Org Comm Chapter 3.1

Classical Management Approach
-modeling organizations after efficient machines
-includes Hierarchy, Scientific Management, Fayol’s Classical Management, and Bureaucracy
History of the Classical Management Approach
-Benjamin Franklin popularized the notion of hard work, “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise”
-Frederick the Great utilized new organizational models based on the division of labor and machine-like efficiency for his armies
-Monarchs, Industrialists, and Researchers began to think about the efficiency of organizations
-Influenced by the Industrial Revolution, these theories led to an underlying metaphor of organizations modeled after efficient machines
Hierarchy
-Part of the Classical Management Approach
-Top down flow of information (communication = one way process)
-workers were seen as receiver of orders and info
-Managers were seen as the only capable persons within the organization to plan work and to give the right orders
-division of labor = the foundation of the idiom “blue- and white-collar workers”

Resistance against hierarchy:
-said that one-sided communication in hierarchy structures favors the interest of those in power
-Karl Marx has interpreted this as the dominancy of one class of society over another
-criticized that only workers who did their job best were seen as worth to stay with the organization
-unions were founded and gained power and influence

Theory of Scientific Management
-Part of the Classical Management Approach
-Frederick Taylor assumed that management is a true science: management is resting on clearly defined laws, rules and principals
-Time and motion studies were designed to improve organizational efficiency (the clock became authority)
-work was transformed by dividing labor of great complexity into small parts for unskilled workers
-a clear hierarchical structure of command was seen as most important
Scientific Management Approach Assumptions
-Humans function as components or parts of a machine
-Managers think, Workers work

Examples today:
Manufacturing plants of the automotive industry, Fast food restaurants, Logistic companies

The Division of Labor from complex tasks to smaller tasks helps many organizations determine the “components” of the “machine”

Critiques:
-puts pressure on workers by constantly raising production levels to improve efficiency
-doesn’t allow workers to understand the whole working processes

Fayol’s Classical Management
-Part of the Classical Management Approach
-advocates for the Division of Labor through departmentalization
-a strict hierarchy with a vertical chain of command
-each employee has only one boss
-fair reward for hard work to get a stable workforce with little turnover
-supervisors have to work hard to be a good example/role model for employees

Organizational needs are more important than those of the employees

Examples Today:
-Today organizations are usually structured in different departments
-still have explicit hierarchies where most employees have one boss
-managers are challenged to act on their values and attitudes to be recognized as an example

Critique:
There is no assigned no vital role to employees. Even if he encouraged employee initiative, supervision was seen as the most important part for successful work.

Fayol’s History
-Henry Fayol, a French Industrialist, developed his influential theory of “classical management” around the same time scientific management emerged.
-Fayol is best known for establishing the 5 elements of classical management:
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Commanding (goal setting)
4. Coordinating
5. Controlling (evaluating)
Bureaucracy
-Part of the Classical Management Approach
-emerged to eliminate arbitrary behavior and subjective, random decisions to increase efficiency
-protected employees better
Bureaucracy History
-emerged in a time of harsh working conditions (early 1900s)
-work security did not exist (work accidents on a daily basis)
-young children worked long hours for meager wages
-workers were hired and fired for reasons that had to do with their race, religion, gender, attitude, or relationship to the boss <-- Particularism = there are no moral principles -Particularism presented an Ideology Conflict
Bureaucracy System Characteristics
-a set of general rules that govern all activities and decisions
-a fixed division of labor (highly regulated responsibilities)
-a hierarchy of offices (most decisions are made by units, not individuals)
-the selection of personnel is on the basis of technical qualifications
-equal treatment of all employees
-employment as a career

*Bureaucracy cannot truly exist!*
–>It is IMPOSSIBLE that all organizational members stick to all the detailed rules and responsibilities. People vary in terms of rationality and many don’t want to stick to rules if they know better ways to work efficiently.
–>Bureaucracy does not deal well with non-routine tasks. It is difficult to be flexible and open-minded if you have to follow strict regulations.