Organizational Psychology Final

ACME Software Inc. has developed a training program to make employees more aware of how their job performance affects customers and other employees within the organization and to inform them of the changing market conditions. This training program relates most closely with which concept
Open systems
According to the multiple levels of analysis anchor
OB topics typically relate to the individual, team, and organizational levels of analysis
Out of the generational groups discussed in the textbook, which group has the highest preferences for leisure and the lowest value of social interaction
Millennials
Your roommate, Allison Albright, is a non-business major. When she discovered that you are taking a course in OB, she was thoroughly confused as to why one would need to study OB and what it entails. To help her understand, which one of these statements about the field is true?1
OB scholars study what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations
As an owner and manager of Tricky Toys, Bob Baldwin has been fascinated by all the changes occurring and transforming the workplace. Bob is concerned about the important OB trends that he can understand and take advantage of in developing and positioning his company in the marketplace. If Bob wants to study deep-level diversity in his organization he would:
look at different attitudes and expectations of his employees
___ refers to an organization’s moral obligation toward all of its stakeholders
Corporate social responsibility
Electronika managers want to hire people who are dependable, goal focused, thorough, and disciplined. Which of the following “Big-Five” personality dimensions is desirable for individuals to be hired?
Conscientiousness
IMT is a medium sized company has decided to open a manufacturing play in Japan, Taiwan, and Malaysia. IMT managers realize that there will be some cultural differences. IMT managers should make themselves aware that people in Japan tend to have
Medium power distance
People with high collectivism
value harmonious relationships in the groups to which they belong
People with high ___ value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism
achievement orientation
People who value their independence and personal uniqueness have:
high individualism
Most employees in the social services section of a government department have frequent interaction with people who are unemployed or face personal problems. Which of the following personality characteristics is best suited to employees working in these jobs?
High agreeableness
Etoni is a new employee who comes from a culture that values respect for people in higher positions and values the well-being of others more that goal achievement. Etoni’s culture has:
high power distance and strong nurturing orientation
Personality develops and changes mainly when people are young; it stabilizes by about age
30
The objective of the Johari Window is to
reduce perceptual biases
Social identity theory says that
we define ourselves in terms of our membership in certain groups and our differences with people who belong to other groups
The contact hypothesis states that:
people who interact with each other will be less perceptually biased toward each other
Consistency, consensus and distinctiveness are the
three rules that determine whether we make an internal or external attribution
In the Johari Window, feedback from others helps us to:
increase our open area by reducing our blind area
In the Johari Window, the ___ area includes information about you that is known both to you and others
open
In the Johari Window, the hidden area gets smaller when we
disclose information about ourselves
As soon as we receive sensory information, we nonconsciously tag some of that information with emotional markers. These markers are:
innate emotional responses to thin slices of sensory information
Beliefs, feelings and behavioral intentions are components of
attitudes
Customer service representatives often conceal their frustration when serving an irritating customer. This behavior from the CSR is an example of:
emotional labor
Donald was unhappy that his company did not provide good parking facilities. He found it very stressful to find reasonably priced parking close to his workplace, and what he found caused him to walk several blocks in all weather. This eventually led to job dissatisfaction. Hence he recommended ways to solve this problem. According to the EVLN model, this infomation suggests that Donald’s main reaction to job dissatisfaction was:
voice
Emotional dissonance occurs when
We experience conflict between the required emotions and our true emotions
Emotional intelligence is best described as:
a set of abilities
Emotional labor refers to
the effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions
Emotions will have a greater influence on our perceptions, attitudes, decisions, and behavior than cognition because
emotional process often occur before cognitive processes
Employees with an emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in a particular organization are likely to have:
a high level of work motivation
Jiana is a flight attendant for a large airline. If Jiana wants to reduce the amount of psychological damage caused by the emotional dissonance her job creates she should
engage in deep acting
Most often, people reduce cognitive dissonance by
Developing more favorable attitudes toward specific features of the decision
The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others is called:
emotional intelligence
The competency most strongly associate with social awareness is
empathy
The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model
is a template for organizing and understanding the consequences of job dissatisfaction
The uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:
cognitive dissonance
To ward off stress, a film director likes to have a good laugh. When under pressure, the director will crack jokes and ensure everyone has a good laugh during the hard work. These actions mainly reduce stress:
by changing stress perceptions
Which of these stress management activities helps employees improve their perceived ability to cope with the stressor and possible remove the stressor
Social support
___ involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions but continuing to hold different internal feelings
Surface acting
A learned need in which people want to control the environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves or others is referred to as the need for
power
ABC Corporation recently held a “Vision Day” event in which all of their employees formed teams to develop 60 second videos for management around how the company is making lives better. Shortly after, their CEO was quoted saying “We try to get the best out of everybody”. “Vision Day” was an exercise attempting to increase
employee engagement
According to equity theory
the selection of comparison other varies from one person to the next
According to the four-drive theory, which of the following drives is the foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem?
drive to acquire
Employees who receive a fixed amount of pay each week and who feel under-rewarded are most likely to:
reduce their work effort
Four-drive theory recommends that organizations should
provide sufficient rewards, learning opportunities, and social interaction at the same time
