Pain Management / ATI 41

Transduction
The conversion of painful stimuli to an electrical impulse through peripheral nerve fibers
Transmission
Pain Threshold
The point at which a patient feels pain
Pain Tolerance
the amount of pain a person is willing to bear
Perception to awareness of pain
Many parts of the brain with influences from thought and emotional processes
Modulation
occurs in the spinal cord, causing muscles to contract reflexively, moving the body away form painful stimuli
Substances that increase the pain transmission and cause an inflammatory response
Substance P
Prostiglandins
Bradykinins
Histamine
Substances that decreased pain transmission and produce ANGINA
serotonin
endorphins
Nociceptive pain
damage or inflammation of tissue which is a noxious stimulus that triggers the nociceptors (pain)
– Throbbing, aching, localized
– opioids and non opioid meds
Somatic nociceptive pain
in bones, joints, muscles, skin or connective tissues.
Viceral nociceptive pain
in internal organs
– can cause referred pain in other body locations
Cutaneous nociceptive pain
in the skin or subcutaneous tissue.
Neuropathic Pain
abnormal or damaged pain nerves
-phantom limb pain, pain below the level of a spinal injury, diabetic neuropathy
– intense shooting burning “pins and needles”
– adjuvant meds (antidepressants, antispasmodic agents, askeletal muscle relaxants)