Pharmacology – Mid Term

Pharmacology is
The study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms
The word pharmacology comes from
The Greek word pharmakon and a suffix meaning the study of
Drugs have three medical uses. Which of the following is NOT one of those uses?
To cause conditions or diseases
The medical use of drugs during radiological procedures and other types of medical tests to provide evidence of a disease process is known as
A diagnostic use
The medical use of foxglove to make the drug digoxin (Lanoxin) is an example of a modern drug derived from
Plants
The drug Premarin, a female hormone replacement used to treat the symptoms of menopause, is derived from
Pregnant mares’ urine
It took a national tragedy to force a much needed update of the Food and Drug Act of 1906. The drug that caused this national tragedy was
Sulfonamide, which was an early anti-infective drug
In response to criticism related to the time lag for drug approval, which act was passed in 1997:
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Modernization Act
Prescription drugs are defined as those drugs
That are not safe to use except under professional medical supervision
Which of the following statements concerning scheduled drugs is TRUE?
Schedule I drugs have the highest potential for abuse and addiction, while Schedule V drugs have the lowest
The Orphan Drug Act was passed to
Facilitate the development of new drugs to treat rare diseases
The word pharmacodynamics is concerned with
How drugs produce their effects based on time and dose
When analgesic drugs are used to control arthritis pain, this is an example of the ________ use of drugs
Therapeutic
Original plant sources of some commonly used drugs today included all of the following EXCEPT
Oak tree
Which drugs were introduced in the decade of the 1990s?
Proscar ( for benign prostatic hypertrophy), Nicodern (for stopping smoking), Viagra (for erectile dysfunction)
Penicillin was first introduced about the year
1940
Aspirin was first introduced about the year
1900
The first monoclonal antibody drug Orthoclone OKT3 was developed in
1986
Which drug was historically introduced first?
Morphine for pain, from crude opium
The government agency responsible for regulating the manufacturing and dispensing of controlled substances is called
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
A schedule defines drugs by their
Potential for physical dependence
Potential for psychological dependence
The Controlled Substances Act created ______ categories of drugs based on their potential for addiction
Five
In response to the tragedy of babies born with seal limbs because of thalidomide, this legislation required drugs to be both safe and effective before being marketed
Kefauver-Harris amendment of 1962
The belladonna plant was the original source of the drugs ______ that are still used today
Atropine and Scopolamine
Powdered rose hips from the rose plant are still used as a natural source of
Vitamin C
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 is concerned with the _________ of patient medical and drug information
Security
A prescription drug can be obtained with a
Written prescription or verbal order from a helathcare professional whose license permits it
Verbal order from a dentist
Written prescription from a physician
The 1951 Durham-Humphrey Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act defined ________ drugs as those drugs that could only be given to patients under the care of a physician
Prescription
Stem cells are cells that are capable of
Differentiating into any type of body tissue
Which drug name accurately describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from all other drugs?
Chemical name
Using computers to design new drugs involves _______, which is the study of the chemical structures of drugs and their actions at the molecular level within a cell
Molecular pharmacology
In 1982, which drug became the first recombinant DNA technology drug to be approved by the FDA?
Human Insulin (Humulin)
From the moment of its discovery or design, every drug has a _________ name that is assigned by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
Chemical
Which of the following is registered with the US Patent Office as a registered trademark?
Trade name
In 2001, the first embryonic stem cell was manipulated to become a
Mature blood cell
Once the FDA gives final approval for drug marketing, the drug company creates a
Trade name
The drug name that is a registered trademark is the
Brand name
The brand name of the drug Lithobid was selected to indicate
How often the drug is to be given
In clinical trials, the control group received the
Placebo
The patent on a new drug is in effect for ________ years
17
There are _________ phases of human testing for new drugs
Three
Recombinant DNA technology involves
DNA spliced into a bacterial cell
Gene splicing
Genetic engineering
In vivo testing is
None of the above
The United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council
Works with the drug company to determine the generic name for a drug
What does therapeutic index indicate?
The margin of safety between the therapeutic and toxic doses
The first recombinant DNA technology drug approved by the FDA was
A human version of insulin
This drug contains a double-strength dose, as shown by its trade name
Bactrim DS
The Human Genome Project
Mapped all 3.2 billion parts of the human genome
Placebos commonly are
Injections of sterile normal saline
Sugar pills
A dextrorotary drug
Example is that of destromethorphan
Is an isomer
Has a right-facing image for its molecular structure
A solid drug form that contains the active drug (as a dried powder) plus inert ingredients to provide bulk is known as a
Tablet
What type of tablet has and indented line running across it so that it can be easily broken into equal pieces?