Goal setting is most effective when
goals are measured in quantitative, qualitative and cost terms
Jessie and Paul have worked in the same office at DEF Insurance LLC for 6 years. Jess has always taken extra care to follow the office norms and ensure that everyone has a happy and harmonious working experience. According to the Learned Needs Theory, Jessie most likely has a high:
need for affiliation
Jessie and Paul have worked in the same office at DEF Insurance LLC for 6 years. Paul has been very drive during his years at DEF Insurance and though he started as an insurance agent, he has since been promoted to the agency manager and proudly displays all his awards on the wall of his new office. According to the four drive theory, Paul most likely has a high:
drive to acquire
One of the main implications of four-drive theory is that:
employers should offer employees enough opportunity to keep each drive in balance
People with a high need for affiliation tend to
actively support others
The best reinforcement schedule for motivating employees is
a variable ratio schedule
What are some of the drivers of employee engagement discussed in the text
an appealing company vision, employee involvement, employee development opportunities
Which drive in the four drive theory is reactive rather than proactive?
drive to defend
Which of the following is applied by supervisors when they stop criticizing employees whose substandard performance has improved?
negative reinforcement
Which of the following is the highest level need in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
self- actualization
Which of the following needs is the strongest according to Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory?
need for food
___ states that much learning and motivation occurs by observing and modeling others as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behavior
Social Cognitive theory
A cable TV company redesigned jobs so that one employee interacts directly with customers, connects and disconnects their cable service, installs their special services and collects overdue accounts in an assigned area. They also decided to do away with scripted customer interaction manuals and allow each employee to determine how best to interact with each customer. Previously each task was performed by a different person and the customer interacted only with someone at the head office. This change is an example of:
increasing job enrichment by establishing client relationships
A large retail organization previously divided work among its four employee benefits staff into distinct specializations. These jobs were recently restructured so that each employee benefits person answers all questions for people in a particular geographic area. This restructuring most likely increased each employee’s:
sense of ownership
A mid-sized city introduced a reward system whereby employees would find ways to reduce costs and increase work efficiency. Every employee would receive a portion of the surplus budget resulting from these cost savings. Which of the following reward systems is this city using?
Gainsharing plan
A unique feature of Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory is that it:
states that improving motivators increases job satisfaction but does not decrease job dissatisfaction
In repetitive jobs, the positive effect of higher proficiency is easily offset by the negative effect of lower attentiveness and motivation caused by:
tedious work patterns
Employees at CyberTech perform repetitive jobs that have resulted in boredom as well as repetitive strain injury. Technology makes it difficult to combine existing jobs, but the company wants employees to have more skills. Which of the following would best help CyberTech to improve this situation:
introduce job rotation
Steelweld, a car parts manufacturer, pays employees a higher hourly rate as they learn to master more parts of the work process. Employees earn $10 per hour when they are hired and they can earn up to $20 per hour if they master all 12 work units in the production process. Which of the following is most likely a benefit Steelweld is trying to achieve with this reward system?
The improvement of work flexibility
Team rewards are better than individual rewards when employees work in highly interdependent jobs because:
it is difficult to measure individual performance in these situations
The problem with membership and seniority- based rewards is that they:
do not directly motivate job performance
When applied to non-management employees, which of the following has a weak connection between the reward and individual effort?
Profit-sharing bonus
Which of these contemporary OB practices was popularized by Fredrick Taylor in his work on scientific management?
Goal setting
Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization?
Membership and seniority-based pay
Which of the following is an advantage of job specialization?
Jobs can be mastered quickly
Which of the following is true about skill-based pay plans?
They can be expensive because they motivate employees to spend more time learning new jobs
Which of the following is the primary aspect of job enlargement?
skill variety
Which of the following is the first step in self-leadership?
Personal goal setting
Which of the following minimizes health risks from repetitive strain and heavy lifting because employees use different muscles and physical positions in the various jobs?
job rotation
Which of the following steps occurs in self-leadership immediately after identifying goals that are specific, relevant, and challenging?
constructive thought patterns
Which of the following tend to create an ownership culture and align employee behaviors more closely to organizational objectives?
Stock option pay plans and employee stock ownership plans
A marketing specialist needed to find a new way of marketing the company’s main product to its potential clients. While watching a movie one evening, the marketing specialist saw a scene that gave her inspiration for a new marketing plan. According to the creative process model, which of the following is the next stage in the creative process after such inspiration?
Illumination
Dora and Keith are managers at ABC Corp. Keith is having problems in his department which lack of innovation. In response, he consults the corporate procedures manual and speaks with his boss about the right way to solve the problem. Keith is an example of a ____ thinker
Convergent
Dora and Keith are managers at ABC Corp. Dora is having problems in her department but decides to confront it by hosting team luncheons where she can learn new perspectives and discuss new “outside the box” ways to deal with the problem. Dora is an example of a _____ thinker
divergent
After choosing among several computer server systems, the director of Information Systems feels very positive about the final choice. However, some of this optimism is due to the fact that the Director forgot about few of the limitations of the chose system and unconsciously downplays the importance of the positive features of the rejected systems. The director is engaging in:
confirmation bias
An organization asks its employees to reframe the problem in a unique way and generate different approaches to the problems. Which of the following stages in the creative process would assist this?
