Office Management

Which type of employee has a unique opportunity to develop excellent conceptual skills by observing how executives handle a variety of situations in many areas of the organization?
executive and administrative assistants
Which of the following can provide an alternative to an employer-sponsored management-development program?
membership in a professional organization
The U.S. Department of Labor’s SCANS report places workplace skills in two categories: competencies and the ________ skills that underlie them.
Foundation
Any type of business (small, large, entrepreneurial, or professional), nonprofit entity, or governmental office
organization
Skills that relate to how you interact and work with others
soft skills
Knowledge, expertise, and ability required to do the job
technical skills
Senior leadership team that takes the lead in casting the organization’s vision and strategic mission
executives
Willingness and ability to get things done effectively and efficiently
work ethic
Process of leading and working with people to accomplish organizational goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively
management
If a company does not offer formal professional development opportunities, what are three alternatives employees can use?
external professional development programs (such as through business schools or commercial groups), professional organizations, and professional literature
Three significant reports identifying skills needed for success in the workplace—SCANS, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the AMA Critical Skills Survey—provided instructive insights about the importance of ________ skills.
soft
Most people who aspire to careers in management start working in nonmanagerial positions.
true
The AMA Critical Skills Survey identified “four Cs” that employees at every level of an organization should have. These skills include critical thinking and problem solving, communication, ________, and creativity/innovation.
collaboration
Which of these refers to the ability to view isolated or abstract ideas as they relate to the whole organization?
conceptual skill
In the general organizational structure, this level is “flattened,” meaning it has fewer people than the two levels below it.
middle management level
Which of these is not mentioned in the text as a reason to study management?
It will lead to higher-paying jobs and a successful career.
According to the American Management Association (AMA) Critical Skills Survey, which of these best describes the employees who require the four Cs?
employees at every level in the organization
Findings of the three significant reports identifying skills needed for success in the workplace—SCANS, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, and the AMA Critical Skills Survey—were very consistent.
true
Think of professional development as an investment in ________.
yourself
At which level or levels in an organization are employees required to have soft skills?
every level
The SCANS competency skills that relate to working on teams, teaching others, serving customers, leading, negotiating, and working well with people from culturally diverse backgrounds are called ________ skills.
interpersonal
Which of these typically is not a way to develop technical skills?
executive mentoring program
What are the three broad categories of skills that represent the common core of knowledge and skills that managers should have?
technical skills, soft skills, and conceptual skills
The conceptual knowledge and skills executive and administrative assistants gain are rarely transferable to other departments and organizations.
false
In ________ businesses, executive and administrative assistants frequently assume responsibilities often considered senior management responsibilities.
small
What is consider technical skills?
computer/software skill
soft skills?
are skills you develop – communication, critical thinking, emotional intelligence
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills identified five workplace competencies, including productive use of resources, interpersonal skills, information, systems, and technology.
false
Which group—consisting of members from education groups, professional organizations, publishers, Fortune 500 corporations, and other public and private organizations—published in 2009 a framework defining skills needed for success in the workforce?
Partnership for 21st Century Skills
The larger the organization, the more likely it is to hire employees who have general knowledge and skills for a particular department or area.
false
What are the two groups into which employees who want to become managers fit?
Those who aspire to managerial careers directly from an educational institution and those who are employed innonmanagerial positions and seek to move into management.
Membership in a professional organization may be a resource for management development or leadership programs, best practices and other industry information, and networking opportunities.
true
Some people question the usefulness of Frederick Taylor’s principles of scientific management in today’s service-dominated economy. For which economic settings were Taylor’s principles originally intended?
Industrial and factory settings
Which of these theories assumes leaders can change and adapt their leadership style?
path-goal theory
What is the term for broad standards, policies, procedures, and guides used by the most successful organizations that focus on role model behavior for specific areas or industries?
best practices
Which of these systems involves feedback?
open systems
Bureaucratic elements of organizations always lead to inefficiency, waste, and red tape.
false
The key to ________ is to stay well informed about the policies, practices, and standards of successful companies in your field.
continuous improvement
Because entrepreneurial ventures typically are less complex than larger corporations, they do not require a formal organizational structure.
false
bureaucratic management
Max Weber
administrative management
Henri Fayol
behavioral management
Elton Mayo
scientific management
Fredrick Taylor
contingency theory
Fred Fiedler
motion study
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Scientific management theories focus on performing work efficiently, whereas ________ theory establishes a hierarchy to ensure employees have the skills and knowledge to do the job.
