OMIS 350 – Appendix B Terms

Local Area Network (LAN)
designed to connect a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school, or home
Wide Area Network (WAN)
connects multiple smaller networks, spanning a large geographic area, such as a state, province, or country
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
a large computer network usually spanning a city
the Internet
The world’s most popular WAN is:
Protocol
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Cable
Hub (switch or router)
A network typically includes four things:
Protocol
a standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission
Network Interface Card (NIC)
card that plugs into the back (or side) of your computers and lets them send and receive messages from other computers
Cable
the medium to connect all of the computers together
Hub (switch or router)
hardware to perform traffic control
Architecture: peer-to-peer, client/server
Topology: bus, star, ring, hybrid, wireless
Protocols: Ethernet, transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Media: coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic
Networks are differentiated by:
Peer-to-Peer Network (P2P)
a computer network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than a centralized server
Server
a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests
Client/Server Network
a model for applications in which the bulk of the back-end processing, such as performing a physical search of a database, takes place on the server, while the front-end processing, which involves communicating with the users, is handled by the clients
Network Operating System (NOS)
the operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users
Packet Switching
occurs when the sending computer divides a message into a number of efficiently sized units of data called packets, each of which contains the address of the designation computer
Network Topology
the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers in a network
Interoperability
the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers
Bus
Star
Ring
Hybrid
Wireless
Types of Network Topologies:
Bus
Type of Network Topology where all devices are connected to a central cable. They are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks.
Star
Type of Network Topology where all devices are connected to a central device, called a hub. They are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through a hub.
Ring
Type of Network Topology where all devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one of either side of it. They are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high speed and can span large distances.
Hybrid
Type of Network Topology where groups of star-configured workstations are connected to a linear bus backbone cable, combining the characteristics of the bus and star topologies.
Wireless
Type of Network Topology where devices are connected by signals between access points and wireless transmitters within a limited range.
Ethernet
a physical and data layer technology for LAN networking
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
provides transport functions, ensuring, among other things, that the amount of data received is the same as the amount transmitted
Internet Protocol (IP)
provides the addressing and routing mechanism that acts as a postmaster
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Internet Layer
Network Interface Layer
TCP/IP’s Four-Layer Reference Model:
Application Layer
serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services
Transport Layer
handles end-to-end packet transportation
Internet Layer
formats the data into packets, adds a header containing the packet sequence and the address of the receiving device, and specifies the services required from the network
Network Interface Layer
places data packets on the network for transmission
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
the next generation protocol designed to replace the current version Internet protocol
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Telnet Protocol
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Types of TCP/IP Applications:
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
allows files containing text, programs, graphics, numerical data, and so on to be downloaded off or updated onto a network
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
TCP/IP’s own messaging system for email
Telnet Protocol
provides terminal emulation that allows a personal computer or workstation to act as a terminal, or access device, for a server
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
allows Web browsers and servers to send and receive Web pages
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
allows the management of networked nodes to be managed from a single point
7. Application
6. Presentation
5. Session
4. Transport
3. Network
2. Data Link
1. Physical
OSI Model:
Network Transmission Media
refers to the various types of media used to carry the signal between computers
Wire Media
transmission material manufactured so that signals will be confined to a narrow path and will behave predictably
Twisted-Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-Optic Cable
The three most commonly used types of guided Wire Media are:
Twisted-Pair Cable
refers to a type of cable composed of four (or more) copper wires twisted around each other within a plastic sheath
Coaxial Cable
a cable that can carry a wide range of frequencies with low signal loss
Fiber-Optic Cable
refers to the technology associated with the transmission of information as light impulses along a glass wire or fiber
Wireless Media
natural parts of the earth’s environment that can be used as physical paths to carry electrical signals