Performance Improvement CH 1

Accreditation Standards
Statements of expectation set by a competent authority concerning a degree or level of requirement, excellence, or attainment in quality or performance.
Assessment
Use of performance information to determine the degree to which an acceptable level of quality has been achieved.
Continuous improvement
System in which individuals in an organization look for ways to do things better, usually based on understanding and control of performance variation.
Governing Board
Individuals, groups, or agency with ultimate legal authority and responsibility for overall operation of an organization; sometimes called board of trustees
Healthcare Quality
Degree to which health services for individuals and population increase like the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.
Improvement
Planning and making changes to current practices so performance will be better in the future.
Measurement
Collection of information for the purpose of understanding current performance and seeing how performance changes over time.
Medical staff executive committee
Leadership group of a hospital’s organized medical staff that exercises primary authority over activities of the medical staff and over performance of individuals with hospital clinical privileges
Misuse
Health services misuse includes incorrect diagnoses as well as medical errors and other sources of avoidable complications
Overuse
Overuse occurs when a health service is provided even though its risk of harm exceeds its likely benefit.
Patient safety
Actions taken to reduce the risk of patients being unintentionally harmed by effects of healthcare services.
Processes
Collections of actions following prescribed procedures for bringing about a result
Quality Management
Way of doing business which continuously improves products and services to achieve even better levels of performance.
Quality management plan
Written description of the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources supporting an organization’s quality management system
Quality Management System
Organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources supporting the design, measurment, assessment and improvement of key functions and key processes, sometimes referred to as the quality program or performance improvement program
Stakeholder
Person, group, organization, or entity with a direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by that organization’s actions, objectives and performance
Underuse
Occurs when a health service is not provided though it would have been medically beneficial
Providers
Any organization or individual that is licensed or trained to give healthcare.
Purchasers
Any organization or individual that pays for healthcare services either directly or indirectly.
Consumers
Any recipient of healthcare services.
Key Dimensions of Healthcare Quality Identified by the Institute of Medicine
Safe, Effective, Patient-Centered, Timely, Efficient, and Equitable
Three Primary Activities of Quality Management
measurement, assessment, and improvement
Quality is the responsibility of
everyone working in healthcare
Case Manager
this individual often a nurse or social worker, helps coordinate patient services among and between caregivers and provider sites.
compliance officer
This individual helps assure the organization adheres to external regulations and accreditation requirements related to quality management
Health Data Analyst
this individual gathers, evaluates and reports information in support of various quality management activities–may have clinical, health information management or informatics expertise
Infection control practitioner
this individual collects and analyzes health data related to patient infections and disseminates information on prevention of infections–typically filled by nurse, physician, epidemiologist or medical technologist
Patient representative
this individual serves as a liaison and primary customer service contact for patients and family members–often gather patient and family complaint data for performance measurment purposes
Patient safety officer
this individual oversees patient safety improvement activities which may include evaluation of patient incident data, facilitation of safety improvement projects and coordination of information flow about patient safety among relevant administrative and medical staff committees
Physician advisor
this individual serves as a full or part-time quality management advisor– works closely with the quality department and medical staff president to ensure appropriate physician participation in, and communication of, quality management activities–may serve as advisor for UM activities
Quality Director
this individual serves as the administrative head of the quality department and performs or coordinates functions assigned to that department– assists senior leadership in facilitating compliance with quality-related accreditation standards, government regulations and purchaser requirements
Risk Manager
this individual provides guidance and assistance in support of liability control programs including reporting and analysis of patient and employee incidents and identification and control of liability risks throughout the organization
Utilization Coordinator
this individual is involved in resource management activiites to prevent underuse and overuse of services–determine appropriateness of care–collect utilization-related data for quality management purposes
CMS and NCQA requires a quality management plan but
TJC does not but is implied that it is desirable
Quality management is the means by which high quality patient care is maintained and improved in all levels of the system —
individual, departmental and organizational
What involves gathering information to determine current levels of performance?
Measurement
What involves finding the cause of performance gaps and implementing interventions to correct cause of undesirable performance?
Improvement
What involves evaluating current levels of performance to determine if there are gaps between expected and actual quality?
Assessment
What are the Core Elements of a quality management system?
–leadership oversight and accountability–quality infrastructure, including routine meetings with cross-departmental representation
–involvement of stakeholders and transparency of performance data
–performance measurement of key clinical and service areas
–activities aimed at improving performance in clinical and service areas
What is the range of groups involved in the quality management system of a healthcare organization?
BoardSenior Leaders
Second Tier Groups
Third Tier Groups
Quality Management Support Services
Who is responsible for ensuring continuous quality improvement and for establishing and cultivating a culture of safety?
The Senior Leaders (president, chief operating officer, vice presidents, medical director)
Quality management oversight committees or councils: coordinates quality management activities
evaluate the performance of physicians involving credentialling, privileging, and PPEs,Second Tier Groups (Medical staff executive committee in hospital)
Any number multi-disciplinary committee or group formed to support various areas of quality management:
3rd tier groups (cancer committee) Medical staff and administrative committees
Quality Management Support Services: vary considerably among organizations:
Case Manager, Compliance Officer, Health Data Analyst ,
Infection control practitioner, Patient representative,
Patient safety officer, Physician adviser, Quality Director ,
Risk Manager, Utilization Coordinator
To determine internal priorities for performance improvement
a health care organization must consider the:,Needs and expectations of all the stakeholders
A component of the organization’s quality management activities that is often documented in the performance improvement plan:
performance improvement model used by the organization
The lead Federal agency in health care quality research.
Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality
The 3 components of health care quality management
measurement, assessment and improvement
Group that sponsors the HEDIS performance measurement system for managed care organizations.
National Committee for Quality Assurance
The reporting structure for quality management activities in a hospital is commonly documented in the organization’s:
performance improvement plan
A basic responsibility of the quality management department in a healthcare organization.
Help other departments identify potential quality problems
Group ultimately responsible for the quality of health care in a healthcare organization.
governing board
A way of doing business which continuously improves products and services to achieve ever better levels of performance.
Quality management
To determine compliance with departmental standards
the manager of the hospital registration department is collecting data on the accuracy of patient demographic information that has been into the computer system by registration clerks. This activity is an example of:,Measuring performance
Performance measurement data are collect primarily for the purpose of:
identifying opportunities for improvement
The first step in developing a performance measurement
Select the process to be evaluated
“Baseline” performance is a measure of
Current performance
Continuous quality improvement in healthcare organizations require
A planned and systematic approach
Public evaluations on healthcare quality on the Web in the form of:
Report cards Provider profiles
Consumer reports
Purpose of public disclosure of evaluations on healthcare quality:
1. To facilitate informed choices2. Stimulate quality improvement
Governing board in a healthcare organization does..
1. Important role in assuring quality care is continually delivered to patients2. Legally and morally responsible for ensuring the quality of care to patients
Six key dimensions by IOM:
1. Effectiveness-based on scientific knowledge, service provided to all who can benefit, service should not be provided to those not to benefit2. Efficiency-Avoidance of waste-equipment, supplies, time, energy, and ideas 3. Equity- Quality doesn’t change cause of patient’s personal characteristics gender, ethnicity, geographic location, and social status 4. Patient-centeredness-Care is provided respectfully of and responsive to patient preferences needs, and values 5. Safety-Unintended patient injuries should be avoided 6. Timeliness-No unnecessary waits and delays for those receiving care
Customers: 3 stakeholders groups
1. Providers 2. Purchasers 3. Consumers
Quality Management- AKA
Performance improvement , total quality improvement
“Benchmarking” is a measure of
Current performance compared to an exemplary organization
AHRQ
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Agency for health care research and quality (assures quality of health services)
CDC
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, An agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is recognized as the leading Federal Agency for protecting the health and safety of people, and for providing credible information to enhance health decisions.
FDA
Food and Drug Administration. The agency that is responsible for determining if a food or drug is safe and effective enough to be sold to the public.
NIH
National Institutes of Health, improve nation’s health by conducting & supporting research into causes, diagnosis, prevention, and cure of human diseases.
QIO
Quality improvement organizations: external agencies that review the quality or care and use of insurance benefits by individual physicians and patients for Medicare and other insurers.
AAAHC
Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Healthcare – a professional organization that offers accreditation programs for ambulatory and outpatient organizations such as single and multispecialty group practices, ambulatory surgery centers, college/university health services, and community health centers.
ACHC
Accreditation Commission for Health Care – A private nonprofit accreditation organization offering accreditation services for home health, hospice, and alternate site healthcare such as infusion nursing, and home/durable medical equipment supplies.
CARF
Commission on the Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities, provides accreditation for organizations offering behavioral health physical and occupational rehabilitation services as well as assisted living continuing care community services employment services and others.
CoC
Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons-Approves cancer programs
NIAHO
National Integrated Accreditation for Healthcare Organization
NCQA
National Committee on Quality Assurance. A not-for-profit organization that performs quality oriented accreditation reviews on HMOs and similar types of managed care plans.
JC
Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, -sets standards and accredits most general, long-term, psychiatric hospitals, substance abuse programs, outpatient surgery centers, urgent care clinics, group practices, community health centers, hospices and HH agencies, lab
IOM
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; a nonprofit organization created to provide unbiased, evidence based and authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy,– care should be safe, effective, patient centered, efficient and equitable
NAHQ
National Association for Healthcare Quality
NQF
national quality forum, for healthcare quality measurement and reporting, not for profit, (National Quality Forum) is a not for profit membership organization created to develop and implement a national strategy for health care quality measurement and reporting.
Governing board
aka-Board of Trustees–Has ultimate responsibility for the quality of patient care and services provided. Responsibility of the support in the organization’s mission& strategic priorities.
Senior Leaders
President, COO (chief operating officer) vice presidents, medical director–Responsible for ensuring continuous quality improvement and for establishing and cultivating a culture of safety.
Second tier groups
Quality management oversight committees or councils.
Third tier groups
Multi-disciplinary, interdepartmental committees charged with conducting quality management activities in a particular service or function.
Quality management plans
Often required by state or federal regulations.The plan describes the organization’s approach to management of patient safety and quality. Provides framework for all measurement, assessment and improvement activities.
Quality management plan should include:
1. An outline of the program structure & content2. Designation of the committee responsible for overseeing the program. 3. Role structure, function, and frequency of meetings of the program oversight committee and other relevant committees.
HEDIS
Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information SetComparison of the performance of health plans. This data set was developed by the National Committee for Quality Assurance to aid consumers with health-related issues with information to compare performance of clinical measures for health plans
MEDPAR file
A common source of data for publicly available health care performance measurement results.The Medicare claims database.
3 primary activities of quality management are:
measurement, assessment, improvement