PMBOK Chapter 6 5th (project time management)

What does Project Time Management include?
The processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.
What is free float?
Free float is the amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the Early Start of its successor activity.
How do you calculate the free float?
You can calculate the free float by subtracting the Early Finish date of the activity from the Early Start date of next activity (ES of next Activity – EF of current Activity – 1 (if start on day 1 and not day 0).
What is a hammock activity?
For control and management communications, the broader, more comprehensive summary activity, sometimes referred to as a hammock activity, is used between milestones or across multiple interdependent work packages, and is displayed in bar chart reports.
What are the Project Time Management processes?
1. Plan Schedule Management
2. Define Activities
3. Sequence Activities
4. Estimate Activity Resources
5. Estimate Activity Durations
6. Develop Schedule
7. Control Schedule
What is the Plan Schedule Management process?
Establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.
What are the Plan Schedule Management inputs?
1. Project Management Plan
2. Project Charter
3. Enterprise Environmental Factors
4. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Plan Schedule Management tools and techniques?
1. Expert Judgment
2. Analytical Techniques
3. Meetings
What is the Plan Schedule Management output?
Schedule Management Plan
What does the Schedule Management Plan include?
The schedule management plan can establish the following:
– Project schedule model development. The scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool to be used in the development of the project schedule model are specified.
– Level of accuracy. The acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration estimates is specified and may include an amount for contingencies.
– Units of measure. Each unit used in measurements (such as staff hours, staff days, or weeks for time measures, or meters, liters, tons, or cubic yards for quantity measures) is define for each of the resources.
– Organizational procedures links. The WBS provides the framework for the schedule management plan, allowing for consistency with the estimates and resulting schedules.
– Project schedule model maintenance. The process used to update the status and record progress of the project in the schedule model during the execution of the project is defined.
– Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring schedule performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the parameters established in the baseline plan.
– Rules of performance measurement. Earned value management (EVM) rules or other physical measurement rules of performance measurement are set. For examples the schedule management plan may specify:
• Rules for establishing percent complete
• Control accounts at which management of process and schedule will be measures
• Earned value measurement techniques to be employed
• Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI) used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.
– Reporting formats. The formats and frequency for the various schedule reports are defined.
– Process description. Descriptions of each of the schedule management processes are documented.
What is the Define Activities process?
Identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. The key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
What are the Define Activities inputs?
1. Schedule Management Plan
2. Scope Baseline
3. Enterprise Environmental Factors
4. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Define Activities tools and techniques?
1. Decomposition
2. Rolling Wave Planning
3. Expert Judgment
What is Rolling Wave Planning?
An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration.
What are the Define Activities outputs?
1. Activity List
2. Activity Attributes
3. Milestone List
What is an activity list?
The activity list is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule activities required on the project. The activity list also includes the activity identifier and a scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that project team members understand what work is required to be completed. Each activity should have a unique title that describes its place in the schedule, even is that activity title is displaced outside the context of the project schedule.
What are activity attributes?
Activities, distinct from milestones, have durations, during which the work of that activity is performed, and may have resources and costs associated with that work. Activity attributes extend the descriptions of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. The components for each activity evolve over time. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for selecting, ordering, and sorting the planned schedule activities in various ways within reports.
What is a milestone list?
A milestone is a signification point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indicates whether the milestone is mandatory, such as those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. Milestones are similar to regular schedule activities, with the same structure and attributes, but they have zero duration because milestones represent a moment in time.
What is the Sequence Activities process?
Identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. The key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given all project constraints.
What are the Sequence Activities inputs?
1. Schedule Management Plan
2. Activity List
3. Activity Attributes
4. Milestone List
5. Project Scope Statement
6. Enterprise Environmental Factors
7. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Sequence Activities tools and techniques?
1. Precedence Diagramming Method
2. Dependency Determination
3. Leads and Lags
What is the Precedence Diagramming Method?
A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
What are the Precedence Diagramming Method dependencies ?
1. Finish-to-start (FS) – a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished. Most Common PDM.
2. Finish-to-finish (FF) – a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished.
3. Start-to-start (SS) – a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.
4. Start-to-finish (SF) – a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.
What is Dependency Determination?
Dependencies may be characterized as: mandatory or discretionary, internal or external. Dependency has four attributes, but two can be applicable at the same time in following ways: mandatory external dependencies, mandatory internal dependencies, discretionary external dependencies, or discretionary internal dependencies.
What are mandatory dependencies?
Those that are legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. They can also be referred to a hard logic or hard dependencies.
What are discretionary dependencies?
They are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences. They are sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic.
What are external dependencies?
They involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies are usually outside the project team’s control.
What are internal dependencies?
They involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team’s control.
What is a lead?
The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.

