Org. Comm

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Our organizational world is ____ complicated than world of the past
globalization, terrorism, climate change, changing demographics
Four major things that have impacted us:
G – companies are branching out over the world
T –
C C – we have to worry now about what we’re putting out in the air
C D – who lives in our country. How that has changed during the years
The Machine Metaphor
what all 3 classical approaches have in common:
*Importance for specialization- Division of labor – think about Subway, one person cuts the bread & puts cheese & meat on, then they pass it down, etc. — We ask one person to specialize in a particular position
*Standardization – if something breaks, we can replace it quickly
*Replaceability – goes along with standardization, if someone falls out they can replace them easily
*Predictability – our vehicles are predictable. If we follow all the rules like we’re supposed to, then the expectation is that everything will work correctly
specialization
Importance for ________
Division of labor – think about Subway, one person cuts the bread & puts cheese & meat on, then they pass it down, etc.
We ask one person to specialize in a particular position
standardization
S________ – if something breaks, we can replace it quickly
Replaceability
R________ – goes along with standardization, if someone falls out they can replace them easily
Predictability
P______ – our vehicles are predictable. If we follow all the rules like we’re supposed to, then the expectation is that everything will work correctly
Fayol’s
______ Theory of Classical Management:
Elements of management –
*Planning – Look to the future to determine best way to attain goals
*Organizing – arrangement of human resources (employees and evaluation of them
*Command – managers set task to meet organizational goals
*Coordination – activities harmonized into single whole
*Control – comparison between goal and activities to ensure function of organization in manner planned
future, managers
Fayol’s Theory of Classical Management:
planning – look to the ______ to determine best way to attain goals
command – _______ set task to meet organizational goals
prevalent
Classical Management in Organizations TODAY:
*Classical management “thought”______

ex: one best way to do something – McDonald’s Big Mac has always been the same.

