PMP 5th – Chapter 5 – Project Scope Management

Project Management Scope Management
To ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully
Project Scope Management processes (6)
1 Plan Scope Management
2 Collect Requirements
3 Define Scope
4 Create WBS
5 Validate Scope
6 Control Scope
Product Scope
The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
Project Scope
The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Process: Plan Scope Mangement
– Project Scope management process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlled.
– The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project.
Inputs (4) of the Plan Scope Management process
1 Project management plan
2 Project charter
3 Enterprise environmental Factors
4 Organizational process assets
Project management plan
Input to Plan Scope Management that is the approved subsidiary plans of the project management plan are used to create the scope management plan and influence the approach taken for planning scope and managing project scope.
Project Charter
Input to Plan Scope Management that is used to provide the project context needed to plan the management processes. Provides high-level project description and product characteristics from the SOW.
Enterprise Environmental factors
Input to Plan scope management that may include:
-Oganization’s culture
-Infrastructure
-Personnel administration
-Marketplace conditions
Organizational Process Assets
Input to Plan scope management that can influence the plan scope management process include:
– policies and procedures
– Historical information and lessons learned knowledge base.
Tools & Techniques (2) of the Plan Scope Management process
1 Expert Judgment
2 Meetings
Expert Judgment
Plan Scope Management Tools/techniques that refers to input received from knowledgeable and experienced parties with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training in developing scope management plans.
Meetings
Plan scope management tools/techniques where project eams may attend project meetings to develop the scope management plan. Attendees include, manager, sponsor, team members, stakeholders anyone else with responsibility for scope.
Outputs (2) of the Plan Scope Management process
1 Scope management plan
2 Requirements management plan
Scope Management Plan
That is a component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified.
Components of Scope Management Plan
– Process for preparing a detailed project scope statement
– Process that enables the creation of the WBS from project scope statement
-Process that establishes how the WBS will be maintained and approved
-Process that specifies formal acceptance fo completed project deliverables will be obtained
– Process to control how requests for changes to the project scope statement will be processed.
Requirements Management Plan
Describe how requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed.
Componenets of the Requirements Management Plan
How requirements will be planned, tracked and reported
– How changes to the product will be intitiated, analyzed, traced, tracked and reported as well as the authorization required to approve these changes
-Requirements prioritizzation process
-Product metrics that will be used and rationale for using them
-Traceability structure to reflect which requirement attributes will be captured on the matrix.
Process: Collect Requirements
– The Project Scope Management Process of determining, documenting and managing stakeholders needs and requirements to meet the project objectives.
– The key benefit of this process is that it provides the basis for defining and managing the project scope including product scope.
Requirement
The quantified and documented needs and
expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
Different types of Requirements
– Business requirements
– Stakeholder requirements
– Solution requirements (Functional and Nonfunctional requirements)
– Transition requirements
– Project requirements
– Quality requirements
Project Requirements
Include business requirements, project
management requirements, delivery requirements.
Inputs (5) of the Collect Requirements Process
1 Scope management plan
2 Requirements management plan
3 Stakeholder management plan
4 Project charter
5 Stakeholder register
Scope management plan
Provide clarity as to how project teams will determine which type of requirements need to be collected for the project.
Requirements management plan
The requirements management plan provides the processes that will be used throughout the Collect Requirements process to define and document the stakeholder needs.
Stakeholder management plan
The stakeholder management plan is used to:
– understand stakeholder communication requirements
– the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess
– adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.
Project charter
The project charter is used to provide the high-level description of the product, service, or result of the project so that detailed requirements can be developed.
Stakeholder register
The stakeholder register is used to:
– identify stakeholders who can provide
information on the requirements
– captures major requirements
– main expectations have for the project
Tools & Techniques (11) of the Collect Requirements Process
1 Interviews
2 Focus groups
3 Facilitated workshops
4 Group creativity techniques
5 Group decision making techniques
6 Questionnaires and surveys
7 Observations
8 Prototypes
9 Benchmarking
10 Context diagrams
11 Document analysis
Interviews
A formal or informal approach to discover
information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
Focus Groups
The bringing together pre qualified stakeholders
and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result.