Scored
A drug’s trade name will often include abbreviations such as CR, LA, SR, or XL. These abbreviations indicate which type of tablet?
Slow-release
Which drug form comes in two different varieties: a soft gelatin shell and two-piece hard shell?
Capsule
The category of solutions includes several different drug forms. Which of the following is NOT a type of solution?
Suspension
Syrups are
Sweeter and more viscous than elixirs
Foams are
Solutions that contain a drug in a water base
Expelled from a container when they are used
Expanded by tiny aerosol bubbles
Suppositories are used to treat patients with
Vomiting
Which of the following is NOT a specialized type of tablet?
Elixir
The word viscous is used to describe a liquid drug. The word viscous means
Thick or nonwatery
Most over-the-counter drugs used to treat coughs are in the drug form of a
Syrup
Enteric-coated tablets
Are made to dissolve in the small intestine
A solution containing fine, undissolved particles of a drug that settle to the bottom of the container is called a
Suspension
Powdered drugs can be found in all of these EXCEPT in
An ampule
The word aqueous means _____, while the word viscous means _____
Watery; thick
Your friend asks you if you can identify the name of the drug he is taking. He shows you a purple capsule with gold bands. You tell him that this is the drug
Nexium
Which of the following drug trade names is NOT in the form of a bead, wafer, or device?
Nexium
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps involved in the drug cycle?
Secretion
When a drug is applied directly to the skin, eyes, or ears, it is administered via the ______ route
Topical
Which is the most convenient route of administration and the one most commonly used?
Oral
Which route of administration is chosen when the patient is vomiting and a drug cannot be given by injection?
Rectal
Which of the following is NOT a part of the parenteral route of administration?
Endotracheal
For most drug forms, absorption involved three steps. Which of the following is NOT one of the three steps of absorption?
Excrete
The process of drug metabolism is accomplished in the ____, the principal organ of metabolism
Liver
An intravenous drug can be administered in three different ways. Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of intravenous drug administration?
Port
Oral drugs that are in a liquid form do NOT go through which of the following steps?
Disintegration
Which method of drug administration is only used during emergency resuscitation?
Intracardiac
Patients with renal disease and elderly patients with decreased levels of kidney function due to aging are prescribed
Lower doses of drugs
The memory aid NAVEL (naloxone, atropine, valium, epinephrine, lidocaine) helps you remember which drugs can be administered
Through an endotracheal tube
Any liquid drug that can be given by the oral route can also be given by any of these routes EXCEPT
Transdermal
Which of the following routes CANNOT be used to administer drugs to an unconscious patient?
Oral
Sublingual administration of a drug involves placing it
Under the tongue
Which of the following drugs is given by subcutaneious injection?
Insulin for diabetes mellitus
Heparin
Allergy shots
The first-pass effect describes the
Metabolism of drugs by the liver
When a drug is given by inhalation, it is absorbed
Through the alveoli of the lungs
Drugs circulate in the blood bound to
Albumin
An equivalent word for metabolism is
Biotransformation
A drug that is able to unlock or activate a receptor and produce an effect is known as an
Agonist
A drug’s main action for which it was prescribed by the physician or other healthcare provider is known as a
Therapeutic effect
A toxic effect of a drug results when
The serum level of a drug rises above the therapeutic level
Which of the following increases the likelihood of a drug-drug interaction?
Polypharmacy
Adrenergic receptors include
Alpha1, Alpha2, Beta1, and Beta2 receptors
The presence of an antigen combined with an antibody stimulates the release of ______, which produces mild-to-severe allergic symptoms, depending on the amount released
Histamine
Which measurement system is officially known as the International System of Units (SI)?
Metric
When a cube is formed that is 1 centimeter long on each side, it becomes a measurement of volume that is abbreviated as
cc
Receptors are specifically designed to interact with natural body chemicals. Which of the following is NOT one of those natural body chemicals?
Proteins
An antagonist drug
Is similar to inserting the wrong key in a lock
Keeps other drugs from activating the receptor
Occupies but does not activate the receptor
A comon side effect of narcotic drugs used to treat pain is
Constipation
The systemic effect of a drug is felt
Throughout the body
Symptoms of an allergic reaction are based on the release of
Histamine
When a drug has a narrow margin of safety between the correct dose and the toxic dose, the drug is said to have a low
Therapeutic index
A drug that can unlock or activate a receptor is known as an
Agonist
An idiosyncratic drug reaction is
Based on a patient’s genetic makeup
A drug-drug reaction in which the two drugs combine to produce an effect greater than the independent effect of each drug is called
Synergism
The therapeutic effect of a drug is usually exterted
On the target organ
Which type of drug listed below is NOT measured in units?