one best, job, motivation
Classical Job Design and Rewards in Today’s Organizations:
– Often looking for ___ ___ way to accomplish tasks
– Fitting the ____ to the individual
– Concerned with role of financial rewards in ______
Innovation
_______-Related Communication – more manager level
Maintenance
_________-Related Communication – social comm line
vertical (downward), written, formal
COMMUNICATION in CLASSICAL organizations:
*direction of communication flow – ______
*mode/channel of communication – ______
*style of communication – ______
micro
Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
*Concentrated on ______ level of organizational functioning – (relationship between manager & employee & how he controls the employees)
rate busters
Two things that got Taylor thinking –
how do we particularly learn a new job
ex: idk why we do it that way we just always have
another thing was ____ ____: I’m going to pay you 20 cents for every 20 bricks – another guy does 200 in one hour so the manager came in and _____ the pay down.
time & motion studies
Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management:
– There’s only one best way to do every job-
_____ __ _____ _____: would do multiple tasks & would chose one way that was the best way. Then that one best way is taught to everyone
Scientific, selection, time & motion
Taylor’s Theory of ______ Management:
– Proper _____ of workers – test to see if this worker will be the best for that particular task
– Training workers in a manner suggested by ____ & _____ studies (only the first/best workers could stay)
Taylor
Time & motion studies were thought of by ______
taylor
who’s theory:
there is an inherent difference between management & workers –
(managers are best suited for thinking & planning – if you were in the main labor part, he didn’t even want you to think – that’s the managers job.)
– workers are best suited for laboring
Taylor, uneven
Who believed that Scientific management should correct past problems? & how –
– the problem of _____ work should be eliminated
– no more rate busting
– systematic soldiering will be diluted
systematic soldiering
someone new comes in, it takes 3 days to do inventory. Someone new comes in & she can do it so much faster but other employees tell her to slow down because they want to be lazy — Social pressuring – they were known as sometimes being the enemy
organizational
Fayol’s principles of ________ structure:
– scalar chain
– Unity of command
– Unity of direction
– Division of labor
– Order
– Span of control
vertical hierarchy, only one supervisor, special, limited
Fayol’s principles of Organizational structure:
* Scalar chain – _______ ______
* Unity of command – employee should receive orders regarding a particular task from ____ ____ _____
* Unity of direction –
* Division of labor – every person is assigned to their ____ task
* order
* Span of control – managers are most effective if they have control of _____ employees
centralization, authority & responsibility, discipline
Fayol – Principle of Organizational Power
________ – central management has control over decision making & employee activities
______ & ______ – comes from the position you hold & your personal characteristics (ex: intelligence & experience)
_______ – all members of the organization must know the rules & follow them, & enforcers must enforce them
Fayol’s bridge
horizontal communication of employees at same hierarchical level to accomplish organizational goals
power
Fayol – Principle of Organizational _____
– centralization
– authority & responsibility
– discipline
subordination, initiative, esprit de corps
Fayol – Principles of Organizational Attitude:
________ of individual interest to general interest – the only way an organization can be successful is if the organization goals come before your personal goal
______ – managers treat the employee who puts the company first better than the employee who just thinks of themselves
____ __ ____ – “all in one & one for all”
bureaucracy, scholarly
Max Weber’s theory of ________
He takes a more ________ approach.
termed ‘ideal type’ theory
managers
Fayol’s theory provides prescriptions to _______ about how organizations should be run
closed, importance, authority
Weber – six facets of bureaucracy (first 3 are very similar to Fayol)
1. Clearly defined hierarchy
2. Division of labor
3. Centralization
4. Relatively ______ system – a bureaucracy should shut itself off from the influence of outside environments
5. ________ of rules – there should be a rule for everything
6. functioning of ______ – most important, based on 3 grounds
technical cores
Thompson extends off Weber’s closed system idea and states that organizations have:
_______ _____ – must be structured & buffer around them.
ex: doctors office – the core is the doctor/patient relationship. Nurse comes in, she buffers everyone away so they don’t interrupt the appointment, so it’s all buffered to keep that core intact.
traditional, charismatic, rational-legal
Weber’s theory: functioning of authority is based on 3 grounds:
– ________ – (legitimate authority) based off long standing beliefs. ex: queen of england, she has power. It’s customary for her to have the power.
– ________ – authority of your ability to attract & interact with others. People like cult-leaders. Their authority rely’s on people following you because of personality. this one is not a stable authority, it comes & goes
– ______-______ – most important. Dominates the bureaucratic system. based on rational application of rules developed through a reliance on info & expertise.
rational-legal
type of authority – based on rational application of rules developed on info & expertise. power rests not on the individual but in the expertise & rationality that have created a system of norms & rules