Facilitated Workshops
Focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements.
Group creativity techniques
Group activities that can be organized to
identify project and product requirements.
Type of group creativity techniques
– Brainstorming
– Nominal Group Technique
– Idea/mind mapping
– Affinity Diagram
– Multicriteria decision analysis
Brainstorming
A technique used to generate and collect
multiple ideas related to project and product requirements.
Nominal Group Technique
A technique that enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful
ideas for further Brainstorming or for prioritization.
Idea/mind mapping
Ideas created through individual brainstorming are consolidated into a single map to reflect commonality and difference in understanding , and generate new ideas.
Affinity Diagram
This technique allows large numbers of
ideas to be sorted into groups for review and analysis.
Multicriteria decision analysis
A technique that utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas.
Group Decision Making Techniques
An assessment process of multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions resolution.
Type of Group Decision Making Techniques
– Unanimity
– Majority
– Plurality
– Dictatorship
Unanimity
Everyone agrees on a single course of action.
Majority
Support from more than 50% of the members of the group.
Plurality
The largest block in a group decides even if a majority is not achieved.
Dictatorship
One individual makes the decision for the group.
Questionnaires/Surveys
A written set of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a wide number of
respondents.
Observations
A direct way of viewing individuals in their
environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes.
Prototypes
The method of obtaining early feedback on
requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it.
Benchmarking
Involve comparison with actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
Context diagrams
The context diagram is an example of a scope model. Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it. Context diagrams show inputs to the business system, the actor(s) providing the input, the outputs from the business system, and the actor(s) receiving the output.
Document analysis
Document analysis is used to elicit requirements by analyzing existing documentation and identifying information relevant to the requirements. There are a wide range of documents that may be analyzed to help elicit
relevant requirements.
Outputs (2) of the Collect Requirement Process
1 Requirements documentation
2 Requirements traceability matrix
Requirements Documentation
Describes how individual requirements meet the business need for the project list all the project, technical, and other types of requirements that must be present for the project product, along with their acceptance criteria.
Requirements must be
Unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders.
Components of requirements documentation
– Business requirements
– Stakeholder requirements
– Solution requirements
– Project requirements
– Transition requirements
– Requirements assumptions, dependencies, and constraints
Requirements Traceability Matrix
A table that links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project life cycle.
Process: Define Scope
– The Project Scope Management Process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
– The key benefit of this process is that it describes the project, service, or result boundaries by defining which of the requirements collected will be included in and excluded from the project scope.
Inputs (4) of the Define Scope process
1 Scope management plan
2 Project charter
3 Requirements documentation
4 Organizational process assets
Scope management plan
A component of the project management plan
that establishes the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the project scope.
Project charter
Provide the high-level project description and product characteristics. It also contains project approval requirements. If a project charter is not used in the performing organization, then comparable information needs to be acquired or developed, and used as a basis for the detailed
project scope statement. Organizations that do not produce a formal project charter will usually perform an informal analysis to identify the content necessary for further scope planning.
Requirements documentation
This documentation will be used to select the requirements that will be included in the project.
Organizational process assets
• Policies, procedures, and templates for a project scope statement;
• Project files from previous projects; and
• Lessons learned from previous phases or projects.
Tools & Techniques (4) of the Define Scope process
1 Expert judgment
2 Product analysis
3 Alternatives generation
4 Facilitated workshops
Expert judgment
Often used to analyze the information needed to develop the project scope statement. Such
judgment and expertise is applied to any technical detail. Such expertise is provided by any group or individual with specialized knowledge or training, and is available from many sources:
• Other units within the organization;
• Consultants;
• Stakeholders, including customers or sponsors;
• Professional and technical associations;
• Industry groups; and
• Subject matter experts.