Incubation
One school of management thought states that organizational decisions and actions are influenced mainly by what attracts management’s attention, rather than by the objective reality of the external or internal environment. Which of the following practices is closely associated with this argument?
Stakeholder framing
George is a manager for InnoBLAST Inc., a web-based applications company. In an attempt to promote new ideas, George decides to allow his engineering team to devote 15% of their work time to whatever projects they would like to work on and reduces their assigned workload. He then institutes a 30 min period each morning where the team members are asked to look over their current project list for the day and develop more knowledge about a task before they move on to work on their assigned task. The time period set aside each morning should help promote which stage of the creative process?
Both preparation and incubation
Alvin the production manager at the Paragon Company, wants to select the best supplier of raw materials from among several vendors. He has several choices and has done research into which company provides the best services and products. One company is known to be extremely timely, another is much lower in price but often late in deliveries, and the third is well-known to provide the highest quality products available. According to the Rational Choice Paradigm of decision making, Alvin should select the vendor that offers the most:
utility
Alvin the production manager at the Paragon Company, wants to select the best supplier of raw materials from among several vendors. He has several choices and has done research into which company provides the best services and products. One company is known to be extremely timely, another is much lower in price but often late in deliveries, and the third is well-known to provide the highest quality products available. According to the rational choice decision making process, the first step in solving this problem would be:
Identifying the problem or opportunity
People tend to be more creative when they
Have a reasonable level of job security
Perceptual defense causes us to:
block out bad news or information that threatens our self- concept
Sarine’s Dolls: With funding from her family, Sarine is currently developing a new line of dolls for her business which she hopes will take her company to the next level. At first, she encountered some minor problems with the construction of the dolls and spent a fair amount of money engineering a way to enable them to be like she envisioned. Unfortunately, she then found out that there was a patent protecting the way the dolls arms were connected, so she spent more money redesigning the dolls. After an unexpectedly uninterested response from the public in the dolls, she decided that they needed to be marketed differently in order to sell. So Sarine allocated more resources to marketing and had the packaging of the dolls redesigned and created new set of advertising materials. The cost of manufacturing these dolls has now exceeded four times the initial proposed cost, but she is determined to make it work. She is embarrassed by how this has gone, but continues to put on a brave front.
Sarine is most likely making decisions to continue with these dolls at this point because of:
Self-justification
Sarine’s Dolls: With funding from her family, Sarine is currently developing a new line of dolls for her business which she hopes will take her company to the next level. At first, she encountered some minor problems with the construction of the dolls and spent a fair amount of money engineering a way to enable them to be like she envisioned. Unfortunately, she then found out that there was a patent protecting the way the dolls arms were connected, so she spent more money redesigning the dolls. After an unexpectedly uninterested response from the public in the dolls, she decided that they needed to be marketed differently in order to sell. So Sarine allocated more resources to marketing and had the packaging of the dolls redesigned and created new set of advertising materials. The cost of manufacturing these dolls has now exceeded four times the initial proposed cost, but she is determined to make it work. She is embarrassed by how this has gone, but continues to put on a brave front.
What could Sarine have done differently in order to avoid this escalation of commitment with her decisions?
All of these would be effective
Selene and Rita are both engineers at a highly innovative technology company. They are both very creative people. Selene has 15 years of engineering background, a high need for achievement and strong task motivation. According to the characteristics of creative people, which areas are Selene’s strongest?
Experience and persistence
Selene and Rita are both engineers at a highly innovative technology company. They are both very creative people. Rita prides herself on her high openness to experience, strong self-direction and her ability to evaluate the potential usefulness of ideas. According to the characteristics of creative people, which areas are Rita’s strongest?
Intelligence and independent imagination
The Director of Nursing is looking throughout the hospital for a new format of a work schedule for nurses. She evaluates each schedule system as soon as she learns about it. Eventually, she finds a schedule that is “good enough” for her needs and ends her search even though there may be better schedules that she hasn’t yet learned about. The Director of Nursing is engaging in:
satisficing
You have just received seed money for a new e-commerce business and you want to hire a dozen people with a high level of creative potential. To hire the most creative people you would select
high degree of nonconformity, value self-direction, relatively low need for affiliation
___ is the tendency to experience stronger negative emotions when losing something of value than the positive emotions experienced when gaining something of equal value
prospect theory
According to the social identity theory
people define themselves by their group affiliations
A diverse team is better than a homogeneous team
when designing and launching a new product or service
Barry’s Software Development Team: After a few months of working on the project with so many other programmers, Barry’s work output becomes noticeably lower than it was before when he was working independently. Barry’s reduced work output is most likely due to:
social loafing
During the ____ stage of team development, team members shift their attention away from task orientation to a relationship focus
adjourning
Fellow team members often monitor performance more closely than a traditional supervisor. This is particularly true where the team’s performance depends on:
the worst performer in the group
GHI has a large building where each divisional unit is located on a different floor. Lorraine works on the accounting floor and belongs to the budget committee, where she met Sally from Engineering and Jonas from Receiving. This committee provides recommendations to upper management on various financial issues affecting the company. Each week the three meet after work on Thursdays to play darts at a local pub. The budget committee is an example of:
an advisory team
High-cohesion teams perform poorer than low-cohesion teams when:
team norms undermine the organizations performance
How do norms affect the behavior of team members?
They help the team regulate and guide the behaviors of its members
If a dysfunctional norm is very deeply ingrained in a team, the best strategy is probably to:
disband the group and replace it with people having more favorable norms
Liam works in a team of four other accounting professionals within a company. Liam doesn’t particularly agree with many of his teammate’s ideas such as leaving work early and failing to double-check sound account entries. However, he works comfortably with the group because their behavior and decisions are predictable. What foundation of trust does Liam have in his team?
Knowledge based
Self-directed teams:
have substantial autonomy over the execution of a complete task
Social loafing occurs:
more when the task is boring than when it is interesting
Sunshine Manufacturing: The two teams sharing a work space and machine is known as
pooled interdependence
Sunshine Manufacturing: The way Jafina’s team functions is known as
sequential interdependence
The Research and Development Team: Janet will have a good idea that she wishes to discuss but it takes too long for all her other teammates to finish talking so she will not bother bringing it up. Janet’s problem getting her ideas out in a meeting is a problem known as
production blocking
The degree to which team members have collective confidence in how well they work together and the likely success of their team effort is called:
Team efficacy
The phenomenon that occurs when people exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone is referred to as:
social loafing
Which of the following generally occurs during the storming stage of team development?
Members try to establish norms of appropriate behavior and performance standards
Which of the following are described as virtual teams?
Cross-functional groups of employees that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries
You have completed an important presentation to several Japanese executives regarding a proposed partnership between your American company and their Japanese firm. The Japanese executives were very silent during the presentation. With regard to cross-cultural communication, the silence most likely means that the Japanese executives
are showing respect for your presentation
Report talk is characterized by
Apologizing less frequently
Listeners often engage in an automatic process of “catching” or sharing another person’s emotions by mimicking that person’s facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior. Which of the following drives causes this effect?
Drive to bond
Research suggests that effective workspace design mainly balances the trade-off between:
employee privacy and social integration
Management by walking around refers to
a practice in which executives get out of their offices and learn from others in the organization through face-to-face dialogue
Safety representatives in each of the six plants of a manufacturing company need to communicate to each other every week the number and type of health and safety incidents in their plant. Each representative has a safety reporting document where he or she notes the type and number of infractions during the previous week. These incidents are well known to other representatives, so there are rarely any surprises. This weekly communication calls for:
lean media
Several employees in a newly formed group must work together to develop a new product. No one in this group has worked with anyone else in this group before and the development of this product has not been attempted previously. According to the media richness model, which of the following communication channels is most appropriate in this situation?
Face-to-face meeting
Shanti recently went to a communication workshop to help improve her workplace performance. She learned that in effective communication, she should resist forming an opinion until the speaker has finished, then attempt to empathize with the listener, and finally effectively respond to the speaker. She learned techniques regarding maintain eye contact and sending back channel signals to show interest.
This type of listening is known as
Active
Shanti recently went to a communication workshop to help improve her workplace performance. She learned that in effective communication, she should resist forming an opinion until the speaker has finished, then attempt to empathize with the listener, and finally effectively respond to the speaker. She learned techniques regarding maintain eye contact and sending back channel signals to show interest.
When Shanti attempts to empathize with the speaker, this is known as
evaluating
Shanti recently went to a communication workshop to help improve her workplace performance. She learned that in effective communication, she should resist forming an opinion until the speaker has finished, then attempt to empathize with the listener, and finally effectively respond to the speaker. She learned techniques regarding maintain eye contact and sending back channel signals to show interest.
The techniques she learned with regards to showing interest will help her improve in the ____ of listening
responding
The organizational grapevine is useful because it:
bonds employees together and fulfills their need for interaction
What effect does emotional contagion have on the communication process
It provides feedback to the sender that the receiver understands and empathizes with the message
Which of the following communication channels has the highest media richness?
Video conference
Which of the following communication channels has the lowest media richness
Newsletter
Which of the following communication channels is the most effective when the sender wants to persuade the receiver
A personal face-to-face meeting with the receiver
Which of the following fundamental drives is highly influenced by effective communication?
drive to bond
Which of the following has the same meaning around the world?
smiling
Which of the following is a strategy specifically identified to improve face-to-face communication among employees?
open workspace arrangements
Which of the following is an advantage associated with using written communication channels in persuading people?
It is better in presenting technical details
Which of the following is an advantage of using email communication?
It significantly alters the flow of information within groups
A person who has legitimate, reward, and coercive power over others in an organization is most likely to:
feel a sense of duty or responsibility over the people over whom they have power
A speaker can be more persuasive by warning the audience about potential opposing arguments. This is called:
the inoculation effect
Angela wears a business suit to work every day in her job as a college business professor. Which of the following influence tactic does this refer to?
impression management
Your team is allocated a project involving a major client, the Beswick Company. Although the organization has many clients, this client, and project, is the largest source of revenue and affects the work of several other teams in the organization. The project requires continuous involvement with the client, so any problems with the client are immediately felt by others in the organization.