ex: obedience is thus given to the norms rather than to the person
Charismatic
type of authority – authority of your ability to attract & interact with others. People like cult-leaders. Their authority rely’s on people following you because of personality. This one is not a stable authority, it comes & goes
classical
military organizations, manufacturing & service organizations, & nonprofit organizations all use the ________ structure.
– Division of labor and strict hierarchy
standardized, specialized, predictable
Classical organizational theories all use the machine metaphor, in which organizations are conceptualized as
highly S______
S______
& P______
prescriptive
Fayol’s theory is _______ not descriptive
environment, productivity
The Hawthorne studies:
Mayo & research team interested in —
how changes in work ________ would impact ________ of factory workers.
The illumination studies
First study that was done before Mayo, but tested the influence of lighting level on worker productivity.
It didn’t make a difference
The Relay Assembly Test Room studies
Study done by Mayo:
They picked 6 women & put together telephone relay systems. Factory assembly like work.
They got rest breaks, refreshments, work hour changes – They were giving them perks
up, special
What were the results of the Relay Assembly Test Room studies?
productivity went _____ because of the fact that they were ______. They felt more appreciative
feelings & attitudes
After the results of the relay assembly studies, the interview program wanted to learn more about the impact of working conditions on productivity. The interviewers found workers more interested in talking about their ______ & ______
the bank wiring studies
study that involved naturalistic (non-experimental) observation of a group of men who set up wires & just observed employees.
they found that the fast ones were encouraged to slow down, and the slow ones were encouraged to speed up
social & emotional
Mayo and his colleagues turned the Hawthorne explanations that revolved around the ______ & ______ needs of workers.
were not correct
subsequent analysis of data suggest that Mayo & colleagues ____ _____ _____.
incentives, pressure, selection
Reanalyses of Mayo’s explanation suggested more traditional explanations:
– ______
– _____ from management
– worker _______
motivation
Maslow developed his Hierarchy of Needs theory as a general theory of human ________
physiological, safety, affiliation, esteem, self-actualization
Maslow’s needs:
1. _________ – needs of the human body – “living wage” to allow purchase of food, clothing
2. _____ – desire to be free from danger – physically safe working conditions
3. ______ – belonging needs – social relationships with coworkers
4. ______ – desire of individuals to feel a sense of achievement & accomplishment.
– internal – rewarding work
– external – bonus pay
5. ____-_____ – to become everything that one is capable of becoming – work allowing the exercise of creativity
human relations
Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs serves as a prototype of a ______ _______ approach to organizing & management
prepotency
Maslow proposed that the five types of needs are arranged in a hierarchy of _______.
– Lower level needs must be satisfied first
– so, social relationships on the job will not be satisfying if the organization doesn’t provide good wages & working conditions
relations
McGregor was one of the strongest advocates of the human _______ movement.
X
McGregors Theory _
– A manager is influenced by most NEGATIVE aspects of classical management theories
Y
McGregors Theory _
– A manager who follows the precepts of the human relations movement
organizing, controlled & motivated
propositions of Theory X Manager:
– responsible for _______
– people must be ______ & ______
human nature:
— average man works little as possible
— lacks ambition – prefers to be led
— inherently self-centered
— resistant to change
— gullible
motivated
Theory Y view of Human Nature:
workers are already highly _________
job of manager is to bring out the natural tendencies of workers. “I know how well you can do, I just want you to do it”
theory Y view of human nature
– Expenditure of effort natural
– external control and punishment are not only means – man will exercise self-direction & self-control
– commitment to objectives function of rewards associated with achievement
– average human accepts responsibility
– capacity to exercise imagination and ingenuity not rare
– intellectual potentialities only partially utilized
satisfy
Employees in human relations theories are not only motivated by financial gain, but by desire to _____ these higher-order needs
family
the Machine Metaphor – Classical theorist
______ – human relations
self-actualization
Family – emphasizes relationships as central to our understanding or organizational functioning. Just as a machine thrives on precision and regularity, a family thrives when needs are fulfilled and opportunities are provided for ____-______
– parents (like managers) are responsible
Hawthorne effect
worker output increased as result of attention – this is called the – ______ _____
attention
Hawthorne effect – worker output increased as result of _________
cognitive
the human RESOURCES approach has emphasis on ________ contributions of employees
– looking at thoughts, feelings & emotions of our employees
productivity
satisfaction does not always lead to ________
low, low
(Blake & Mouton – the Managerial Grid)
Impoverished management
– ____ concern for people
– ____ concern for production
low, high
(Blake & Mouton – the Managerial Grid)
Authority compliance –
– ____ concern for people
– ____ concern for production

