in Develop Project Team
• Team-building strategies are particularly valuable when team members operate from remote locations without the benefit of face-to-face contact.
• Informal communication and activities can help in building trust and establishing good working relationships.
• One of the most important skills in developing a team environment involves handling project team problems and discussing these as team issues.
• The entire team should be encouraged to work collaboratively to resolve these issues.
• To build effective project teams, project managers should obtain top management support, obtain commitment of team members, introduce appropriate rewards and recognition, create a team identity, manage conflicts effectively, promote trust and open communication among team members, and, above all, provide good team leadership.
• As an ongoing process, team building is crucial to project success.
• While team building is essential during the front end of a project, it is a never-ending process.
• Changes in a project environment are inevitable, and to manage them effectively, a continued or a renewed team-building effort should be applied.
• The project manager should continually monitor team functioning and performance to determine if any actions are needed to prevent or correct various team problems.
Five Stages of Team Development
• Forming
• Storming
• Norming
• Performing
• Adjourning
Forming
This phase is where the team meets and learns about the project and what their formal roles and responsibilities are. Team members tend to be independent and not as open in this phase
Storming
The team begins to address the project work, technical decisions, and the project management approach. If team members are not collaborative and open to differing ideas and perspectives the environment can become destructive
Norming
Team members begin to work together and adjust work habits and behaviors that support the team. The team begins to trust each other
Performing
Teams that reach the performing stage function as a well-organized unit. They are interdependent and work through issues smoothly and effectively
Adjourning
In the adjourning phase, the team completes the work and moves on from the project
Characteristics of Five Stage of Team Development
• Usually these stages occur in order. However, it’s not uncommon for a team to get stuck in a particular stage or slip to an earlier stage.
• projects with team members who have worked together in the past could skip a stage.
• The duration of a particular stage depends upon team dynamics, team size, and team leadership.
• Project managers should have a good understanding of team dynamics in order to move their team members through all stages in an effective manner
Ground Rules
Establish clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.
Ground Rules Use in Develop Project Team
• Early commitment to clear guidelines decreases misunderstandings and increases productivity.
• Discussing ground rules allows team members to discover values that are important to one another.
• All project team members share responsibility for enforcing the rules once they are established
Colocation
Involves placing many or all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team
Characteristics of Colocation
• Can be temporary, such as at strategically important times during the project, or for the entire project.
• Colocation strategies can include a team meeting room, places to post schedules, and other conveniences that enhance communication and a sense of community.
• While co-location is considered a good strategy, the use of virtual teams is sometimes unavoidable
Recognition and Rewards
Part of the team development process involves recognizing and rewarding desirable behavior
Characteristics of Recognition and Rewards
• The original plans concerning ways in which to reward people are developed during the Develop Human Resource Plan process.
• Award decisions are made, formally or informally, during the process of managing the project team through project performance appraisals.
• It is important to recognize that a particular reward given to any individual will only be effective if it satisfies a need which is valued by that individual.
• Cultural differences should be considered when determining recognition and rewards.
• Only desirable behavior should be rewarded.
• However, the team members should not be punished for poor planning and consistently unrealistic expectations imposed by senior management.
• Win-lose (zero sum) rewards that only a limited number of project team members can achieve, such as team member of the month, can hurt team cohesiveness.
• Rewarding behavior that everyone can achieve, such as turning in progress reports on time, tends to increase support among team members.
• People are motivated if they feel they are valued in the organization and this value is demonstrated by the rewards given to them.
• Generally, money is viewed by most as a very tangible aspect of any reward system, but other intangible rewards are also effective.
• Most project team members are motivated by an opportunity to grow, accomplish, and apply their professional skills to meet new challenges.
• Public recognition of good performance creates positive reinforcement.
• A good strategy for project managers is to give the team all possible recognition during the life cycle of the project rather than after the project is completed.
Develop Project Team: Team Performance Assessments
As project team development efforts such as training, team building, and co-location are implemented, the project management team makes formal or informal assessments of the project team’s effectiveness
Characteristics of Team Performance Assessments
• Effective team development strategies and activities are expected to increase the team’s performance, which increases the likelihood of meeting project objectives.
• Team performance assessment criteria should be determined by all appropriate parties and incorporated in the Develop Project Team inputs.
• This is especially important in contract-related or collective bargaining projects.
• High-performance teams are characterized by these task-oriented and results-oriented outcomes.