Lead is an acceleration of the successor activity and can be used only on finish-to-start activity relationships.

In other words, the second activity can begin (and be conducted in parallel) as the first activity. This can be used to fast track activities.

a – is used for lead

What is a lag?
The amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity.

Lag is the delay of a successor activity and represents time that must pass before the second activity can begin. There are no resources associated with a lag.

Lag may be found in activities with all relationship types: finish-to-start, start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish.

a + is used for lag

What are the Sequence Activities outputs?
1. Project Schedule Network Diagrams
2. Project Documents Updates
What are Project Schedule Network Diagrams?
A graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities.
What are Activity Resource Requirements?
Activity resource requirements identify the types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package. These requirements then can be aggregated to determine the estimated resources for each work package and each work period. The amount of detail and the level of specificity of the resource requirement descriptions can vary by application area. The resource requirements documentation for each activity can include the basis of estimate for each resource, as well as the assumptions that were made in determining which types of resources are applied, their availability, and what quantities are used.
What is the Resource Breakdown Structure?
The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. Examples of resource categories include labor, material, equipment, and supplies. Resource types may include the skill level, grade level, or other information as appropriate to the project. The resource breakdown structure is useful for organizing and reporting project schedule data with resource utilization information.
What is the Estimate Activity Resources process?
Estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of resources required to complete the activity which allows more accurate cost and duration estimates.
What are the Estimate Activity Resources inputs?
1. Schedule Management Plan
2. Activity List
3. Activity Attributes
4. Resource Calendars
5. Risk Register
6. Activity Cost Estimates
7. Enterprise Environmental Factors
8. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Estimate Activity Resources tools and techniques?
1. Expert Judgment
2. Alternative Analysis
3. Published Estimating Data
4. Bottom-Up Estimating
5. Project Management Software
What are the Estimate Activity Resources outputs?
1. Activity Resource Requirements
2. Resource Breakdown Structure
3. Project Documents Updates
What is the Estimate Activity Durations process?
Estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete, which is a major input into the Develop Schedule process.
What are the Estimate Activity Durations inputs?
1. Schedule Management Plan
2. Activity List
3. Activity Attributes
4. Activity Resource Requirements
5. Resource Calendars
6. Project Scope Statement
7. Risk Register
8. Resource Breakdown Structure
9. Enterprise Environmental Factors
10. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Estimate Activity Durations tools and techniques?
1. Expert Judgment
2. Analogous Estimating
3. Parametric Estimating
4. Three-Point Estimating
5. Group Decision-Making Techniques
6. Reserve Analysis
How does estimate activity duration differ from evaluating the duration of the whole project?
Analogous, parametric, and three-point estimating techniques are all accepted practices for determining the correct amount of time required for a portion of the project. The Critical Path Analysis techniques evaluate the whole project schedule.
What is Analogous Estimating?
A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project.
What is Parametric Estimating?
A technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration.
What is Three-Point Estimating?
This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration:
– Most likely (tM)
– Optimistic (tO)
– Pessimistic (tP)
Depending on the assumed distribution of values within the range of the three estimates the expected duration, tE, can be calculated.
– Triangular Distribution. tE = (tO + tM + tP) / 3
– Beta Distribution. tE = (tO + 4tM + tP) / 6
What are the Estimate Activity Durations outputs?
1. Activity Duration Estimates
2. Project Documents Updates
What are Activity Duration Estimates?
Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of the likely number of time periods that are required to complete an activity. Duration estimates do not include any lags. Activity duration estimates may include some indication of the range of possible results.
For example: 2 weeks plus or minus 2 days, which indicates that the activity will take at least eight days and not more than twelve
What is the Develop Schedule process?
Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model. The key benefit of this process is that by entering schedule activities, durations, resources, resource availabilities, and logical relationships into the scheduling tool, it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities.
What are the Develop Schedule inputs?
1. Schedule Management Plan
2. Activity List
3. Activity Attributes
4. Project Schedule Network Diagrams
5. Activity Resource Requirements