Jamie, a member of your team, is the only person in the company with whom this client is willing to deal. It can be said that Jamie has

a low degree of substitutability
Betweenness gives power because the more of it you have
the more you control the distribution of information and other resources to people on either side of you
Double Talk Inc: At DoubleTalk, Inc., Joe, a supervisor, pushes his employees’ performance by constantly checking their work and threatening them if they fail to keep their deadlines. After months of mistreatment, the employees get together and sign a letter to the human resources department to express their grievances.

Which form of influence is this supervisor using?

Assertiveness
At DoubleTalk, Inc., Joe, a supervisor, pushes his employees’ performance by constantly checking their work and threatening them if they fail to keep their deadlines. After months of mistreatment, the employees get together and sign a letter to the human resources department to express their grievances.
What form of influence are the employees using
Coalition formation
Extreme forms of ___ include bullying, such as through explicit reminders of one’s obligations
assertiveness
In terms of managing social networks, organizational leaders should
be aware of them, as they reflect the real distribution of power
Organizational politics is more common where decisions are
based on complex and ambiguous rules
Organizational politics may be reduced by
encouraging leaders to become role models of organizational citizenship instead of symbols of successful organizational politicians
Persuasion works best
through media-rich communication channels
Social networks exist everywhere because people
have a drive to bond
The Accounting Department

Krystal’s boss in the accounting department initially rejected her proposal for a new budgeting process. So Krystal spoke to and received support from the heads of two departments that would benefit from the proposed budgeting process. She also found support from several co-workers in the accounting department because they believed the new budgeting process would be simpler and fairer. When Krystal’s boss realized that several key people supported the new budgeting system, he agreed to test it in a pilot project.

What form of influence is Krystal mainly using here?

Coalition formation
Your importance in a social network is called your:
centrality
____ is the strongest outcome of influence, whereby people identify with the influencer’s request and are highly motivated to implement it even when extrinsic sources of motivation are no longer present
Commitment
Employees at Charlotte International have been frustrated with the management on just about everything. The conflict episodes are viewed by both sides as personal attacks rather than attempts to resolve problems. Both sides have decided to seek third-party dispute resolution. Management prefers a third-party intervention that has high process and decision control while employees prefer a high level of process control and not decision control.

Employees at Charlotte International prefer which of the following types of third-party intervention?