• As a result of conducting an evaluation of the team’s overall performance, the project management team can identify the specific training, coaching, mentoring, assistance, or changes required to improve the team’s performance.
• This should also include identification of the proper or required resources necessary to achieve and implement the improvements identified in the assessment.
• These resources and recommendations for team improvement should be well documented and forwarded to the appropriate parties.
• This is especially important when team members are part of a union, involved in collective bargaining, bound by contract performance clauses, or other related situations.
The performance of a successful team is measured in terms of
• technical success according to agreed-upon project objectives,
• performance on project schedule (finished on time), and
• performance on budget (finished within financial constraints).
Indirect Measures of Project Performance
job-related and people-related qualities
The evaluation of a team’s effectiveness include indicators such as
• Improvements in skills that allow individuals to perform assignments more effectively,
• Improvements in competencies that help the team perform better as a team,
• Reduced staff turnover rate, and
• Increased team cohesiveness where team members share information and experiences openly and help each other to improve the overall project performance.
Develop Project Team: Enterprise Environmental Factors Output
• Personnel administration, including updates for employee training records and skill assessments
Manage Project Team
The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues and managing changes to optimize project performance
Characteristics of Manage Project Team
• The project management team observes team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance.
• As a result of managing the project team, change requests are submitted, the human resource plan is updated, issues are resolved, input is provided for performance appraisals, and lessons learned are added to the organization’s database.
• Project managers should provide challenging assignments to team members and provide recognition for high performance
Team Management Invoves
a combination of skills with special emphasis on communication, conflict management, negotiation, and leadership
Managing the project team requires
a variety of management skills for fostering teamwork and integrating the efforts of team members to create high-performance teams
Inputs (6) of Manage Project Team
1 Human resource management plan
2 Project staff assignments
3 Team performance assessments
4 Issue log
5 Work performance reports
6 Organizational process assets
Tools & Techniques (4) of Manage Project Team
1 Observation and conversation
2 Project performance appraisals
3 Conflict management
4 Interpersonal skills
Outputs (5) of Manage Project Team
1 Change requests
2 Project management plan updates
3 Project documents updates
4 Enterprise environmental factors updates
5 Organizational process assets updates
Project Staff Assignments Use in Manage Project Team
Provides documentation which includes the list of project team members
Project Management Plan Use in Manage Project Team
Contains the human resource plan, which includes:
• Roles and responsibilities
• Project organization
• The staffing management plan
Team Performance Assessments Use in Manage Project Team
• The project management team makes ongoing formal or informal assessments of the project team’s performance.
• By continually assessing the project team’s performance, actions can be taken to resolve issues, modify communication, address conflict, and improve team interaction
Manage Project Team: Organizational Process Assets
• Certificates of appreciation,
• Newsletters,
• Websites,
• Bonus structures,
• Corporate apparel, and
• Other organizational perquisites
Observation and Conversation Use in Manage Project Team
• Are used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of project team members.
• The project management team monitors progress toward project deliverables, accomplishments that are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues
Objectives for conducting performance appraisals
• clarification of roles and responsibilities,
• constructive feedback to team members,
• discovery of unknown or unresolved issues,
• development of individual training plans, and
• the establishment of specific goals for future time periods.
The need for formal or informal project performance appraisals depends on
• the length of the project,
• complexity of the project,
• organizational policy,
• labor contract requirements, and
• the amount and quality of regular communication
Conflict Management Use in Manage Project Team
• Sources of conflict include scarce resources, scheduling priorities, and personal work styles.
• Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices like communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict.
• Successful conflict management results in greater productivity and positive working relationships.
• When managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making. If the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for their resolution.
• If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution.
• Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach.
• If disruptive conflict continues, formal procedures may be used, including disciplinary actions.
• The success of project managers in managing their project teams often depends a great deal on their ability to resolve conflict. Different project managers may have different Conflict resolution styles
Characteristics of conflict and the conflict management process
• Conflict is natural and forces a search for alternatives,
• Conflict is a team issue,
• Openness resolves conflict,
• Conflict resolution should focus on issues, not personalities, and
• Conflict resolution should focus on the present, not the past
Factors that influence Conflict resolution methods
• Relative importance and intensity of the conflict,
• Time pressure for resolving the conflict,
• Position taken by players involved, and