6. Resource Calendars
7. Activity Duration Estimates
8. Project Scope Statement
9. Risk Register
10. Project Staff Assignments
11. Resource Breakdown Structure
12. Enterprise Environmental Factors
13. Organizational Process Assets
What are the Develop Schedule tools and techniques?
1. Schedule Network Analysis
2. Critical Path Method
3. Critical Chain Method
4. Resource Optimization Techniques
5. Modeling Techniques
6. Leads and Lags
7. Schedule Compression
8. Scheduling Tool
What is Schedule Network Analysis?
A technique that generates the project schedule model. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource optimization techniques to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities.
What is the Critical Path Method?
A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network.
What is the Critical Path?
The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible project duration.
What is the Critical Chain Method?
A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
What are the Resource Optimization Techniques?
1. Resource leveling – start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply. Resource leveling can often cause the original critical path to change, usually to increase.
2. Resource Smoothing – adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. In resource smoothing, the project’s critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed. Thus activities may only be delayed within their free and total float. Thus resource smoothing may not be able to optimize all resources.
What are the Modeling Techniques?
1. What-if scenario analysis – the process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect, positively or negatively, on project objectives.
2. Simulation – calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions, usually using probability distributions constructed from the three-point estimates to account for uncertainty.
What is Schedule Compression?
Techniques that are used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives.
What are the Schedule Compression techniques?
1. Crashing – used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.
2. Fast tracking – activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.
What are the Develop Schedule outputs?
1. Schedule Baseline
2. Project Schedule
3. Schedule Data
4. Project Calendars
5. Project Management Plan Updates
6. Project Documents Updates
What are the different types of Project Schedules?
1. Bar charts
2. Milestone charts
3. Project schedule network diagrams
What is the Schedule Baseline?
Is the approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
What is Schedule data?
The schedule data for the project schedule model is the collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. The schedule data includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional data varies by application area. Information frequently supplied as supporting detail includes, but is not limited to:
Resource requirements by time period, often in the form of a resource histogram
Alternative schedules, such a best-case or worst-case, not resource-leveled, or resource-leveled, with or without imposed dates and
Scheduling of contingency reserves
What is the Control Schedule process?
Monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan. The key benefit of this process is that it provides the means to recognize deviation from the plan and take corrective and preventive actions and thus minimize risk.
What are the Control Schedule inputs?
1. Project Management Plan
2. Project Schedule
3. Work Performance Data
4. Project Calendars
5. Schedule Data
6. Organizational Process Assets
What is a project calendar?
A project calendar identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are available to complete schedule activities from time periods that are not available. A schedule model may require more than one project calendar to allow for different work period for some activities to calculate the project schedule. The project calendars may be updates.
What are the Control Schedule tools and techniques?
1. Performance Reviews
2. Project Management Software
3. Resource Optimization Techniques
4. Modeling Techniques
5. Leads and Lags
6. Schedule Compression
7. Scheduling Tool
What are Performance Reviews?
They measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for work in progress.
What are the various Performance Review techniques?
1. Trend analysis
2. Critical path method
3. Critical chain method
4. Earned value management
What are the Control Schedule outputs?
1. Work Performance Information
2. Schedule Forecasts
3. Change Requests
4. Project Management Plan Updates
5. Project Documents Updates
6. Organizational Process Assets Updates
What is trend analysis?
Trend analysis examines project performance over time to determine whether performance is improving or deteriorating. Graphical analysis techniques are valuable for understanding performance to date and for comparison to future performance goals in the form of completion dates.
What is the Work Performance Information that is the output of Control Schedule?
The calculated SV and SPI time performance indicators for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders.
SV = EV – PV
SPI = EV/PV
What is the data date?
The date through which the project has provided actual status and accomplishments is called the data date (DD). It is also known as the as-of date or the status date