Organizational Behavior Chapter 12

Leadership
the process of guiding & directing the behavior of people in the work environment
Formal leadership
the officially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position
Informal leadership
– the unofficial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization
Followership
the process of being guided & directed by a leader in the work environment
Vision
where we are going
Mission
who, when, how we will get there
Values
rules of engagement and norms of behavior
Purpose
why we do what we do
What is the fundamental act of leadership?
The leader’s fundamental act is to induce people to be aware or conscious of what they feel – to feel their true needs so strongly, to define their values so meaningfully, that they can be moved to purposeful action
What is leadership vs management?
To do the right thing, a leader needs to understand what it takes to do things right

Effective leadership
produces useful change
Effective management controls complexity
Effective leadership + good management = healthy organizations

What did trait theories of management find out?
Attempted to identify what physical attributes, personality characteristics, and abilities distinguished leaders from other members of a group.
Some evidence that leaders are more intelligent, verbal, cooperative, and have higher level of scholarship.
Very few valid generalizations can be made, however.
Name two behavioral theories of leadership
Autocratic (direct actions) democratic style (colloborative)
What traits are people going to think your a more effective leader?
Individuals who are high in Conscientiousness and Extraversion are more likely to be evaluated as effective leaders, and individuals high in Conscientiousness and Agreeableness tend to improve the performance of the groups they lead. (pp. 40-41). Overall, Conscientiousness was the most consistent predictor of leadership effectiveness
What behavioral approach is most effective?
transformational leadership was the most consistent predictor across a variety of effectiveness criteria (p. 37)
Some action is better then no action
Name four contingency theories
Fiedler’s contingency theory
Path-goal theory
Normative decision theory
Situational leadership theory
Transformational Leaders
Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their self-interests and achieve exceptional performance.
Charismatic Leadership
A leader’s use of personal abilities and talents in order to have profound and extraordinary effects on followers.
Authentic Leader
A leader who is guided by explicit values that emphasize collective interest (shared purpose?), enabling them to operate at high levels of moral integrity. Not egocentric.
Leaders do what as they are led?
Leaders usually lead as they are led.
You will probably lead the way that you follow.
Effective Followers
Effective followers are active, responsible, autonomous in their behavior, and critical in thinking without being disrespectful (?) or insubordinate (?)

Self-management and self-responsibility. Do not require close supervision.

Courage
The ability to step forward through fear

Courage means accepting responsibility
Courage often means nonconformity

Whether leading or following, strive to encourage, not discourage, those around you.

Excellence is a form of Deviance
You become excellent because you are doing things normal people do not want to do
Courageous followership
who stay true to their own lights while helping leaders follow theirs

An individual who is not afraid to speak and act on the truth as she perceives it, despite external inequities, is a force to be reckoned with.
Initiate values-based, purposeful action to improve processes
The “authority” to initiate comes from the courageous follower’s understanding and ownership of the common purpose, and from the needs of those the organization serves.

Name four followership styles
Resource: low support, low challenge

Individualist: low support, high challenge

Implementer: high support, low challenge

Partner: high support, high challenge

What do effective followers do?
Effective followers think for themselves and carry out assignments with energy and enthusiasm. They are committed to something outside their own self-interest, and they have the courage to stand up for what they believe. Good followers are not “yes people” who blindly follow a leader (Daft, 2002)
Stewardship
Relationship between leaders and followers in which leaders lead without dominating or controlling followers. Stewardship is an employee-focused form of leadership that enables followers to make decisions and have control over their jobs. (Lussier & Achua, 2002)
Servant leadership
Transcends self-interest to serve the needs of others, by helping them grow professionally and emotionally.
Encourages others in their personal development and helps them understand the larger purpose in their work.
What is the quickest way to tell the difference between a servant leader and self-serving leader?
One of the quickest ways you can tell the difference between a servant leader and a self-serving leader is how they handle feedback, because one of the biggest fears that self-serving leaders have is to lose their position
Name some basic features of a servant leader?
Put service before self-interest. Be resourceful.

Listen first to affirm confidence in others. Listen to figure out the will of the group and then further it however she can.
Trust, spirit

Name the way individuals and teams become Transformational .
Individuals
Communicate high expectations
Coach to help achieve expectations
Encourage creativity and critical thinking
Recognize achievement

Groups
Emphasize group identity
Communicate a shared vision
Promote cooperation and trust