Mediator
Direct communication minimizes conflict by
reducing reliance on stereotypes about the other party
For everyday disputes between two employees, managers should use ___ as a third-party intervention
mediation
Relationship conflict usually causes people to:
reduce communication and information sharing with the other party
Salespeople at Widget Co. complain that they lose sales bonuses when the production department is out of stock of a particular item. This sometimes causes customers to buy from elsewhere rather than wait for the next production run. Meanwhile, production employees complain that salespeople don’t appreciate the need to minimize inventory costs, for which production staff is rewarded. This instance is an example of conflict due to:
goal incompatibility
NewTel Inc. The conflict episodes are viewed by both sides as personal attacks rather than attempts to resolve the problem. The conflict at NewTel appears to be:
relationship conflict
The “optimal conflict” perspective on organizational conflict is that
moderate levels of conflict are necessary and produce favorable outcomes
The bargaining zone model states that
the negotiation process moves each party along a continuum in opposite directions with an area of potential overlap
Which is the relationship between emotional intelligence and relationship conflicts?
Relationship conflict is less likely to occur if emotional intelligence is high
Which of the following conflict management style is associated with low cooperativeness and low assertiveness
Avoiding
Which of the following factors leads to relationship conflicts in teams?
Low levels of communication
As a manager for XYZ Company, you are assigned to resolve a conflict between two departments of your organization, Department A and Department B. Both parties have equal power. Both the parties are under time pressure to resolve the conflict. You also realize that the parties lack trust/openness for problem solving.

Which conflict resolution style would you use in this situation?

Compromising
As a manager for XYZ Company, you are assigned to resolve a conflict between two departments of your organization, Department A and Department B. Both parties have equal power. Both the parties are under time pressure to resolve the conflict. You also realize that the parties lack trust/openness for problem solving.

If instead of equal power, the Department A had considerably more power than Department B, what would Department B’s best conflict resolution style be?

Yielding
You have resolved a conflict with another department by offsetting your losses by equally valued gains. Which of the following conflict handling styles is used here
Compromising
Which of the following types of third-party intervention approaches do managers usually adopt?
Inquisitional
Bob’s Small Business: Bob has always been a very likable man and a dependable, hard-working person.
From the information provided, which of the following best encompasses Bob’s strongest leadership competency according to the competency perspectives?
Personality characteristics
Bob’s Small Business: He is very worried about his ability to take on twice as many employees and continue on a successful path.
From the information provided, which of the following best encompasses Bob’s weakest leadership competency according to the competency perspective?
Self-concept
CPA4U. Gina is very outgoing and constantly checking on her subordinates to see if there is any way she can help them to complete their projects. She also brings in fresh flowers for the lunchroom weekly and always remembers everyone’s birthday.
What type of leader is Gina
Servant leader
CPA4U Chen is much more introverted and communicates with his subordinates mainly through email and he has his subordinates submit daily reports on their progress towards the weekly goals he has assigned them.
Which type of leader is Chen
Task-oriented leader
EFT Inc wants to empower and engage its employees. They have several teams consisting of highly skilled employees and no one person on these teams has a specifically assigned position. Instead, employees lead each other as the occasion arises so there is no formal hierarchy or organizational chart. This type of leadership is known as :
shared
EFT, Inc. wants to empower and engage its employees. They have several teams consisting of highly skilled employees and no one person on these teams has a specifically assigned position. Instead, employees lead each other as the occasion arises so there is no formal hierarchy or organizational chart.

This type of leadership is most effective when:

Employees learn to influence others through their enthusiasm, logical analysis, and involvement of others in their vision
Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership has made an important and lasting contribution to the study of leadership because it:
suggests that organizations need to engineer the situation to fit the leader’s preferred style
Johni’s Company:
Johni is the CEO of a struggling company. She has listened to her employee’s complaints and concerns about where the corporation is going and has developed a new vision that she feels will help develop a common bond throughout the organization. Johni then hosted a company-wide picnic where she delivered an inspiring speech about the new plans for the business, including her plans for more open communication between management and employees. After her speech, management and employees all participated in trust building exercises and each employee had a one-on-one conversation with Johni.

What type of leadership theory most resembles Johni’s actions?

Transformational
Johni is the CEO of a struggling company. She has listened to her employee’s complaints and concerns about where the corporation is going and has developed a new vision that she feels will help develop a common bond throughout the organization. Johni then hosted a company-wide picnic where she delivered an inspiring speech about the new plans for the business, including her plans for more open communication between management and employees. After her speech, management and employees all participated in trust building exercises and each employee had a one-on-one conversation with Johni.

What is the next step Johni should take if she wants to continue on towards her vision?

Build commitment toward the vision
Implicit leadership theory states that:
everyone has preconceived beliefs about leaders
MoneySafe, a financial services organization, uses performance-based reward systems across various departments to keep employees directed toward organizational goals. The management believes that these rewards might replace or reduce the need for task-oriented leadership.