Product analysis
Product analysis includes techniques such as product breakdown, systems analysis, requirements analysis, systems engineering, value engineering, and value analysis. (p122)
Alternatives generation
A technique used to generate different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project. (p123)
Facilitated workshops
The participation of key players with a variety of expectations and/or fields of expertise in these intensive working sessions helps to reach a cross-functional and common understanding of the project objectives and its limits.
Outputs (2) of the Define Scope process
1 Project scope statement
2 Project Documents Updates
Project Scope Statement
Describes in detail the projects deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables.
The project scope statement does reference a other documents
– Product scope description
– Acceptance criteria
– Deliverable
– Project exclusion
– Constraints
– Assumptions
Product scope description
Progressively elaborated the characteristics of the product, service, or result described in the
project charter and requirements documentation.
Acceptance Criteria
Defines the process and criteria for accepting completed products, services, or results. (p123)
Deliverable
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required
to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project and project management reports and documentation. (p123)
Project exclusions
Generally identifies what is excluded from the project. (p124)
Constraints
List and describes the specific project
constraints associated with the project scope that limits the teams options. (p124)
Assumptions
List and describe the specific project
assumptions associated with the project scope and the potential impact o those assumptions if they prove to be false. (p124)
Project Documents Updates
– Stakeholder register
– Requirements documentation
– Requirements traceability matrix.
Process: Create WBS
– The Project Scope Management Process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.
– The key benefit of this process is that it provides a structured vision of what has to be delivered.
WBS
A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.
Work Packages
Contained within the lowest levels of the WBS,
can be scheduled, cost estimated, monitored and controlled.
Inputs (5) of the Create WBS process
1 Scope management plan
2 Project scope statement
3 Requirements documentation
4 Enterprise environmental factors
5 Organizational process assets
Scope management plan
Specifies how to create the WBS from the detailed project scope statement and how the WBS will be maintained and approved.
Project scope statement
Describes the work that will be performed and the
work that is excluded. It also lists and describes the specific internal or external restrictions or limitations that may affect the execution of the project.
Requirements documentation
Detailed requirements documentation is essential for understanding what needs to be produced as the result of the project and what needs to be done to deliver the project and its final products.
Enterprise environmental factors
Industry-specific WBS standards, relevant to the nature of the project, may serve as external reference sources for creation of the WBS.
Organizational process assets
• Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS;
• Project files from previous projects;
• Lessons learned from previous projects.
Tools & Techniques (2) of the Create WBS process
1 Decomposition
2 Expert judgment
Decomposition
The subdivision of project deliverables into
smaller, more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level.
Expert judgment
– Often used to analyze the information needed to decompose the project deliverables down
into smaller component parts in order to create an effective WBS.
Outputs (2) of the Create WBS Process
1 Scope baseline
2 Project documents updates
Scope Baseline
– The scope baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
– It is a component of the project management plan.
Components of the Scope Baseline
1 Project Scope Statement
2 WBS
3 WBS Dictionary (p132)
WBS Dictionary
Provides more detailed descriptions of the
components in the WBS, including work packages and control accounts (p132)
Project documents updates
Project documents that may be updated include, but are not limited to, requirements documentation, which may need to be updated to include approved changes. If approved change requests result from the Create WBS process,
then the requirements documentation may need to be updated to include approved changes.
Process: Validate Scope
– The Project Scope Management Process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables.
– The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acceptance process and increases the chance of final product, service, or result acceptance by validating each deliverable.
Inputs (5) of the Validate Scope process
1 Project management plan
2 Requirements documentation
3 Requirements traceability matrix
4 Verified deliverables
5 Work performance data
Project management plan
Contains the scope management plan and the
scope baseline. The scope management plan specifies how formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables will be obtained. The scope baseline includes the approved
version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.
Requirements documentation
The requirements documentation lists all the project, product, and other types of requirements for the project and product, along with their acceptance criteria.
Requirements traceability matrix
The requirements traceability matrix links requirements to their origin and tracks
them throughout the project life cycle.
Verified Deliverables
Deliverables that have been checked
for correctness by the Control Quality process.