bureaucratic management
Large organizations strive to benefit from economies of scale, but if they also try to maintain a small company style and corporate culture, they may also benefit from creativity and flexibility.
true
What is the term for the visual tool that describes hierarchy and specialization within an organization?
organization chart
Leading is ensuring that performance meets the goals of the organization and involves setting standards to achieve goals.
false
Horizontal specialization establishes the chain of command, or who reports to whom, in an organization.
false
Name the four elements in an open system.
input, feedback, process, output
________ is the increased effectiveness that results from combined action or cooperation.
Synergy
In his Hawthorne Studies, Elton Mayo found that workers became more ________ when they received more attention, worked as a group, and were made to feel their contributions were important.
productive
Name the four management functions.
Planning, organizing, leading and controlling
A company can achieve continuous improvement by focusing on industry best practices.
true
Which of these is not one of the four management functions discussed in the text?
participating
What is the term for systems that are self-sufficient and do not rely on feedback?
closed systems
Which contemporary management theory focuses on managing all parts of a system to ensure that they are working together and that synergies occur?
systems management theory
Which of these focuses on managers having the ability to lead and using effective management practices in accomplishing the goals of the organization?
administrative management
The ________ suggests leaders can improve employee satisfaction and performance by clarifying how workers can achieve organizational goals, clearing the path to the goals, and adding rewards to motivate workers.
path-goal theory
Scientific management theories focus on performing work efficiently, whereas ________ theory establishes a hierarchy to ensure employees have the skills and knowledge to do the job.
bureaucratic management
Leading is ensuring that performance meets the goals of the organization and involves setting standards to achieve goals.
false
Horizontal specialization establishes the chain of command, or who reports to whom, in an organization
false
Which of these was not a focus of the motion studies performed by industrial engineers Frank and Lillian Gilbreth?
divide and define job tasks
Because entrepreneurial ventures typically are less complex than larger corporations, they do not require a formal organizational structure
false
________ is the process of creating the structure of an organization.
organizing
Functions of Management
Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling
Planning
mission/goals
Organizing
organizational charts/vertical charts
Leading
motivating, inspiring
Controlling
performance, meeting goals
Fredrick Taylor
father of scientific management
Max Weber
bureaucratic management
Organized control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
max weber
Sum of the parts is greater then the sum of the whole
synergy
Six Sigma Quality
measurement of quality
Supervisor role
trainer, planner, scheduler, motivator, coach, controller, leader, recruiter
emotional intelligence
managing feelings so that they are expressed appropriately and effectively, enabling people to work together smoothly toward their common goals
Essential skills for supervisors
communication, entrepreneurial thinking, decision making, technical skills, team building and leadership, delegation, political skills
emotional intelligence
Self-Awareness, Emotional self control, understanding others, social skills
Evaluates goals, objectives, and future needs to prepare plans that provide the necessary resources and action items to achieve success
planner
Sets the tone for the organization, creates vision, and inspires others to achieve
leader
Guides employees with instruction, feedback, and encouragement.
coach
Teaches employees and coworkers new information and skills
trainer
Assists in identifying potential job candidates, screening applications, interviewing, and hiring new employees
recruiter
Prepares the schedule to ensure proper staffing and resources are available to meet production or customer needs
scheduler
The supervisor who never loses his or her cool and is known for the ability to calm a heated exchange or achieve a consensus among sharply divided parties is using this skill.
emotional intelligence
Which of these is not something supervisors need to do in order to be an effective communicator?
have a pleasant speaking voice
In which role do supervisors inspire their employees to perform at their best and achieve a common goal?
motivator
Which of these does John Kotter not cite as an obstacle that typically keeps change from succeeding?
self-awareness
Which of these is not related to the trend toward globalization of business?
diverse workforce
It is always more efficient to read email as soon as it arrives rather than at set internals.
false
As a planner, a supervisor prepares the schedule to ensure proper staffing and resources are available to meet production or customer needs.
false
Supervisors generally are not involved in implementing major changes within an organization, such as implementing a new company vision.
false
Only large corporations are affected by the trend towards globalization.
false
In which role do supervisors measure quality and performance?
controller
Supervisors who have good political skills know how to get things done through support, cooperation, and effort from others.
true
It is always more efficient to read email as soon as it arrives rather than at set internals.
false
According to researchers, transformational leadership is better suited to a competitive organization, whereas servant leadership is better suited to a public, religious, educational, or nonprofit organization.
true
There is no such thing as the ideal leadership style.
true
In order to be a great leader, you must possess all the leadership qualities mentioned in the text.
false
Servant leadership differs from transformational leadership in that servant leadership focuses on leaders who inspire employees to achieve a shared vision.
false
Essential qualities for building credibility and trust
honesty and integrity
Believing in yourself and controlling your emotions
self-confidence
A broad term that includes achievement, motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, and initiative
drive
Good judgment and strong analytical abilities
cognitive ability
A high level of knowledge that also encompasses the industry and technical matters
knowledge of the business
The desire to lead but not to seek power for its own sake
leadership motivation
Which of these is not a characteristic of transformational leaders, according to the research of Bass and Burns?