Which of the following leadership theories supports this action?

Leadership substitutes
People tend to evaluate female leaders slightly less favorably than male leaders because:
they tend to rely on gender stereotypes and prototypes of leaders
Telling, selling, participating, and delegating represent the four leadership styles identified in:
situational leadership theory
According to path-goal theory, a combination of ___ leadership is best for employees who are (or perceive themselves to be) inexperienced and unskilled
directive and supportive
According to Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership:
leader effectiveness depends on whether the person’s natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation
A steel manufacturing firm with about 1,000 employees operates in an environment that is simple and integrated (it makes a small number of steel products to a few key customers) but also dynamic and hostile (rapidly changing technology and customer needs with many competitors). Based on the environment in which this company operates, it would be more successful with a(n):
organic structure
A wholesale grocery business operates in one city and provides one service– stocking retailers with fresh produce. They company wants to ensure that employees develop expertise in their skill specialization and that these specializations are used efficiently. The aim is to create specialized pools of talent that serve everyone in the company. Which of the following forms of departmentalization would be most appropriate:
Functional structure
ABC Production, a consumer products firm with a functional structure, is expanding from a single product line into several diverse product groups, with most sales within one country. What form of departmentalization should it eventually adopt to manage the new conditions most effectively?
divisional product structure
An organization that wants to compete through innovation should:
adopt an organic structure and make extensive use of informal communication to coordinate work
As organizations grow older, they tend to
become more formalized
Candoo Ltd. will soon flatten its hierarchy by removing two of the five layers of management. If the number of employees in the organization remains constant, which of the following must also occur?
It must widen the span of control
Creative Advertising Corp. wants its 100 employees to work together around specific clients yet maintain an equal emphasis on alignment with their skill specializations. Which of the following organizational structures would work best for this company?
Matrix structure that overlays project teams with a functional structure
Food 4U, a wholesale grocery business, operates in one city and provides one service – stocking retailers with fresh produce. The company wants to ensure that employees develop expertise in their skill specialization and that these specializations are used efficiently.

A potential problem with this form of structure is:

higher dysfunctional conflict
Many of the best-performing production plants are able to widen their span of control to more than 70 employees per supervisor by:
relying on self-directed work teams and other coordinating mechanisms
Most employees at Quokka Systems are organized into project teams. Employees report to the project leader, but they also report to a leader responsible for their functional specialization. Quokka systems has a:
matrix structure
BarkBark Inc. and Happy Toys Ltd. are considering a merger and are unsure whether their two organizations will have a difficult time with clashing cultures. They perform a detailed diagnosis collecting and analyzing the gathered data about the two merging companies. They identify a several overlapping values which they feel that they can effectively meld into a cohesive new culture.

What type of cultural merge would be best in this situation?

Integration
Many employees get a reality shock on their first day at work because
newcomers test how well their pre- employment expectations fit reality and many companies fail this test
One of the first steps to minimize a cultural clash in a merger is to
conduct a bicultural audit
Organizational stories are most effective at communicating organizational culture only when they
describe real people are assumed to be true
Organizations that tolerate or encourage subcultures with dissenting values:
may eventually use those dissenting values to build a new set of dominant values in the future
The best way to determine an organization’s shared assumptions is to:
determine what the organizations enacted values are
Most employees at United FiberTech support the idea that the company’s success depends on their willingness to continually change and improve customer service:
United FiberTech most likely has a strong:
learning orientation
What is the significance of artifacts in organizational culture?
Artifacts represent the directly observable symbols and signs of an organization’s culture
Which of the following is true about mental models
Mental models can blind employees to new opportunities and unique problems
Which of the following is true about organizational culture?
The strength of an organization’s culture refers to how widely and deeply employees hold the company’s dominant values and assumptions
Which of the following is true about socialization agents?
Socialization agents help integrate new employees into the teams
Which of the following is true about using the strategy of integration for merging different corporate cultures?
It creates a new composite culture that preserves the best features of the previous cultures
Which of the following statements about the strength of organizational culture and organizational performance is true?
Organizations with stronger cultures tend to perform better than those with weak cultures when the culture content fits the external environment
___ are unconscious, taken-for-granted perceptions or ideal prototypes of behavior that are considered the correct way to think and act toward problems and opportunities
Shared assumptions
____ is a system whereby newcomers are assigned to coworkers for sources of information and social support
The buddy system
Which of these statements about shared assumptions is true?
They are so deeply embedded they probably cannot be discovered by surveying employees
A major consumer-products company wanted to create a more entrepreneurial and marketing-oriented culture. After failing to bring about the change through middle management, senior executives worked directly with selected teams of front-line employees. These teams, which represented each area of the organization, worked on special projects outside the normal organizational structure. They followed the action research model to produce meaningful organizational change. Which of the following change strategies does this intervention represent?
Parallel learning structures
ABC Corp. selected employees and managers from across the organization to find new ways to serve its customers. The team operated independently of the main organization and experimented with new service delivery approaches. This team is most similar to:
A parallel learning structure
Bezel Systems is introducing a few organization-wide changes. A coalition of employees will clearly lose out from the proposed changes and they have enough power to cause the change effort to fail. Assuming that the change effort can proceed slowly and cost is not an issue, the preferred strategy for dealing with this resistance to change is:
negotiation
BusCorp. wants to introduce a new procedure to improve how customer requests are handled. This change will require employees to break old routines and adopt new role patterns. They decide to adopt two new programs, one in which employees learn how to work as teams as the company changes. The other involves forming task forces within the company to help determine new customer service practices.
The strategy BusCorp. is using to minimizing resistance to change is known as:
learning
BusCorp. wants to introduce a new procedure to improve how customer requests are handled. This change will require employees to break old routines and adopt new role patterns. They decide to adopt two new programs, one in which employees learn how to work as teams as the company changes. The other involves forming task forces within the company to help determine new customer service practices.