– All they care about is money.

high, low
(Blake & Mouton – the Managerial Grid)
Country Club management –
– ____ concern for people
– ____ concern for production
(think country club, what can I do for you?)
right in the middle
(Blake & Mouton – the Managerial Grid)
Middle-of-the-Road- Management –
high, high
(Blake & Mouton – the Managerial Grid)
team management – committed employees
– ____ concern for people
– ____ concern for production
threats & fear, downward
Likert’s system 1 – Exploitive Authoritative organization
* motivation through ______ & _____
* _______ & inaccurate communication
* top-level decision-making & control
* giving of orders

– combination of all the worst things about Classical & scientific management

economic & ego, limited, top
Likert’s System 2 – Benevolent Authoritative Organization
– Motivation through _____ & ___ rewards
– _____ communication
– decision making at ____
– goal setting through orders
– top-level control
– doesn’t exploit workers, but managers still believe they know what is “best for their workers”
managers – “I know what’s best for you”
views, goals (after) discussion
Likert’s system 3 – Consultative organization
– decisions still made at top
– before decisions are made, employees are consulted & their ____ are taken into consideration
– _____ are set after _______
– communication moves up & down – people at the bottom have something to say too
everyone, goals,
System 4 – Participative organization
– decision making is performed by _______
– ____ are set by complete work groups
– communication flows in all directions
– provide what people want
Likert’s system
What system represents the move from the worst scientific & classical management has to offer to human resources organization
need satisfaction, contributions
Human resources approach is distinct:
– aspires to maximize organizational productivity & individual ____ _______
– emphasizes ________ employee ideas can make to organizational functioning – they are buying your ideas, your work ethic
task, vertical, written, formal
Classical
communication content – ____
communication direction – ____
channel – usually _____
style – _____
task & social, vertical & horizontal, face to face, informal
Human Relations approach:
communication content – ____
communication direction – ____
channel – _____
style – _____
task, social, innovation, all directions, all channels, both (especially informal)
Human Resources approach:
communication content – ____
communication direction – ____
channel – _____
style – _____
attitude
Human relations ideas today are seen in _______ of management toward employees.
ex: if a organization need to shut down, management would be likely to consider both economic issues & human factors – such as the needs of workers & families.
Human Relations
Horizontal communication is emphasized in which approach?
It encourages communication among employees
job design
Human relations principles can be seen in today’s organizations in the area of ____ _______
resources
in general, it is the principles of human _____ theorists that are most often reflected in today’s organizations.
learning systems, knowledge
The two most important developments in the Human Resources area are the
– consideration of organizations as ______ ______
– development of systems of _______ management
learning organizations
_____ _____ – (Senge 1990) those that emphasize mental flexibility, team learning, a shared vision, complex thinking, and personal mastery.
knowledge management
_______ _____ – these people see the organization as embodying a cycle of knowledge creation, development & application
team, employee
the “what” of human resources programs
– ____ management –
– _____ involvement – process that uses the entire capacity of workers, designed to encourage employee commitment to success
success
The “how” of Human Resources Programs
– Research suggests these programs often don’t work
– more than a belief is required for ______:
*know when team based management is appropriate
*consider the attitudes of top management
*deal with cynicism about change
*facilitate the translation process
team
____ management is appropriate when:
– work cuts across functional lines
– a diverse & complex organization environment
– a rapidly changing workplace in which innovation is critical
putting people first
Pfeffer labels team management & employee involvement as “____ _____ ____” in his book The Human Equation.
The book highlights seven practices following the human resources principles
security, selective, training, reduction
Pfeffer’s Seven Practices of Successful Organizations:
– employment ______
– _____ hiring
– self-managed teams & decentralization
– high & contingent compensation (connects performance outcomes w. critical rewards)
– extensive ______
– ______ of status differences
– sharing information
social, scientific
The Hawthorne studies emphasis the ______ aspects of organizations but lack in _____ value
leadership
Blake & Mouton developed the Managerial Grid which is now called the _______ grid. It’s a tool for training managers in leadership styles that would enhance efficiency, effectiveness, satisfaction & creativity.
2,000
in the slashing the ER waiting Times case study. Before the committee was formed, 3 outside consultants failed. After the committee was formed, they saved over _____ hours
resources
From the Slashing the ER Waiting Times case study, we can conclude that even with the work of highly skilled human ______, there are sometimes economic & organizational limits
Marx, critique
Roots from Critical approaches were found in ____.
He believed that _____ would reveal fundamental truths about human social condition
Frankfurt
The most widely known widespread off of Marx’s work was from the ______ school of critical theory
imbalances
Critical theorists agree on:
_______ of power lead to alienation & oppression
power
No concept is as important as ____ for critical theorist
domination
Power is equated with:
control and _______
entity, resources
Traditional Approach of Power:
– stable ____ (independence)
– how does power impact job satisfaction & performance
– we equate power with control of ______

(would be adopted by classical & human relations theorist)

interactions
Symbological Approach of Power:
– see power as a product of our _______ & relationships
– how does communication constitute understanding – how does power effect us