Discourages employees from using their own intellectual abilities to solve problems
Which of these situational leadership theories is based on directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating?
Blanchard & Hersey’s situational leadership model
In which management style on the Blake/Mouton leadership grid is work accomplished from committed people, and interdependence through a common stake in organizational purpose that leads to relationships of trust and respect?
Team Management (9,9)
According to path-goal leadership theory, with which leadership style do managers treat employees as equals in a friendly manner while striving to improve their well-being?
supportive
Which classic style of leadership behavior permits self-starters to do what they think is appropriate without interference or direction from their leader?
laissez-faire
leadership
inspiring, influencing, directing, guiding
six leadership traits
drive, leadership motivation, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, knowledge of the business
Authoritarian leader
retains all authority and responsibility
democratic leaders
delegate a great deal, but still has a the responsibility
1,9
Country Club Management
Country Club Management
thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organizational atmosphere and work tempo
1,1
Impoverished Management
Impoverished Management
Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership
5,5
Middle-of-the-road-management
Middle-of-the-road-management
Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the need to get work done with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
9,9
Team Management
Team Management
work accomplished is from committed people, interdependence through common stake in organizational purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
9,1
Authority-Compliance
Authority-Compliance
Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree
situational leadership
occurs when the leaders style matches the situation
Blanchard and Hersey’s situational leadership model
based on four different styles… directing, coaching, supporting, delegating
Fiedlers contingency theory
is based on the notion that a leaders performance depends on the likelihood that he or she can successfully accomplish the job and the leaders basic motivation
McClelland ________ Theory
Path-goal
Motivation is essential for successful supervision in the path-goal theory?
true
Path-goals 4 styles….
directive leadership, supportive leadership, participative leadership, achievement-oriented leadership
transformational leadership
better suited for competitive business
they… influence in a positive way, motivate and inspire, encourage intellectual abilities, and coach and develop
transformational leadership
servant leadership
better suited for non-profit, public, religious, and educational groups.
they focus on employees and meeting their needs first rather than the organizations needs
servant leadership
what is the ideal leadership?
It Depends
A lack of delegation can stifle initiative among employees and can also negatively affect managers, as they may become overwhelmed with details.
true
Organizations use teamwork extensively because they believe employees are happier with their jobs when working in teams.
false
The storming stage of team development occurs as individuals begin work and start to question and argue about their roles and any unclear issues or assignments.
true
The success of a team depends on its leader.
false
Which of these will not lead to motivating team members?
Begin each meeting by critiquing everything team members have done incorrectly since the last meeting.
Which type of team is typically used in conjunction with web conferencing, email, text messages, and conference calls?
virtual teams
In which stage of team development does the team work together effectively to accomplish the task?
performing
Which of these is not characteristic of an empowered corporate culture?
managers have more responsibilities
Which of these is not one of the eight approaches that Katzenbach and Smith propose for building team performance?
Set and focus on long-term performance-oriented tasks and goals only.
Consists of employees who use electronic technology for their primary interactions
virtual team
Two or more employees who work together to complete a task or achieve a common goal
work group
Works on a specific project until it is completed
project team
Consists of employees from different functional areas of the organization who are focused on a specific objective
cross-functional team
A team that consistently outperforms competent individuals in the organization
high-performance team
Small group of people with complementary skills committed to a common purpose and specific performance goals
team
Which of these is not a requirement of credibility?
communication
Many people use the terms empowerment and delegation interchangeably, but empowerment is more broadly focused on a philosophy whereas delegation involves sharing direct authority and responsibility for specific work with an employee.
true
characteristics of a high performance team
shaping a common purpose, agree on goals, define workplace approach, develop high complementary skills, hold each accountable
to build team performance
establish urgency and clear direction, , pay attention to first meeting, clear rule behaviors, set and focus on a FEW task and goals, challenge them, spend time together, positive feedback, recognition, and rewards
work group
consist of 2 or more employees working together to complete a task or achieve a common goal.
