Pediatric Airway Management

Your patient is a conscious eight-month-old infant who has a severe airway obstruction as a result of choking on a slice of canned peach. Which of the following is your FIRST intervention?
An alternating series of back blows and chest thrusts
Which of the following affects the lower airway?
Pneumonia
All of the following are associated with an increased incidence of SIDS, EXCEPT:
female infant (correct answer)
age between two and four months.
low birth weight.
fall and winter months.
Your patient is an 11-year-old male quadriplegic who depends on a phrenic nerve stimulator to stimulate contraction of his diaphragm and allow him to breathe. You are called to the home during a thunderstorm that has caused a power outage. Which of the following is the best course of action?
Assist his breathing with a bag-valve-mask device, and transport.
You have just arrived on the scene where an infant stopped breathing. You find a three-month-old child being held tightly by his mother, who is sobbing uncontrollably. On examination, you find that the child is apneic and pulseless and has dependent lividity and early rigor mortis. There are no obvious signs of injury. Which of the following is the best course of action?
Gently tell the mother that the baby is dead and that there is nothing that can be done for him; allow her to hold him.
Which of the following is NOT an acceptable estimate of the correct size of endotracheal tube for a pediatric patient?
A length-based resuscitation tape
(Correct )Twice the width of the naris
The patient’s age in years plus 16, divided by 4
The diameter of the little finger
Your patient is a nine-month-old infant in respiratory distress with grunting respirations of 50 per minute, nasal flaring, and intercostal retractions. He is pale, and you note scattered bilateral wheezing on auscultation of the lungs. The mother states that the child is healthy and up to date on all his immunizations. Which of the following conditions is most likely, based on this information?
Bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus
As the pediatric patient progresses from respiratory distress to respiratory failure, which of the following occurs?
Increased arterial carbon dioxide tension
Which of the following is TRUE of asthma in the pediatric patient?
Bronchodilators are effective primarily when treating the second phase of an asthma attack.

The primary therapeutic goal in the initial phase of an asthma attack is to rehydrate the patient and administer mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agents.

Bronchodilators are more effective in pediatric patients than in adults, and steroids are rarely indicated.

(Correct) Oxygen and nebulized beta agonists are indicated in the initial phase of an asthma attack.

You have been called for a 1-week-old infant who is sick. Assessment reveals him to have a fever and rhonchi in the left lower lobe. Which of the following assessment findings would be most concerning to you, given the age of this patient?
Nasal passages occluded by mucus
Which of the following conditions does NOT cause an upper airway obstruction?
Epiglottitis
Croup
(Correct )Asthma
Bacterial tracheitis
Which of the following statements regarding prehospital care of pediatric patients is TRUE?
The majority of pediatric calls are for allergic reactions.
Most pediatric patients seen by EMS personnel are from low-income families.
(Correct) Up to 85 percent of children treated by EMS need nothing more than basic life support skills.
More than 50 percent of pediatric patients require advanced life support.
Which of the following is NOT a sign of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient?
Tachypnea
Tachycardia
(Correct) Central cyanosis
Grunting
At which of the following ages does the risk of foreign body airway obstruction become a significant concern in the normally developing infant?
18 months
1 month
3 months
(Correct) 6 months
Which of the following best explains the cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)?
Aspiration of vomited formula or breast milk

(Correct) SIDS, by definition, has no identifiable cause.

Diffuse axonal injury occurring due to “shaken baby syndrome”

Congenital absence of the Hering-Breuer reflex