The formation of task forces to minimize resistance to change is known as

employee involvement
Senior executives at a large retail organization want employees to become more customer-friendly. Employees think they are serving customers well enough and the company is the dominant player in the market. What should the executives do to create an urgency to change in this situation?
Inform employees about the driving forces in the external environment indicating that the company’s dominant position will be threatened unless they become more customer-friendly.
The chief executive of Telecommco, a large telecommunications company, wanted to restructure the organization so product leaders would have more power than the executives in charge of each region. The regional executives tried to prevent this restructuring because it would weaken their power and possibly reduce their salaries in the long term. The product leaders also put up some resistance because they felt that things worked the way they were.

This action by the regional executives is mainly an example of resistance due to:

Negative valence of change
The chief executive of Telecommco, a large telecommunications company, wanted to restructure the organization so product leaders would have more power than the executives in charge of each region. The regional executives tried to prevent this restructuring because it would weaken their power and possibly reduce their salaries in the long term. The product leaders also put up some resistance because they felt that things worked the way they were.

The resistance from the product leaders is an example of resistance due to:

breaking routines
Trendy Fashions, a large retail chain, is experiencing conflict and organizational politics among its managers. The company’s customer service ratings are suffering and managers are pointing to other departments as the cause of the problem. The conflicts and politics are further contributing to the customer service problems. The CEO of this chain has just heard about the appreciative inquiry process and thinks this might be a good technique to use to improve this situation. He needs more information on this process.

The CEO will need to know that the first step in his appreciative inquiry change effort

identifying the positive elements of the organization or work unit that is performing well.
Trendy Fashions, a large retail chain, is experiencing conflict and organizational politics among its managers. The company’s customer service ratings are suffering and managers are pointing to other departments as the cause of the problem. The conflicts and politics are further contributing to the customer service problems. The CEO of this chain has just heard about the appreciative inquiry process and thinks this might be a good technique to use to improve this situation. He needs more information on this process.

One reason the CEO’s idea of using an appreciative inquiry approach might be successful is that this approach takes the organization from “what is” to ultimately:

What will be
XYZ Office Supplies is about to introduce a new customer service program that will affect all of its 355 sales and service employees. Job duties will be changed and the employee reward system will be altered to fit this new customer focus. Moreover, the company wants to improve the efficiency of work processes, thereby removing some of the comfortable (and often leisurely) routines that employees have followed over the years. Top management is concerned about what types of forces resisting change the company will potentially experience during this change process.

Which of the following types of resistance to change might be used by employees at XYZ as a deliberate strategy to ‘prove’ that the decision is wrong or that the change agent is incompetent?
Selected Answer:
Correct

Not-invented- here syndrome
XYZ Office Supplies is about to introduce a new customer service program that will affect all of its 355 sales and service employees. Job duties will be changed and the employee reward system will be altered to fit this new customer focus. Moreover, the company wants to improve the efficiency of work processes, thereby removing some of the comfortable (and often leisurely) routines that employees have followed over the years. Top management is concerned about what types of forces resisting change the company will potentially experience during this change process.

XYZ attempts to assist the change process by putting employees in direct contact with customers. Here, the company is trying to:

create an urgency for change
The highest priority and first strategy required for any organizational change is to:
communicate the need for change and keep employees informed about what they can expect from the change effort.
The main objective of force field analysis is to help change agents to:
diagnose a situation better by understanding the driving and restraining forces for change.
Unfreezing refers to:
producing disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces of change.