• Motivation to resolve Conflict on a long-term or a short-term basis
Six general techniques for resolving conflict
• Withdrawing/Avoiding
• Smoothing/Accomodating
• Compromising
• Forcing
• Collaborating
• Confronting/Problem Solving
Withdrawing/Avoiding
Retreating from an actual or potential conflict situation
Smoothing/Accomodating
Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas of difference
Compromising
Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties
Forcing
Pushing one’s viewpoint at the expense of others; offers only win-lose solutions
Collaborating
Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives; leads to consensus and commitment
Confronting/Problem Solving
Treating conflict as a problem to be solved by examining alternatives; requires a give-and-take attitude and open dialogue
Issue Log
A written log documents and helps monitor who is responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date.
Issue Resolution
addresses obstacles that can block the team from achieving its goals
Interpersonal Skills Use in Manage Project Team
• Project managers use a combination of technical, human, and conceptual skills to analyze situations and interact appropriately with team members.
• Using appropriate interpersonal skills aids project managers in capitalizing on the strengths of all team members.
• There is a wide body of knowledge about interpersonal skills that is appropriate to project work and non-project work.
Most Common Interpersonal Skills Used by Project Managers
• Leadership
• Influencing
• Effective Decision Making
Leadership
Successful projects require strong leadership skills. Leadership is important through all phases of the project life cycle. It is especially important to communicate the vision and inspire the project team to achieve high performance
Influencing
Since project managers often have little or no direct authority over their team members in a matrix environment, their ability to influence stakeholders on a timely basis is critical to project success
Key Influencing Skills
• Ability to be persuasive and clearly articulate points and positions,
• High levels of active and effective listening skills,
• Consideration of the various perspectives in any situation, and
• Gathering relevant and critical information to address important issues and reach agreements while maintaining mutual trust
Effective Decision Making
This involves the ability to negotiate and influence the organization and the project management team
Guidelines for Decision Making
• Focus on goals to be served,
• Follow a decision-making process,
• Study the environmental factors,
• Develop personal qualities of the team members,
• Stimulate team creativity, and
• Manage opportunity and risk
Manage Project Team: Enterprise Environmental Factors Updates
• Input to organizational performance appraisals, and
• Personnel skill updates
Manage Project Team: Organizational Process Assets Updates
• Historical information and lessons learned documentation,
• Templates, and
• Organizational standard processes
Manage Project Team: Change Requests
• Staffing changes, whether by choice or by uncontrollable events, can affect the rest of the project management plan. When staffing issues disrupt the project management plan, such as causing the schedule to be extended or the budget to be exceeded, a change request can be processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
• Preventive actions are those that can be developed to reduce the probability and/or impact of problems before they occur. These actions may include cross-training to reduce problems during project team member absences and additional role clarification to ensure all responsibilities are fulfilled
Staffing Changes Include
• moving people to different assignments,
• outsourcing some of the work, and
• replacing team members who leave
Preventative Actions for Manage Project Team
Preventive actions are those that can be developed to reduce the probability and/or impact of problems before they occur. These actions may include
• cross-training to reduce problems during project team member absences and
• additional role clarification to ensure all responsibilities are fulfilled
Manage Project Team: Project Management Plan Updates
• The staffing management plan
Characteristics of Project Management Team
• a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities such as initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closing the various project phases.
• This group can also be referred to as the core, executive, or leadership team.
• For smaller projects, the project management responsibilities can be shared by the entire team or administered solely by the project manager
McGregor’s X-Y theory
• suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people.
• Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results.
• Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
Theory X
• The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can.
• Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives.
• The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else
(McGregor’s X-Y theory)
Authoritarian Management
Theory X. This assumes that the workers are inherently lazy and require supervision
(McGregor’s X-Y theory)
Participative Management
Theory Y. The average worker finds physical and mental effort on the job satisfying and likes his work
(McGregor’s X-Y theory)
Theory Y
• Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
• People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.
• Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.
• People usually accept and often seek responsibility.
• The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
• In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised
Characteristics of Theory X Manager
• results-driven and deadline-driven, to the exclusion of everything else
• intolerant
• issues deadlines and ultimatums
• distant and detached
• aloof and arrogant
• elitist
• short temper
• shouts
• issues instructions, directions, edicts
• issues threats to make people follow instructions
• demands, never asks
• does not participate
• does not team-build
• unconcerned about staff welfare, or morale