Antacid
Side effects can be
Mild and temporary
Severe enough that the drug must be stopped
Moderage and annoying
The antibiotic drugs gentamicing and kanamycin are known to exert toxic effects on the ear. This is known as
Ototoxicity
When the antibiotic drug tetracycline is taken with an antacid, these two drugs
Form an insoluable complex that prevents a therapeutic effect
A _____ prescription is handwritten by the physician on a single preprinted sheet
Written
Which type of prescription is typed into the medical office’s computer system, a copy printed out, and then signed by the physician and given to the patient?
Computerized
Which type of prescription is generated by a computer and not signed by the physician?
Electronic
A pharmacist can fill a prescription without having it on a prescription form and without a physician’s signature for which of the following types of drugs?
Drugs that are not controlled substances
Prescriptions for most drugs (except schedule drugs) are valid for how long from the date on the prescription form?
One year
Prescriptions for Schedule III through Schedule V drugs are valid for how long from the date on the prescription form?
Six months
Prescriptions for Schedule II drugs are valid for how long from the date on the prescription form?
Seven days
Which of the following is NOT used when writing a drug name on a prescription?
Chemical name
Nonprescription (over-the-counter) drugs
Do not require a prescription and can be purchased by an adult
Which type of medication order is carried out (or dispensed) before a physician’s signature is obtained?
Verbal order
When blood levels of sodium and potassium are sufficient
Anything in excess of that is excreted in the urine
Diuretic drugs
Keep sodium and potassium from being reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood
Which of the following is NOT one of the diseases treated with diuretic drugs?
Urinary tract infections
The trade name drugs Naturetin, Diuril, Hygroton, HCTZ, HydroDIURIL, Microzide, Lozol, Enduron, and Zaroxolyn are all examples of which category of diuretic drugs?
Thiazide diuretic drugs
The drugs Bumex, Edecrin, Lasix, and Demadex are all examples of which category of diuretic drugs?
Loop diuretic drugs
Which of the following drugs in an osmotic diuretic drug?
Mannitol
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are treated with drugs that are particularly effective against
Gram-negative bacteria
Which of these anti-infective drugs that inhibit but do not kill the bacteria that cause urinary tract infections?
Sulfonamide drugs
Drugs used to treat overactive bladder block the action of ______ to decrease bladder contractions
Acetylcholine
If a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretic drug is given, it inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the tubule cells. This means that
Bicarbonate and hydrogen ions are not formed
Potassium supplements are frequently prescribed for patients taking
Thiazide and loop diuretic drugs
The drugs ciprofloxin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), and norfloxacin (Noroxin) are drugs used to treat
Prostatis
Which of the following class of drugs is NOT given orally?
Prostaglandin E1 drugs
Diuretic drugs are commonly used to treat
Hypertension
The trade name of the drug furosemide is
Lasix
This pellet is inserted into the urethra and produces an erection in patient with erectile dysfunction
Muse
Which of the following drugs is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy?
Flomax
Which of these drug pairs is used to treat urinary tract infections?
Maxaquin and Macrodantin
The primary cause of urinary tract infections is
Gram-negative bacteria
Which electrolyte must be given in conjunction with some diuretic drugs?
Potassium
Patients taking a thiazide or loop diuretic drug but not taking a potassium supplement could develop which of the following adverse effects?
An extremely low level of potassium in the blood
Cardiac arrhythmias
Hypokalemia
Cranberries are effective against urinary tract infections because
They suppress the growth of bacteria because bacteria prefer an alkaline environment
The fructose in them prevents bacteria from adhering to the bladder wall
They increase the acidity of the urine
The drugs Pyridium and the combination drug Pyridium Plus turn the urine an _______ color
Red-orange
This drug was approved in 1992 as the first nonsurgical treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy
Finasteride (Proscar)
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Dutasteride and finasteride are androgen inhibitor drugs
Androgen inhibitor drugs, if handled by the pregnant mother, can cause birth defects in a male fetus
The packaging and drug inserts for androgen inhibitor drugs warn women not to handle these drugs
All of the following are TRUE except
Folic acid antagonist drugs stimulate the formation of folic acid in bacterial cells
The combining form vesic/o- as used in the trade name drug Vesicare means
Bladder
Urinary tract analgesic drugs
Treat burning, urinary urgency, and painful urination