Work performance data
Work performance data can include the degree of compliance with requirements, number of nonconformities, severity of the nonconformities, or the number of validation cycles performed in a
period of time.
Tools & Techniques (2) of the Validate Scope process
1 Inspection
2 Group decision making techniques
Inspection
Inspection includes activities such as measuring, examining, and validating to determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product acceptance criteria.
Group decision making techniques
These techniques are used to reach a conclusion when the validation is performed by the project team and other stakeholders.
Outputs (4) of the Validate Scope process
1 Accepted deliverables
2 Change requests
3 Work performance information
4 Project documents updates
Accepted Deliverables
Deliverables that meet the acceptance
criteria are formally signed off and approved by the customer or sponsor.
Change requests
The completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for nonacceptance of those deliverables. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair.
Work performance information
Work performance information includes information about project progress, such as which deliverables have started, their progress, which deliverables have finished, or which have been accepted. (p136)
Project documents updates
Include any documents that define the product or report status on product completion. Verified project documents may require approvals from
the customer or sponsor in the form of signatures or signoffs.
Process: Control Scope
– The Project Scope Management Process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
– The key benefit of this process is that it allows the scope baseline to be maintained throughout
the project.
Inputs (5) of the Control Scope Process
1 Project management plan
2 Requirements documentation
3 Requirements traceability matrix
4 Work performance data
5 Organizational process assets
Project Management Plan
– Scope baseline
– Scope management plan
– Change management plan
– Configuration management plan
– Requirements management plan
Scope baseline
The scope baseline is compared to actual results to determine if a change, corrective action, or preventive action is necessary.
Scope Management Plan
Describes how the project scope will be managed and controlled.
Change Management Plan
Defines the process for managing change on the project.
Configuration Management Plan
Defines those items that are configurable, those items that require formal change control, and the process for controlling changes to such items.
Requirements Management Plan
This plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
Requirements documentation
Requirements should be unambiguous (measurable and testable), traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders. Well-documented requirements make it easier to detect any deviation in the scope agreed for the project or product.
Requirements traceability matrix
The requirements traceability matrix helps to detect the impact of any change or deviation from the scope baseline on the project objectives.
Work performance data
Include the number of change requests received, the number of requests accepted or the number of deliverables completed, etc.
Organizational process assets
• Existing formal and informal scope, control-related policies, procedures, guidelines;
• Monitoring and reporting methods and templates to be used.
Tools & Techniques (1) of the Control Scope Process
1 Variance analysis
Variance Analysis
Determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance. Project performance measurements are used to assess the magnitude of variation from the
original scope baseline.
Outputs (5) of the Control Scope Process
1 Work performance information
2 Change requests
3 Project management plan updates
4 Project documents updates
5 Organizational process assets updates
Work performance information
Work performance information produced includes correlated and contextualized information on how the project scope is performing compared to the scope baseline. It can include the categories of the changes received, the identified scope variances and their causes, how they impact schedule or cost, and the forecast of the future scope performance. This information provides a foundation for making scope decisions.
Change requests
Analysis of scope performance can result in a change request to the scope baseline or other components of the project management plan. Change requests can include preventive or corrective actions, defect repairs, or enhancement requests. Change requests are processed for review and disposition according to the Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Project management plan updates
Project management plan updates:
– Scope Baseline Updates
– Other Baseline Updates
Scope Baseline Updates
If the approved change requests have an effect on the project scope, then the scope statement, the WBS, and the WBS dictionary are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes through Perform Integrated Change Control process.
Other Baseline Updates
If the approved change requests have an effect on the project besides the project scope, then the corresponding cost baseline and schedule baselines are revised and reissued to reflect the approved changes.
Project documents updates
• Requirements documentation,
• Requirements traceability matrix.
Organizational Process Assets Updates
– Causes of variances,
– Corrective action chosen and the reasons,
– Other types of lessons learned from project scope control.
Plan Scope Management
Collect Requirements
Define Scope
Create WBS
Planning and Controlling Process Group
Validate Scope
Control Scope
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group