• proud, sometimes to the point of self-destruction
• one-way communicator
• poor listener
• fundamentally insecure and possibly neurotic
• anti-social
• vengeful and recriminatory
• does not thank or praise
• withholds rewards, and suppresses pay and remunerations levels
• scrutinises expenditure to the point of false economy
• seeks culprits for failures or shortfalls
• seeks to apportion blame instead of focusing on learning from the experience and preventing recurrence
• does not invite or welcome suggestions
• takes criticism badly and likely to retaliate if from below or peer group
• poor at proper delegating – but believes they delegate well
• thinks giving orders is delegating
• holds on to responsibility but shifts accountability to subordinates
• relatively unconcerned with investing in anything to gain future improvements
• unhappy
Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors
Herzberg’s findings revealed that certain characteristics of a job are consistently related to job satisfaction (motivators), while different factors are associated with job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors).
Factors for Satisfaction (Motivators)
• Achievement
• Recognitiojn
• The work itself
• Responsibility
• Advancement
• Growth
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Factors for Dissatisfaction (Hygiene Factors)
• Company Policies
• Supervision
• Relationship with Supervisors and Peers
• Work Conditions
• Salary
• Status
• Security
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
The absence of Hygiene Factors
can create job satisfcation, but their presence does not guarantee motivation or satisfaction
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Hygiene Factors produce
short term changes in job attitudes and performance
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Motivatos produce
long term positive effects in job performance
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Satisfiers relate to
what a person does
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Dissatisfiers relate to
the situation in which a person does what he or she does
(Herzberg’s Theory of Motivators and Hygiene Factors)
Management / Leadership Styles
• Autocratic
• Laissez Faire
• Democratic
• Discussing
• Directing
• Delegating
• Coaching
• Facilitating
• Participatory
• Supportive
• Task-oriented
• Team-based
• Assertive
Autocratic
Manage makes decisions himself – allows subordinates little involvement or discussion before decision is made
Lassez Faire
Manager does not interfere with subordinates – so subordinates are largely unsupervised, which may lead to anarchy
Democratic
Manager allows subordinates to discuss issues and reach decisions although he will guide and advise
Discussing
There is two-way communication and discussion between manager and subordinate
Directing
Managers tell people what tasks will be performed and when and how they should be performed
Delegating
Manager delegates to consensus on what has been achieved and what needs to be done
Coaching
Manager issues instructions to others
Facilitating
Manager coordinates inputs from several sources before taking a decision
Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs
states that different people are at different levels in the need hierarchy. Usually people start out looking for physiological needs and then progressively move up the needs hierarchy
Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid
1. Physiological (bottom of pyramid)
2. Safety
3. Social / Belonging
4. Self-Esteem
5. Self-Actualization (top of pyramid)
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Physiological Needs
• Food
• Water
• Clothing
• Shelter
• Sleep
• Sexual satisfaction
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Safety Needs
• Economic Security
• Protection from harm
• Disease and violence
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Social/Belonging Needs
• Love
• Belonging
• Togetherness
• Approval
• Group Membersip
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Self-Esteem Needs
• Self-esteem
• Reputation
• Respect from others
• Recognition
• Self confidence
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Self-Actualization Needs
• Doing what one can do best
• Full realization of potential
• Self development
• Creativity
(Abraham Maslow`s hierarchy of needs)
Characteristics of Withdrawing/Avoiding
• Temporary solution – problem not solved but avoided
• Problem and resulting conflict can come up again and again
Characteristics of Forcing
• Competing, Assertive
• One party trys to force a resolution on another
• Usually done if conflict is escalated
• Win-lose situation, one party wins at the expense of another
Characteristics of Smoothing
• Accomodating
• Reduce emotions that existing in a conflict
• Emphasize agreement, deemphasize disagreement
• Goal of one party may be compromised for the needs of another
Charactersitics of Compromising
• Bargain or search for solutions so both parties leave with some satisfaction
• Give and take approach
Characterstics of Confronting
• Collaborating
• Conflicting parties meet face to face and try to work out their disagreements
• Both parties win – lasting resolution to a conflict
SMART Performance Goals
• Specific
• Measurable
• Achievable/Attainable
• Relevant
• Time-specific
David McClelland`s theory
Achievement Motivation Theory. States managers are motivated by:
• Need for achievement
• Need for authority and power
• Need for affiliation
The need for achievement
The n-ach person is ‘achievement motivated’ and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment
(David McClelland`s theory )
The need for authority and power
The n-pow person is ‘authority motivated’. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige
(David McClelland`s theory )
The need for affiliation
The n-affil person is ‘affiliation motivated’, and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players
(David McClelland`s theory )
Power
the ability to bring about change in one’s psychological environment
Influence
the use of power to bring about change
Source of Power
is based on the relationship of a leader and his followers
Five Bases of Power
Positional Power
1. Reward
2. Coercive
3. Legitimate