Tuckman
developed a 5 stage model of team development
team development
forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
forming
people begin to work together as a group. eager to learn about each other
storming
people begin to start to question and argue about their roles and any unclear issues
norming
when roles and conflicts are settled. accept one another and come together as a group
performing
team works together effectively to accomplish a task. group becomes high performance
adjourning
work is complete and group begins to dissolve.
cross-functional team
consists of employees from different functional areas of the organization who are focused on a specific objective
virtual team
use electronics to communicate
project team
work on specific project until it is completed.
developing an effective team
set up team properly, build trust and credibility, value diversity, leverage individual strengths
establish a good team climate
setting the tone
set a good example
leader serves as a role model
promote a healthy approach to controversy and conflict
encourage the expression of differing opinions
be honest
always be honest with your team
be competent
if people think that you do not know what you are doing, they will not trust you
follow through on promises
plan to deliver a day or two early
foster frequent, open, and honest communication
this is one of the best ways to build and reinforce trust
credibility
being believable and worthy of trust
empowerment
when employees are adequately trained, provided with all relevant information, and the best possible tools, and fully involved with key decisions and fairly rewarded for results.
why empower team members
serve customers quickly, frees manager
WIIFM
what’s in it for me
delegation
is the process of assigning duties and responsibilities to another person, giving them power to make a decision to complete a task
is the sharing of authority, not the abdication of responsibility
delegation
Which of these is not a benefit of employee participation in goal setting?
managers and executives do not have to spend as much time on goal setting
Which of these would be handled by a contingency plan?
a situation that does not turn out as expected
Which of these would be considered a stakeholder in a company?
owners, employees, clients, customers, investors, partners, vendors, suppliers, and communities
Which type of plan prepares for things that are likely to happen and is designed to take care of problems that may occur but are not likely to be a disaster to the organization?
contingency plan
Which of these states the core purpose of an organization that defines its objectives and focus?
a mission
Process of determining the mission and goals of an organization and specifying what it will take to achieve the goals
planning
Future direction of the organization; what it wants to become
vision
Systematic method of allocating financial, physical, and human resources to achieve strategic goals
budget
Anyone who has a vested interest in the success of an organization
stakeholder
Core beliefs of the organization and the principles that guide behavior
values
Specific commitment to achieve a measurable result within a given time frame
goal
Written goals command more attention, but they are also more subject to different interpretations and are not as readily accepted as goals presented orally.
false
The terms goals and objectives are interchangeable
false
Goals function as targets, focusing the activities of managers across the organization
true
Organizations usually publish their values on their website to emphasize to current and potential stakeholders that they plan to meet and exceed their expectations for ethical conduct.
true
Successful organizations view planning as a one-time event rather than an ongoing process.
false
The planning function gets everyone headed in the right direction, and controlling keeps things on track.
true
stakeholder
is anyone who has a vested interest in the success of an organization
vision
refers to the future direction of the organization
mission
is a formal statement of the core purpose of an organization that defines its objectives and focus
values
are the core beliefs of the organization and the principles that guide behavior
plan
consists of a goal and one or more action statements
what are the five types of plans
strategic, tactical, operational, contingency, and crisis management
strategic plan
is a formal document that specifies the overall direction, long term goals, and the decision making process for resource allocation and describes how the organization will position itself to achieve its goals
strategic plan prepared by and time frame
senior executive, 2 to 5 years
tactical plan prepared by and time frame
middle manager, 6 months to 2 years
operational plan prepared by and time frame
first line manager and team leads, 30 days to 6 months
tactical plan
is a plan created and implemented by middle managers its specifies how the company will use resources, budgets, and people
operational plan
a plan specifying how the work will be done to accomplish the objectives of a work unit
managers often procrastinate in preparing contingency and crisis management plans
true
contingency plan
are often referred to as plan B, it is a back up plan to be prepared for the unexpected.
a good planner adds ______ percent reserve to the budget
10 or 15
crisis management
outlines steps the company should take id some type of crisis causes a serious threat to or disruption of business
goals
is used to represent both terms and is defined as a specific commitment to achieve a measurable result within a given time frame
SMART
specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound
controlling
ensuring performance does not deviate from standards
basic planning and control cycle
plan, execute, assess, correct
7 habits of highly effective people
be proactive, begin with the end in mind, do first things first, think when…win, seek to understand rather than be understood, synergize, and sharpen the saw
intrapreneur
business within a business
Marketing Mix Wheel 5 p’s
Product, price, promotion, place, people
M&A
merger and acquisition
value=
perception-expectations