(would be adopted by cultural theorist)

structures
Radical-Critical Approach of Power:
– concerned with “deep ______” that produce & reproduce relationships in organizational life. (contradiction between surface structure & deep structure – say one thing but act another)
– look @ social status & how that impacts social power – (private law firms look for a certain type of employee, relaxed, drives a certain car, good-looking, etc.)
modes
_____ of production – economic conditions that underlie production process
– what can we afford?
means
____ of production – the actual work process – this can lead us to oppression
– if bosses have control over the work process that leaves employees to become alienated
(repetitive & boring jobs – assembly line guy)
domination
Control of Discourse:
Critical scholars believe that –
reality created through discourse is the site of ______
premises
(Critical theories – control of discourse)
Decision ______ serve as source of unobtrusive control
industries
(Critical – Control of discourse)
Discursive constructions in regulatory manuals can influence _______
ideology
______:
Structures our thoughts & controls interpretations of reality
– involves assumptions that are rarely questioned
– influences our perceptions of situations & events
– tied to systems of power & domination
(if I’m very conservative, I rarely question – you could tell me some liberal threw 50 million dollars out of a plane & I would say I’m sure they did – you don’t question it)
behavior, assumptions
ideology can influence our _____.
it involves ______ that are rarely questioned
Hegemony, manufactured
_______:
Process in which dominant group leads another group to accept subordination as the norm – this is _________ consent
(ex: Mexicans – they accept subordination because it’s better then what they used to get, so they go with it)
manufactured consent:
______ _______:
as employees, we willingly adopt and reinforce power structures. involves attempts by various groups to articulate meaning systems that are actively taken up by other groups
exist, good, possible
ideology shapes our understanding about what _____, what is _____ and what is _____
emancipation
The goal of critical model is _______ (set free)
– They want to go in there & break down & try and get them to open up & let them know that they’re being oppressed.
– reveal social structures & processes that led to ideological hegemony.
dialectic of control
The possibility of emancipation is further emphasized in Giddens _____ _ _____
– argues that power relations are never fixed, subordinates can always exercise some degree of control over the conditions of hegemonic reproduction
resistance
In critical comm research, the dialectic of control is most clearly illustrated in work on ______ in workplace
counterpressure
Resistance considers how workers can exert __________ on this exercise of power and control
teams
Theory of Concertive Control –
How power relationships can be transformed in an era of team-based & alternative form organizations.
Before it was individuals, now its _____
sobering, hopeful
The underlying assumptions of critical approaches provide a view that is both _____ and _____
simple
Theory of Concertive Control:
_____ control – direct & authoritarian exertion of control in workplace
– enforcing strict obedience to authority
control, identification, discipline
3 concepts that are important to the Concertive Control theory:
C_____
I_____
D_____
technological
Theory of Concertive Control:
_____ control – control that is exerting through technology
– assembly lines, computer programs
– by how we do the job
bureaucratic
Theory of Concertive Control:
_____ control – power based on Hierarchy
value-based
Concertive control – power shifts from management to workers.
– Role of management is to provide a ____-_____ vision – they provide vision of the company
identification
______:
– perception of oneness with a collective
– individual defines self in terms of collective
– will act in accordance with those values even in the absence of simple, technological, or bureaucratic control. The team puts the pressure
Discipline –
______:
Foucault – discipline embedded within “discursive formations” of social group – group itself will develop their own rewards & punishments
Values may emanate from management, but discipline meted about by work group
radical
_____ feminists – they believe the only emancipation for women is if we get rid of all the male dominated companies.
liberal
____ feminists – believes that we as women must work within our own organizations to gain control
Kanter
_____ – theory – gender issues permeate organizational life – men are superior
standpoint
_____ feminists – we just need to enhance the opportunity for variety. We need to give them a platform to be heard. Taking a stand for everyone
postmodern
_______ feminists – they want to attempt to deconstruct men meaning systems in order to highlight women perspectives – we take a lot of things – we want to look at meaning designed by women