Personal Power
4. Referent
5. Expert

Reward Power
Based on the follower’s perception that the leader has the ability to mediate rewards for him/her

The ability to gain support, because project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards such as salary, promotion, bonus, and future work assignments

Reward Power Characteristics
• The strength of the power increases with the size of the perceived reward.
• Based on the perception that the leader can deliver
Coercive Power
Based on the follower’s perception that the leader can punish him/her for non conformance

The ability to gain support, because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other.

Coercive Power Characteristics
• Strength based on the probability of punishment for non conformity minus the probability of punishment for conformity.
• Sometimes difficult to determine the difference between reward and coercive power.
• Is conformity to group norms in order to gain acceptance (reward power) different from conformity as a means of forestalling rejection (coercive power)?
• The relationship that develops between the leader and the follower is different
• Reward power brings leaders and follower together. We will accept you if you conform
• Coercive power decreased the attraction. We will reject you if you don’t conform but if you do we will not accept you.
• Leader must induce restraining forces to keep the follower in the field of play in order to make coercive power work.
• Otherwise, the follower, under threat of punishment, leaves, making the probability of receiving punishment too low to be effective.
Legitimate Power
The perception by the follower that the leader has the legitimate right to prescribe behavior for him/her

The ability to gain support, because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders

Legitimate Power Characteristics
• Complex type of power
• Legitimacy is a function of internalized norms or values (Culturally based and vary with culture, upbringing etc)
• Legitimate power stems from followers internalized values that dictate that the leader has the right to influence and the follower has the obligation to accept the influence
Bases for legitimate power
• Cultural Values (Age, intelligence, caste, physical characteristics, sex)
• Social Structure (Group, organization, society; Relationship between offices rather than persons)
• Delegation by a legitimizing agent (Your boss by the vice president)
Range of Legitimate Power
• Range is specified along with the designation
• Culturally derived LP frequently has broad range.
• Organizationally derived LP has a specific narrowly defined range
Referent Power
Based on the follower’s identification with the leader

The ability to gain support, because project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or her project

Referent Power Characteristics
• A feeling of oneness
• Follower is highly attracted and will have a desire to become closely associated with the leader.
• The follower identifies with, believes , behaves and perceives as the leader does.
• Different than reward or coercive power because the leader doesn’t exercise these even when he could.
• Referent power is independent of the leader. The follower is often not aware of the power the leader is exerting over the follower
Expert Power
• The perception by the follower that the leader has some special knowledge or expertness
• Strength of power depends on how much the leader knows or the perception of how much he knows
The ability to gain support, because personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise
Types of Expert Power
• EP based on the credibility of the leader
• Informational influence based on the characteristics of the stimulus
Roles that Undermine Project Management
• The Aggressor
• The Dominator
• The Devil’s Advocator
The Aggressor
• Criticizes everybody and everything on project management
• Deflates the status and ego of other team members
• Always acts aggressively
The Dominator
• Always tries to take over.
• Professes to know everything about project management
• Tries to manipulate people
• Will challenge those in charge for a leadership role
The Devil’s Advocate
• Finds fault in all areas of project management
• Refuses to support project management unless threatened
• Acts more of a devil than an advocate
The most preferred conflict resolution techniques adopted by project managers (in descending order of preference)
1. Confrontation
2. Compromise
3. Smoothing
4. Forcing
5. Withdrawal
Most of the conflicts occur due to the following issues (in descending order of intensity)
1. Schedules
2. Priorities
3. Manpower
4. Technical
5. Procedures
6. Personality
7. Costs